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lington), entered the Mahratta states on the south; stantial men, with the justice, to mect at a certain took the fort of Ahmednuggur, 12 Aug.; and de- time and place: regulated by Magna Charta, 1215. feated Scindiah and the rajah of Berar at Assaye, The present justices of assize and Nisi Prius are 23 Sept. 1803. This was Wellesley's first great derived from the statute of Westminster, 13 Edw. I. battle, in which he opposed 50,000 with only 4500 1284. Cohe; Blackstone. “The king doth will

The enemy fled, leaving their artillery, &c. that no lord, or other of the country, shall sit upon ASSEMBLY OF (130) DIVINES, held at sessions in the counties of England, upon great for

the bench with the justices to take assize in their Westminster, 1 July, 1643, convoked by order of feiture to the king.' 20 Rich. II. 1396. Statutes, parliament

to consider the liturgy, government, and Brough Act. Assizes are general or special; general doctrines of the church. Two members were elected when the judges go their circuits, and special when for each county. The presbyterian majority adopted

a commission is issued to take cognisance of one or the Scottish covenant, and drew up the directory

more causes; see Bloody Assize, for public worship, a confession, and the catechisms now used by the church of Scotland. The last ASSOCIATIONS, see National Associations. (1163rd) meeting was on 22 Feb. 1649; see Church of Scotland.

ASSUMPTION, FEAST OF THE, 15 Aug.

It is observed by the church of Rome in honour of ASSENT, see Royal Assent.

the Virgin Mary, said to have been taken up to ASSESSED TAXES. The date of their in- heaven in her corporeal form, body and spirit, on troduction has been as variously stated as the taxes this day, A.D. 45, in her 75th year. The festival coming under this head have been defined-all was instituted in the 7th century, and enjoined by thi have been assessed, from lands and houses the council of Mentz, 813. to dogs and hair-powder. By some the date is referred to Ethelbert, in 991 ; to Henry VIII. 1522;

ASSURANCE, see Insurance. and to William II1. 1689, when a land-tax was im- ASSYRIA, an Asiatic country between Mesoposed; see Land Tax. The assessed taxes yielded potamia and Media, was the seat of the earliest in 1815 (the last year of the war), exclusively of the recorded monarchy. Its history is mainly derived land-tax, 6,524,7661., their highest amount. These from Ctesias, an early Greek historian of doubtful imposts have varied in their nature and amount, authenticity, Herodotus, and the Holy Scriptures. rccording to the exigencies of the state. They were The discovery by Mr. Layard of the Ninevite considerably advanced in 1797 and 1801, et seq., but antiquities, now in the British Museum, and the reduced in 1816, and in subsequent years. An act deciphering of many ancient cuneiform inscriptions, for the repeal of certain assessed taxes was passed by Grotefend, sir I. Rawlinson, and other scholars, 16 & 17 Vict. c. 90, 20 Aug. 1853, explained and have drawn inuch attention to the Assyrians. The amended by 17 & 18 Vict. c. 1, 17 Feb. 1854.-Acts chronologers, Blair, Usher, Hales, and Clinton, for the betier securing and accounting for the As- differ much 'in the dates assign to events in sessed and Income Taxes, 10 Aug. 1854; see Taxes, Assyrian history. and Income Tax. Changes were made in the as

Nimrod or Belus reigns. B.C. (2554 H. 2235 C.) 2245 sessed taxes, their time of collection, &c., by the

“ Asshur builded Nineveh" (Gen. x. 11) about Revenue act, passed 24 June, 1869. Licences for Ninus, son of Belus, reigns in Assyria, and names servants, dogs, and armorial bearings were also in

his capital Nineveh

· (2182 C.] 2069 troduced. An act to provide for uniformity in the Babylon taken by Ninus, who having subdued the assessment of rateable property in the metropolis Armenians, Persians, Bactrians, and all Asia

Minor, establishes what is properly the Assyrian was passed 9. Aug. 1869. The “Court of General

first met 19 May, 1870. Assessment

Amount

monarchy, of which Nineveh was the seat of empire. Blair,

(2233 C.) 2059 received in the year ending 31 March, 1870, about Ninyas, an infant, succeeds Nivus

• 2017 4,500,000l. Since then the assessed taxes include Semiramis, mother of Ninyas, usurps the governthe land-tax and house duty only.

ment, enlarges and embellishes Bubylon (2130 C) 2007 She invades Libya, Ethiopia, and Iulia .

