Page images


• Mar.



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Army” was published in 1801. See Regiments, A commission recommend the establishment of a Militia, and Volunteers.

recruiting department, increase of pensions, &c.

31 Oct. 1866 BRITISH ARMY.

Flogging restricted to insubordination (with vio-
Sum voted. lence) and indecency

March (?) 1867 1780, Time of war : troops of the

New Army Enlistment Act (limiting period of line.

enlistment to 12 years, &c.) passed

20 June, 1800, War

168,082 17,973,000

Increased pay to all soldiers (except to life-guards) 1810, War: army including foreign

from 1 April, 1867; by warrant, dated . 29 June, troops

300,000 26,748,000

Act to form a reserve of men in the militia to join 1815, Last year of the war

300,000 39,150,000

the army in the event of war, passed · 20 Aug. „ 1820, Time of peace; war incum

War Department Stores ” Act passed 20 Aug. » brances

88,100 18,253,000

Sir Henry Storks appointed Controller-in-Chief 1830, Peace 89,300 6,991,000

1 Jan. 1868 1840, Peace


Flogging abolished in time of peace, by an amend

6,890,267 1850, Peace


ment in the Mutiny Act 1852, Peace (except Kaffir war)


7,018, 164 Royal commission on military education appointed, 1854, War with Russia


23 June, 1868; report with recommendations
issued about.

Oct. 1869
Sum voted Army Serrice Corps, to be composed of volunteers
Total In India* (including

commanded by regular officers, established by
royal warrant

12 Nov. &e.)

Royal commission on the purchase system, &c., 1855-6,+ War with Russia. 223,224 29,629 £32,006,603 appointed 5 April; report recognises the over 1856-57, War with Persia. 265,466 26,363 20,811,242

regulation payments ” hitherto ignored Aug. 1870 1857-58, Indian Mutiny 175,858

14,405,850 Regulations under the new

Army Enlistment 1858-59, 222,874 92,739 13,294,814 Act" issued

12 Aug. 1859-60, Chinese War

2,000,000l. voted to increase the army by 20,000 229,551 91,897 14,915,243 1860-61, .

71,528 18,013,896

1 Aug. 1861-62, . 212,773 60,041

Deaths in the army reduced from iz per 1000 to of:

16,854,299 1862-63, .

228,973 83,523 16,264,790 in consequence of sanitary improvements, de, 1863-64,

220,918 72,676 14,723.976 (out of 175,460 men, 33,797 under 20, 18,614 under 1864-65, . 219,450 72,684 14,382,672 19); Lord Northbrook

June, 1871 1865-66, .

213,521 71,044

14,569,279 Army Regulation bill (the abolition of the purchase 1866-67,

203,404 65.827 14,675,540 system, &c.) passed in the commons, 289-231, 1867-68, Abyssinian War:

204,455 65,292 15,418,582 early 4 July; introduced in the lords, 13 July; 1868-69,

• 203,157
64,466 15,000,000

able speech of the duke of Cambridge in its 1869-70,

191,073 63,907 13,565,400 favour, 14 July; rejected (155-130), 2 a. m., 18 July, 1870-71, Franco - German

Purchase system abolished by royal warrant (in War 178,000 62,963 13,430,400

pursuance of acts 5 & 6 Edw. VI. c. 16, and 49 1871-72, .

197,911 62,864 16,450,000 Geo. III. C. 126) on and after i Nov. 1871. 1872-73, .

62,957 14,824,500

20 July,

Regulation of the Forces Act passed . 17 Aug. „ Volunteers in Great Britain, in 1862, 167,921, in 1872, 172,891.