Lenglet 1975 ASSIENTO, a contract between the king of She is put to death by her son Ninyas

1905 Spain and other powers, for furnishing the Spanish Ninyas put to death, and Arius reigus dominions in America with negro slaves, began with Reign of Aralius

1897

Belochus, the last king of the race of Ninus the Flemings. By the treaty of Utrecht, 13 July,

1446

He makes his daughter Atossa, surnamed Semiramis 1713, the British government engiged to furnish

II., his associate on the throne 4800 negroes annually to Spanish America for thirty Atossa procures the death of her father, and marries years. The contract was renewed in 1748, but given Belatores (or Belaperes) who reigns up in 1750; see Guinea.

The prophet Jonah appears in Nineveh, and foretells ASSIGNATS, a forced paper currency, ordered its destruction. Blair

840 by the National Assembly of France to support Nineveh taken by Arbaces. [Sardanapalus, the king, public credit during the revolution, April, 1790. is mythically said to have enclosed liimself, hus At one period, eight milliards, or nearly 350 millions court, and women, in his paluce, and to have

perished in the fire kindled by himself] of pounds sterling, of this paper were in circulation

Phul raised to the throne. Blair

about in France and its dependencies. Alison. Assignats He invades Israel, but departs without drawing a were superseded by mandats in 1796.

Blair; 2 Kings XV. 19, 20

Tiglath-Pileser invades Syria, takes Damascus, and ASSIZE of BATTLE, see Appeal.

makes great conquests ASSIZE of BREAD, &c., see Bread, and Wool. Shalmaneser takes Samaria, transports the people,

whom he replaces by a colony of Cutheans and ASSIZE of JERUSALEM, a valuable code of others, and thus finishes the kingdom of Israel.

Blair laws compiled under the direction of Godfrey of Bouillon, king of Jerusalem, in 1100.

Ile retires from before Tyre, after a siege of five

Bluir ASSIZE COURTS (from assideo, I sit) are

Sennacherib invades Judea, and his general, Raba

shakeh, besieges Jerusalem, when the angel of the very ancient in England, and in old law books are

Lord in one night destroys 180,000 of his army. defined to be an assembly of knights and other sub- Isaiah xxxvii..

2218

1927

1433

• 1421

8.30

777

sword.

770

• 744-740

721

years.

713

710 B.C.

1688

1701

Esar-haddon invades Judea .

680 Astronomy advanced by Tycho Brahe, who yet ad. A.D. Sarac (Sardanapalus II.) besiegeri, kills his wife heres to the Ptolemaie system.

about 1582 and children, and burns himself in his palace True laws of the planetary motions announced by 625 or 621 Kepler ; ist and 2nd, 1009; 3rd

1618 Nineveh razed to the ground, and Assyria becomes Galileo constructs a telescope, 1609; and discovers a Median province , 605 Jupiter's satellites, &c.

8 Jan. 1610 Assyria sublueel by Alexander the Great

332 Various forins of telescopes and other instruments It subsequently formed part of the kingdoms of used in astronomy invented

1608-40 Syria, Parthia, and Persia.

Cartesian systein published by Des Cartes .

1637 It was conquered by the Turks

- A.D. 1637 The transit of Venus over the sun's disc first obExplored by col. Chesney and the Euphrates ex- served by Horrocks

24 Nov. 1639 ploring expedition

1835-37

Cassini draws his meridian line, after Dante ; see
Bologna

1655 ASTEROIDS, see under Planets.

The aberration of the light of the fixed stars dis

covered by Horrebow ASTLEY'S AMPHITHEATRE, see under Huyghens completes the discovery of Saturn's ring 1654 Theatres.

Gregory invents a reflecting telescope.

1663 Discoveries of Picard

1669 ASTORGA (N. W. Spain), the ancient Asturica Charts of the moon constructed by Scheiner, LanAugusta, was taken by the French in 1810, and

grenus, Hevelius, Riccioli, &e.

about 1670 treated with great severity.

Discoveries of Romer on the velocity of light, and his observation of Jupiter's satellites

1675

Greenwich Observatory founded ASTRACAN (S. E. Russia), a province ac- Motion of the sun round its own axis proved by quired from the Mogul's empire in 1554; visited Halley

1676 and settled by Peter the Great in 1722.