Autumn Campaign in Hampshire; about 40,000 Militia, 1872, 139,018 ; yeomanry, 15,455.

men engaged; the duke of Cambridge and others Recruits of all classes in 1871, 23,198.

umpires; the prince of Wales and prince Arthur

engaged; foreign officers present. The Mutiny Act is passed annually since 1689 ; al

Manquvres according to the Prussian system; terations made in this act and in the Articles of

c. War

Invading force of 24,000, under Staveley and Carey;

1855 Army Service Acts : 12 & Viet. c. 37 (21 June,

marching towards London, opposed by sir Hope 13

Grant 1847), and 18 Vict. c. 4 27 Feb. 1855

: 13 Sept. Officers in the service of the East India Company

Series of battles near the Hog's Back, Aldershot';

Grant declared victor. to have the same rank and precedence as those in

· 16-19 Sept. the regular army

25 April

Battle of Fox's-hill ; Carey defeats Staveley, 21 Sept. The office of Master-General of the Ordnance abol- [Reported results : artillery magnificent ; cavalry ished, and the civil administration of the Army

superb; infantry very good ; transport insutliand Ordnance vested in the hands of lord

cient; greater distribution of responsibility Panmure, the Minister of War

25 May, ,

among officers needed.] Examination of staff officers previous to their ap- Sham fight; Chatham stormed pointment ordered

9 April, 1857 Warrant published, 30 Oct., inaugurating the new The army largely recruited for Indian war

1857-8 system of promotion of officers (partly by seniorThe East India Company's ariny was transferred to ity and partly by selection) on.

i Nov. the Queen

1859 New organisation of the army proposed by Mr. Much dissatisfaction arose in that army in conse

Cardwell : brigade districts, England, 49 ; Scotquence of no bounty being granted ; and threaten.

land, 8; Ireland 8;= ings of mutiny appeared, which subsided after an The duke of Cambridge's favourable report was arrangement was made granting discharge to those laid before parliament early in

March, who desired it

Army estimates passed in commons (234-63) 12 Mar. Examination of candidates for the Military Aca

Review of 14,000 men by the queen at Aldershot, demy, previously contined to pupils from Sand

5 July, hurst, was thrown open, 1855; the principle of Autumn Manæuvres in Wiltshire : 50,000 men comthis measure was affirmed by the house of com

manded by sir John Mitchell supposed to land at mons by vote .

· 26 April, 1858 Weymouth, and march towards London, opposed By 22 & 23 Viet. C. 42, provision made for a reserve by sir R. Walpole; campaign begins; skirmishes force, not to exceed 20,000 men, who had been in

near Blandford

21 Aug her majesty's service.

1859 Sir A. Horsford repulses gen. Brownrigg'at WinchFlogging virtually abolished in the army: First


27 Aug. class soldiers to be degraded to second class be- Prince of Wales arrives at salisbury

3 Sept. fore being liable to it

Battle of Wishford, 7 Sept. ; battle of the Avon, 10 A report of a commission in 1858 causes great sani- Sept. ; grand march past near Beacon Hill 12 Sept.

tary improvements in the army, barracks, &c., The new drill and tactics for the army were pubunder direction of Mr. Sidney Herbert 1859-60 lished

Mr. Cardwell's estimates ; proposes increasing pay * Supported by the Indian government.

of soldiers ; and establishment of a chief of the Ending March 31.


24 Feb. 1873


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• 24 Oct.

Feb. 1872

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9 Nov.

• 23 Nov.

See Delt.

ARMY OF OCCUPATION. By treaty, signed By stat. 29 Char. II. no arrest can be made, nor 20 Nov. 1815, the allied powers established the process served, upon a Sunday; this law was exboundaries of France, and stipulated for the occu

tended by Will. III. pation of certain fortresses by foreign troops for

Vexatious arrests prevented by act, May, 1733.

Prohibited for less than rol. on process, 1779; and three years. The departure of the German army of for less than 20l.

July, 1827 occupation began about 20 Sept. 1871.

Arrests for less than 101. were prohibited on messió process in Ireland, in June

1829 AROGEE, Abyssinia. Here sir Robert (after- Statute abolishing arrest for debt on mesne process, wards lord) Napier defeated the Abyssinians, who except in cases wherein there is ground to show lost about 700 killed and wounded, io April, 1868.

that the defendant desigus to leave the country, The British had 20 wounded.