Newton's Principia published; and the system, as now taught, demonstrated

1687 ASTROLABE, an instrument for observing Catalogue of the stars made by Flamsterd

1692 the stars, said to have been employed by Hipparchus Cassini's chart of the full moon executed

Satellites of Saturn, &c., discovered by Cassini about 130 B.C.; and by Ptolemy about 140. A.D).

1705 The modern astrolabe was described by Fabricius in

Halley predicts the return of the comet (of 1758)

: 1725 1513.

Aberration of the light of the stars discovered and explained by Dr. Bradley

• 1727 ASTROLOGY. Judicial astrology was culti- John Harrison produces chronometers for detervated by the Chaldeans, and transmitted to the mining the longitude, 1735 et seq., and obtains the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It was much in reward

1764 vogue in Italy and France in the time of Catherine

“Nautical Almanac" first published .

1767 de Medicis (married to Francis I. of France, 1533).

Celestial inequalities found by La Grange

1780

Uranus and satellites discovered by Herschel; see Hinault. It is said that Bede, 673-735, was ad

13 March 1781 dicted to it; and Roger Bacon, 1214-1292. Lord Mécanique Celeste, by La Place, published 1796 Burleigh is said to have calculated the nativity of Royal Astronomical society of London founded, Elizabeth, and she, and other princes, were dupes of 1820 ; chartered .

1831 Dee, the astrologer. It is stated that Lilly was

Beer and Madler's map of the moon published. consulted by Charles I. respecting his projected The planet Neptune discovered

Lord Rosse's telescope constructed

1828-45

23 Sept. 1846 escape from Carisbrook castle in 1647. Ferguson. Bond photographs the moon (see Photography, Astrological almanacs are still published in London. celestial)

1851

Hansen's table of the moon published at expense of ASTRONOMER-ROYAL, see Greenwich. the British government .

1857

Trustees of the rev. Richard Sheepshanks present ASTRONOMY. The earliest astronomical 10,000l. stock to Trinity College, Cambridge, for observations were made at Babylon it is said about

promotion of the study of astronomy, meteorology,

and magnetism 2234 B.C. The study was much advanced in Chaldæa Spectrum analysis applied in astronomy (see Spec

2 Dec. 1858 under Nabonassar; was known to the Chinese about

trum)

1861. 1100 B.C. ; some say many centuries before; see Large photograph of the moon by Warren De là Eclipses, Planets, Comets, Sun, Moon, Jupiter, Rue

1863 Saturn, Neptune, gc. Lunar eclipses observed at Babylon, and recorded B.C. ASTURIAS (Oviedo, since 1833) N. W. Spain,

by Ptoleiny Spherical form of the earth, and the true cause of

an ancient principality. Here Pelayo collected the lunar eclipses, taught by Thales

Gothic fugitives, about 713, founded a new kingdom, about 600

and by his victories checked Moorish conquest. For Further discoveries by Pythagoras, who taught the

doctrine of celestial motions, and believed in the his successors, see Spain. The heir-apparent of the plurality of habitable worlds, died

monarchy bas borne the title “prince of Asturias" Metan introduces the lunar-solar cycle

since 1388, when it was assumed by Henry, son of Treatises of Aristotle " concerning the heavens,"

John 1. king of Leon, on his marriage with a deand of Autolycus “ on the motion of the sphere" (earliest extant works on astronomy)

about 350

scendant of Peter of Castile. In 1808, the junta of Aratus writes a poem on astronomy

Asturias began the organised resistance to the French Arhimedes observes solstices, &c.

usurpation. Hipparchus, greatest of Greek astronomers, jèter:

mines mean motion of sun and moon ; discovers ASYLUMS, or PRIVILEGED PLACES, at precession of equinoxes, &c.

160-125 first were places of refuge for those who by acciThe precession of the equinoxes confirmed, and the places and distances of the planets discovered, by

dent or necessity had done things that rendered Ptolemy.

A.D. 139-161

them obnoxious to the law. God commanded the Astronomy and geography cultivated by the Arabs Jews to build cities of refuge, 1451 B.C, Vumbers alut 760 ; brought into Europe

about 1200

XXV.— The posterity of Hercules are said to have Alphonsine tables (which see) composed Clocks ürst used in astronomy

built one at Athens, to protect themselves against

such as their father had irritated. Cadmus is said True doctrine of the motions of the planetary bodies revived by Copernicus, founder of modern astro

to have built one at Thebes, 1490 B.C., and Romunomy; bis “ Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies

lus one at Mount Palatine, 751 B.C.; see Sanctupublished

1543

aries.