2 Vict.

Aug. 1838

By 7 & 8 Viet. c. 96, the power of imprisonment AROMATICS. Acron of Agrigentum is said

even upon tinal process, that is judgment debts,

is abolished it the sun does not exceed 2ol. exto have been the first who caused great tires to be

clusive of costs, 1844 ; and by 9.& io Viet. c. 95, made, and aromatics to be thrown into them, to the judge has no power to punish, except in case purify the air, by which means he put a stop to the of fraud or contempt of court

1846 plague at Athens, 429 B.C.

By the Absconding Debtors' Arrest Act, absconding

debtor's owing 20l. and upwards are liable to ARPAD DYNASTY, see Hungary.


1851 ARPINUM (now Arpino, S. Italy), the birth

ARRETIUM, see Arezzo. place of Cicero, 3 Jan. 100 B.C.; many remains still bear his name.

ARSACIDÆ, a Parthian dynasty, began with ARQUEBUS, see Fire Arms.

Arsaces about 250 B.C., and ended with Artabanus,

killed in battle with Artaxerxes, the founder of the ARQUES (N. France). Near here the league Sassanidæ, A.1. 226. arıny, commanded by the duc de Mayenne, was defeated by Henry IV. 21 Sept. 1589.

ARSENAL, a great military or naval reposi

tory ; see Wooluich. ARRACAN, a province of N.E. India. Arracan, the capital, captured by the Burmese, 1783, was

ARSENIANS, partisans of Arsenius, patriarch taken from them by general Morrison, 1 April, 1825: Michael Palæologus for blinding his colleague the

of Constantinople, who excommunicated the emperor The subjugation of the whole province followed in 1826.

young John Lascaris, 1261, and was deposed 1264. ARRAIGNMENT consists in reading the

ARSENIC, a steel-gray coloured brittle mineindictment by the officer of the court, and calling ral, extremely poisonous, known in early times. upon the prisoner to say whether he is guilty or not Brandt, in 1733, made the first accurate experiments guilty. Formerly, persons who refused to plead in

on its chemical nature. The heinous crimes comcases of felony were pressed to death by weights mitted by its means induced the legislature to enact placed upon the breast. A person standing mute

regulations for its sale, 1851. In 1858 Dr. A. S. was declared convicted by an act passed 1772 ; but Taylor asserted that green-paper-hangings and in 1827, the court was directed to enter a plea of dresses prepared from arsenic are injurious to health; “not guilty" in such cases; see Mute.

which is doubted by some chemists. ARRAS (N. E. France), the country of the

ARSON, punished with death by the Saxons, ancient Atrebates, the seat of a bishop since 390. long, remained a capital crime on the consolidation Here a treaty was concluded between the king of

of the laws in 1827 and 1837. By the act of 1861 it France and duke of Burgundy, when the latter is punishable by penal servitude for life and minor abandoned his alliance with England, 21 Sept: 1435; convicted of arson, having set many houses on fire,

degrees of imprisonment. William Anthony was Another treaty was concluded by Maximilian of Austria with Louis XI. of France, whereby Bur: for the sake of obtaining the reward for giving gundy and Artois were given to the dauphin as a

alarm, 13 Dec. 1871. marriage portion, 23 Dec. 1482. Melly. Arras was ARSOUF (Syria). At a battle here Richard I. held by the Austrians from 1493 till 1640, when it of England, commanding the Christian forces, rewas taken by Louis XIII.

duced to 30,000, defeated Saladin's army of 300,000

Saracens and other intidels, on 6 Sept. 1191. Ascalon ARRAY. On 23 Dec. 1324, Edward II. directed surrendered, and Richard marched towards Jeruthe bishop of Durham to makė“ arraier” his men salem, 1192. of arms, horse and foot, and cause them to proceed to Portsmouth; thence to proceed to the war in ART ACT, facilitating the public exhibition of Gascony. Rymer's Fædera. Hallam says that works of art, (lent to the president of the privy this was the earliest commission of array that he council), passed April, 1866. See Arts, Exhibitions, could find, and that the latest was dated 1557. The and National Portrait Gallery. attempt of Charles I. to revive commissions of array in 1642, founded on a statute of Henry IV., was

ARTEMISIUM, a promontory in Eubea, strenuously opposed as illegal.

near which indecisive contlicts took place between

the Greek and Persian fleets for three days; 480 ARREST FOR DEBT. The persons of peers, B.C. The former retired on hearing of the battle of members of parliament, &c., are protected from Thermopylæ. arrest; see Ambassadors, Debt, Ferrars' Arrest.

ARTESIAN WELLS (from Artesia, now Clergyman performing divine service privileged, 50 Artois, in France, where they frequently occur) are

Edw. III.
Seamen privileged from debts under 20., by zo

formed by boring through the upper soil to strata

containing water which has percolated from a

1756 Barristers are privileged from arrest while going to, higher level, and which rises to that level through attending upon, and returning from court, on the the boring tube. The fountains in Trafalgar-square business of their clients.

and government offices near hare been supplied

• 1375

Geo. III.

are now common.

since 1844 by two of these wells (393 feet deep). Petard, Rockets, Fire-arms. The Royal ArtilleryAt Paris the Grenelle well (1798 feet deep), was regiment was established in the reign of Anne. completed in 1841, after eight years of exertion, by HONOURABLE ARTILLERY COMPANY of London, instiM. Mulot at an expense of about 12,0001., and the tuted in 1585, having ceased, was revived in 1610. well at Passy, which it is said will supply sufficient It met for military exercise at the Artillery ground, water for nearly 500,000 persons, was begun in 1855, Finsbury, where the London archers had met since and completed in 1860 by M. Kind. Messrs. Amos 1498 ; (see Archery). In the civil war, 1642-8, the and Easton completed an Artesian well for the

company took the side of the parliament and

greatly contributed towards its success. The comHorticultural Society's garden in 1862, which

pany numbered 1200 in 1803 and 800 in 1861. yielded 880,000 gallons of water, at the temperature Since 1842 the officers have been appointed by the of 81° Fahr., in twenty-four hours. The well at

queen. On the decease of the duke of Sussex in Kissingen was completed in 1850. Artesian wells 1843, the prince consort became colonel and captain

general. He died 14 Dec. 1861, and the prince of Wales was appointed his successor, 24 Aug. 1863.

AssoCIATION, ARTICHOKES are said to have been intro


held its first annual meeting for shooting for prizes duced from the East into Western Europe in the

given by the queen and others : at Shoeburyness, 15th century, and to have reached England in the

July, 1865. Meetings were held and prizes disloth.

tributed in July, 1866 ; July, 1867, Aug. 1868-72.

ROYAL ARTILLERY INSTITUTION established at WoolARTICLES OF RELIGION. On 8 June, 1536, wich, proposed by lieuts. F. Eardley Wilmot, and after much disputing, the English clergy in convo

J. H. Lefroy, Feb. 1838 ; approved June, 1838 ;

building completed Sept. 1840. Proceedings, vol. eation published “Articles decreed by the king's

I., published highness" Henry VIII., who published in 1539 the


The alleged great deficiency of artillery in the British “Statute of Six Articles,” decreeing the acknow


much discussed Sept. 1870; Artillery ledgment of transubstantiation, communion in one brought to the camp at Aldershot, reported to kind, vows of chastity, private masses, celibacy of be very fine

Sept. 1870 the clergy, and auricular confession. Offenders were punishable as hereties. In 1551, forty-two DWELLINGS ACT, " to provide better dwel

ARTISANS' AND LABOURERS were prepared, and published in 1553. These were modified by the convocation, and reduced to THIRTY- lings,” passed 31 July, 1868. NINE in Jan. 1563; and they received the royal authority and the authority of parliament in 1571. provide allowances for sick, and annuities for in

ARTISTS' FUND, was established in 1810 to The Lambeth Articles, of a more Calvinistic character, proposed by archbishop Whitgift, were with capacitated, members. Artists' General Benevolent drawn in consequence of the displeasure of queen

Institution, established 1814. Elizabeth, 1595. One hundred and four Articles

ARTOIS (N. France), a province once held by were drawn up for Ireland by archbishop, Usher in the Atrebates, conquered by the Franks in the fifth 1614; but in 1635 the Irish church adopted the century, given by Charles the Bold, with Flanders, English articles. See Perth Articles.

as a dowry to his daughter Judith, on her marriage Articles were ordered to be removed from the with Baldwin Bras-de-fer in 863. Louis XV. created studies at Oxford in Nov. 1871.

his grandson, Charles Philippe, count of Artois, who ARTICLES OF WAR were decreed in the time became king as Charles X., 16 Sept. 1824. of Richard I. and John. Those made by Richard Re-united to the crown by Philip Augustus

1180 II. in 1385 appear in “Grose's Military Antiquities.” Formed into a county for his brother Robert, by The articles of war now in force are based upon an Louis IX. act, passed by William III. in 1689, to regulate the acquired, with Flanders, through marriage, by the army about to engage in his continental warfare.

1384 Passed, by marriage of Mary of Burgundy to Maxi.

milian, to the house of Austria ARTIFICERS AND MANUFACTURERS.

Restored to France

1482 Their affairs were severely regulated by the statutes Reverted to Austria. of labourers, 1349, 1350, 1360, 1549, and espe- Conquered for France

1640 cally of 1562. They were prohibited from leaving Finally confirmed to it by the treaty of Nimeguen, England, and those abroad were outlawed, if they

10 Aug. 1678 did not return within six months after the notice

ARTS. In the 8th century, the circle of sciences given them. A fine of 1001., and imprisonment for

was composed of seven liberal arts—the trivium three months, were the penalties for seducing them (grammar, rhetoric, logic), the quadrivium (arithfrom these realms, by 9 Geo. II. (1736) and other metic, music, geometry, and astronomy). Harris, statutes. The law was modified in 1824; see Work- The Royal Society of England (which see) obtained

its charter, 2 April, 1663. ARTILLERY, a term including properly all The Society of Arts, to promote the polite arts, combeavy missiles, now restricted to cannon. A small merce, manufactures, and mechanics, originated piece was contrived by Schwartz, a German cordelier, in the patriotie zeal of Mr. Wm. Shipley, and its soon after the invention of gunpowder, in 1330.

first president, lord Folkstone

• 1754 Artillery was used, it is said, by the Moors of Algesiras, in Spain, in 1343; and according to some

First public exhibition by the artists of the British historians, at the battle of Crecy, in 1346, when

metropolis took place at the rooms of the Society Edward III, had four pieces of cannon.

1760 We had Repeated there for several years, till the Royai artillery at the siege of Calais, 1347. The Venetians

Academy was founded employed artillery against the Genoese at sea, 1377. Society of British Artists was institute 21 May. 1823 Voltaire. Said to have been cast, with mortars for

Their first exhibition opened 19 April bomb-shells, by Flemish artists, 'in Sussex, 1543. Society for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts Rymer's Federa. Made of brass 1635; improve Art Unions began in France and Germany early in ments by Browne, 1728; see Cannon, Bombs, Car

the present century. ronades' (under 'Carrón), Mortars, Howitzers, | The first in Britain was established at Edinburgh.

The 39




men, &c.


of Arts



The Art Union of London, 444, West Strand, was endued with the property of remaining unconsumed

founded 14 Feb. 1837 ; and chartered 1 Dec. 1846. by fire. Cloth was made of it by the Egyptians The Art Union indemnity act was passed 3 Aug.

(Herodotus), and napkins in the time of Pliny, 74 ; 1844. Subscription for 1872, 11,9301. 128. 6il. Burlington Fine Arts Club, for exhibition of works and also paper. The spinning of asbestos known at of art, &c., founded

1868 Venice, about 1500. Porta. A memorial of a convention for promoting univer: sally reproductions of works of art for the bene

ASCALON (Syria), a city of the Philistines, fit of inuseums of all countries, signed by the

shared the fate of Phænicia and Judea. The prince of Wales, and the crown princes of Prussia, ! Egyptian army was defeated here by the crusaders Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Italy, Saxony, and under Godfrey of Bouillon, 12 Aug. 1099. Ascalon others, was sent to the duke of Marlborough, was besieged by the latter in 1148, taken in 1153 ;

12 March, 1868 and again in 1191. Its fortifications were deSee British Institution ; National Gallery ; Royal Acaulemy : Albert Hal.

stroyed for fear of the crusaders by the sultan in

1270. ARUNDEL CASTLE (Sussex), built by the

ASCENSION, an island in the Atlantic ocean, Saxons about 800. The duke of Norfolk enjoys the earldom of Arundel, as a feudal honour, by inherit-800

miles N. W. of St. Helena, discovered by the ance and possession of the castle, without any other Portuguese on Ascension day, 20 May, 1501; and creation. Philip Howard, son of the attainted

taken possession of by the English, Oct. 1815. duke of Norfolk, was made earl of Arundel, by ASCENSION DAY, also called Holy Thurssummons, as possessor of this castle, 1580. It was day, when the church celebrates the ascension of thoroughly repaired by a late duke at a vast ex our Saviour, the fortieth day after his resurrection pense.

from the dead, 14 May, 33; first commemorated, it

is said, 68. Ascension day, 1872, 9 May; 1873, ARUNDELIAN MARBLES, called also

22 May; 1874, 14 May; 1875, 6 May. Oxford Marbles; one containing the chronology of ancient history from 1582 to 355 B.C., and said to ASCHAFFENBURG, on the Maine, Bavaria, have been sculptured 264 B.c. They consist of 37 S. W. Germany; Here, on 14 July, 1866, the Prusstatues, 128 busts, and 250 inscriptions, and were sians defeated the German Federal army, captured found in the isle of Paros, in the reign of James I., the town, and took 2000 prisoners. about 1610. They were collected by Mr. W. Petty,

ASCOT RACES, see Races. purchased by lord Arundel, and given by his grandson Henry Howard, afterwards duke of Norfolk, to ASCULUM, now ASCOLI, Apulia, S. Italy. the university of Oxford in 1667; and are therefore Near it, Pyrrhus of Epirus defeated the Romans, called also OXFORD MARBLES.' The characters of 279. B.C. Asculum, a city of the Piceni, with ali the inscriptions are Greek. A variorum edition of their country, was conquered by the consul Semthe inscriptions, by Maittaire, appeared in 1732, pronius, 268 B.C. Here Andrea, general of the emand a tine one by Chandler in 1763; and transia peror Henry VI., endeavouring, to wrest Naples tions by Selden, 1628; by Prideaux, 1676; see

from Tancred, was defeated and slain, A.D. 1190. Kidd's Tracts; and Porson's Treatise, 1789.

ASHANTEES, warlike negroes of West Africa. ARUNDEL SOCIETY, for the promotion

In 1807 they conquered Fantee, in which the

British settlement Cape Coast Castle is situated. of the knowledge of art, was established in 1848. It publishes fac-similes and photographs.

On the death of their king, who had been friendly

to the English, hostilities began; and on 21 Jan. ARUSPICES, see Haruspices.

1824, the Ashantees defeated about 1000 British

under sir Charles M'Carthy at Accra, and brought AS, a Roman weight and coin: as a weight, it

away his skull with others as trophies. They were was a pound; as a coin, it had different weights, but the same value. In the reign of Servius, the governor of Cape Coast Castle began a war with the

totally defeated, 27 Aug. 1826, by col. Purdon. The as weighed a pound of brass; in the first Punic war,

Ashantees in spring of 1863. The British troops it weighed two ounces, 264 B.C.; in the second Punić

suffered through disease; and the war was suspended war, one ounce, 218 B.c.; and afterwards half an

in May, 1864. War broke out in 1873. ounce; its value was about three farthings sterling.

ASHBURTON TREATY, concluded at

Washington, 9 Aug. 1842, by Alexander lord AshASAPH, St. (N. Wales), a bishopric said to burton, and John Tyler, president of the United have been founded by Kentigern, bishop of Glasgow. States: it defined the boundaries of the respective On returning into Scotland about 560, he left St. countries between Canada and the state of Maine, Asaph his successor, from whom the see is named. settled the extradition of criminals, &c. It is valued in the king's books at 1877. 118. 6d. The present cathedral was erected by bishop Red

ASHDOD, or AZOTUS, seat of the worship of man, 1472-95. By an order in council, 1838, the the Phænician god, Dagon, which fell down before sees of St. Asaph' and Bangor were to have been the ark of the Lord, captured by the Philistines united on the next vacancy in either, and the from the Israelites, about 1141 B.C. (1 Sam. v.) bishopric of Manchester created. This order was

Ashdod was taken by the Esyptians after 20 years annulled in 1846. Present income 4,2001.; see

siege, the longest recorded. Manchester.

ASHDOWN, or ASSENDUNE, now thought

to be Aston, Berks, where Ethelred and his brother 1802. Samuel Horsley, died Oct. 1806.

Alfred defeated the Danes in 871. At Ashdown, 1806. William Cleaver, died 15 May, 1815.

near Saffron-Walden, Essex, Canute defeated Ed1815. John Luxmoore, died 21 Jan. 1830. 1830. William Carey, died 13 Sept. 1846.

mund Ironside with great slaughter, 1016. 1846. Thomas Vowler Short, resigned Feb. 1870; died ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM (books, manu13 April, 1872.

scripts, coins, &c.), was presented to the university 1870. Joshua Hughes.

of Oxford by Elias Ashmole, the herald and antiASBESTOS, a native fossil stone, which may quary, and opened 1682. It included the collections be split into threads and filaments, and which is of the Tradescants, to whom he was executor. He



died at Lambeth in 1692. The Ashmolean Society, under Napoleon, Massena, &c., on 21-22 May, 1809, Oxford (scientific), was established in 1828. ending in the retreat of Napoleon. The Austrian

loss exceeded 20,000 men, and the French 30,000. ASHTAROTH, a Phænician goddess, occa

Marshal Lannos, mortally wounded 22 May, died sicnally worshipped' by the Israelites (see Judges 31 May. The bridge of the Danube was destroyed, ii. 13) about 1406 B.c., and even by Solomon, about and Napoleon's retreat endangered; but the success 984 B.C. (1 K’ings xi. 5.)

of the Austrians was fruitless to them. ASH-WEDNESDAY, the first day of Lent,

ASPHALT, a solid bituminous substance, prowhich in early times began on the Sunday now called the first in Lent. It is said that pope

bably derived from decayed vegetable matter. It Felix III., in 487, first added the four days, pre- Its application for this purpose was revived by

was used as a building material in ancient Babylon. ceding the old Lent Sunday, to raise the number of Eirinus, a Greek physician, who discovered beds of fasting days to forty; that Gregory the Great (pope, it near Neufchatel'in 1712. Asphalt stone was 590) introduced the sprinkling of ashes on the first of the four additional days, and hence the names of found at Seyssel near Geneva in 1802; and after Dies Cinerum, or Ash-Wednesday. At the Refor- several failures, count Sassenay brought it into use mation this practice was abolished, " as being a

for pavement about 1832. The artificial asphalt mere shadow, or vain show.” Ash-Wednesday, obtained from gas-works began to be used as pave1872, 14 Feb.'; 1873, 26 Feb.; 1874, 18 Feb.; 1875, laid down in Trafalgar-square, Jan. 1864.

ment about 1838. Claridge's patent asphalt was 10 Feb. ASIA, the largest division of the globe, so called

ASPROMONTE, Naples. Here Garibaldi was by the Greeks from the nymph Asia, daughter of defeated, wounded, and taken prisoner 29 Aug. 1862, Oceanus and Tethys, and wife of Japhet. Asia was having injudiciously risen against the French occuthe first quarter of the world peopled : here the law pation of Rome. of God was first promulgated; here many of the greatest monarchies of the earth had their rise; and

ASSAM (N. E. India) acquired by the British hence most of the arts and sciences have been de- in 1825, and surrendered by the king of Ava in rived. Its early history is derived from the Bible

1826. The tea-plant was discovered here by Mr. and from Herodotus, who relates the wars of Cræsus, Bruce

in 1823;. A superintendent of the tea-forests Cyrus, and others. See Jews, China, India, Persia, having been recommended by lord William Benand the other countries.

tinck, in 1834. The Assam Tea Company was esASIA MINOR, now ANADOLIA, comprised tablished in 1839, by whom Chinese labourers and the Ionian colonies on the coast, the early seats of coolies were introduced. After several years, the Greek civilisation, and the countries Mysia, Phrygia, plantations suffered severely, it is said through over Lycia, Bithynia, Caria, Lydia, Cappadocia, Galatia, speculation and neglect of the labourers; as a &c., with the cities Troy, Ephesus, Smyrna, (all remedy a labour act was passed at Calcutta, about which see). From the time of the rise of the As- July, 1867. syrian monarchy, about 2000 B.C., to that of the Turks under Osman, Asia Minor was the battle

ASSASSINATION PLOT, said to have been field of the conquerors of the world.

formed by the earl of Aylesbury and others to assassi

nate William III., near Richmond, Surrey, and reFirst settlement of the Ionian Greeks

about B.C. 1043 store James II., 14 Feb. 1695-6. It was discovered Asia Minor subdued by the Medes

about 711 by Prendergast. Conquered by Cyrus Contest between the Greeks and Persians

begins 544

ASSASSINS, or ASSASSINIANS, fanatical Asia Minor conquered by Alexander Contended for by his successors ; separate king

332 Mahometans, collected by Hassan-ben-Sabah, and

settled in Persia about 10go. In Syria they posdoms established

321-278 Gradually acquired by the Romans, B.C. 188 to A. D. 15 sessed a large tract of land among the mountains of Possessed by the Persians

609 Lebanon. They murdered the marquis of MontPartially recovered by the emperor Basil. 874 ferrat in 1192, Lewis of Bavaria in 1213, and the Invaded by Timour

1402 khan of Tartary in 1254. They were extirpated in Taken from the Greek emperor, and established as

Persia about 1258 and in Syria about 1272. The an empire by the Turks under Mahomet I. .


chief of the corps was named “ Ancient of the ASIATIC SOCIETIES. The “ Asiatic So- mountain,and Old Man of the Mountain." ciety of Bengal," at Calcutta, was established by They trained up young people to assassinate such sir William Jones in 1784, “ the bounds of its in- persons as their chief had devoted to destruction. vestigation to be the geographical limits of Asia." Henault. From them came the word assassin. The Royal Asiatic Society," which has several branches in India, was founded in 1823. It estab

ASSAY OF GOLD AND SILVER, originated lished the “Oriental Translation Fund,” in 1828, with the bishop of Salisbury, a royal treasurer in which had published 83 volumes of Eastern litera- the reign of Henry I. Du Cange. But certainly ture in 1865. The “ Literary Society of Madras,"

some species of assay was practised as early as the 1845.

Roman conquest. Assay early established in Eng

land was regulated by statutes, 1238, 1700, and ASKESIAN SOCIETY (from the Greek askē- 1705. Assay masters appointed at Newcastle, 1701; sis, exercise), instituted in March, 1796, by some Sheffield and Birmingham, 1773. The laws reyoung men for discussing philosophical subjects. Its specting assay were amended in 1854 and 1855. founders were Wm. Allen, Wm. Phillips, Alex. Til- The alloy of gold is silver and copper, that of silver loch, Luke Howard, W. H. Pepys and others. In is copper. Standard gold is 2 carats of alloy to 22 of 1806 it merged into the Geological Society. fine gold. Standard silver is 18 dwts. of copper

to II ozg. 2 dwts. of fine silver; see Goldsmiths' ASPERNE, GREAT, a town, and Essling, a

Company and Pyr. village near the Danube and Vienna, where a series of desperate conflicts took place between the Austrian ASSAYE (E. Indies). The British army, under army under the archduke Charles, and the French / general Arthur Wellesley (afterwards duke of Wel



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