1834

about 720

.about 470

433

281 212

about 1253
about 1500

E

1347

ATELIERS NATIONAUX (National Work- places, buildings under this name, and for a like shops), were established by the French provisional purpose, have been founded.—The Atheneum, a government in Feb. 1848. They interfered greatly weekly literary and scientific journal, first appeared with private trade, as about 100,000 workmen threw in 1828. themselves upon the government for labour and payment. The breaking-up of the system led to

ATHENRY (Galway). Near here the Irish the fearful conflicts in June following; and the Feidlim O'Connor, slain 10 Aug. 1316.

were totally defeated, and a gallant young chief, system was abolished in July.

ATHENS, the capital of ancient Attica, and of ATHANASIAN CREED. Athanasius, of modern Greece. The first sovereign mentioned is Alexandria, was elected bishop, 326. He firmly. opOgyges, who reigned in Baotia, and was master of posed the doctrines of Arius (who denied Christ's Attica, 'then called Ionia. Tradition states that in divinity), was several times exiled, and died in

his reign (about 1764 B.C.) a deluge laid waste the 373. The creed which bears his name is supposed country, which só remained till the arrival of the to have been written about 340; or to be the com Egyptian Cecrops and a colony, by whom the land pilation of Vigilius Tapsensis, an African bishop was re-peopled, and twelve cities founded, 1556 B.C. in the 5th century. It was commented on by The city, said to have been first called Cecropia, Venatius Fortunatus, bishop of Poictiers in 570, was afterwards named Athens in honour of Minerva and authorised by Charlemagne, 802. Dr. Water (Athenē), her worship having been introduced by land's history of this creed (1724) is exhaustive; Erechtheus, 1383 b.c. Athens was ruled by sevensee Arians.

teen successive kings (487 years), by thirteen Much agitation against the general use of this creed has perpetual archons (316 years), seven decennial ar

arisen in the Church of England among both clergy chons (70 years), and lastly by annual archons (760 and laity, 1870-73.

years). It attained great power, and no other city Modifications approved by several bishops were negatived has had, in a short space of time, so great a number by the lower house in convocation, (62-7) early in May, of illustrious citizens. The ancients called Athens 1872. The vote was rejected by the bishops, and the agitation continued.

Astu, the city, by eminence, and one of the eyes of In a letter to the earl of Shaftesbury, 22 July, 1872, the

Greece; see Greece. archbishops of Canterbury and York expressed their

Arrival of Cecrops B.C. (1558 Hales, 1433 Clinton) hope of devising a way for rendering the reading of the

Usher

1556 creed during public worship not compulsory.

The Areopagus established

1 507 Great meeting of laity at St. James's Hall in defence of

Deucalion arrives in Attica

1502 the creed, 31 Jan. 1873.

Reign of Amphictyon

(1499 II.] 1497 ATHEISM (from the Greck a, without,

The Panathenaan Games

(1431 H.) 1495

Erichthonius reigns Theos, God, see Psalm xiv. 1). It was professed by

1487

Erechtheus teaches husbandry.
Epicurus, Lucretius, and other philosophers. Eleusinian mysteries introduced by Eumolpus

1383

1356 Spinoza was the defender of a similar doctrine

Erechtheus killed in battle with the Eleusinians (1632-1677). Lucilio Vanini publicly taught athe Egeus invades Attica, and ascends the throne ism in France, and was condemned to be burnt at He throws himself into the sea, and is drowned ; Toulouse in 1619. Mathias Knutzen, of Holstein,

hence the name of the Ægeau Sea. Eusebius.

1235

Theseus, his son, succeeds, and reigns 30 years openly professed atheism, and had upwards of a

He collects his subjects into one city, and names it thousand disciples in Germany about 1674; he travel

Athens

1234 led to make proselytes, and his followers were called Reign of Mnestheus, 1205 ; of Demophoon . Conscienciaries, because they held that there is no Court of Ephetes established other deity than conscience. “ Though a small The Prianepsæ instituted

1178 draught of philosophy may lead a man into atheism, Melanthus conquers Xuthus in single combat and is a deep draught will certainly bring him back again Reign of Codrus, his son, the last king

1128 to the belief of a God." Lord Bacon. Atheism was

In a battle with the Heraclidae, Codrus is killed : he the ruling doctrine of the French republic, 1794 till had resolved to perish; the oracle having declared 1804; see Materialism.

that the victory should be with the side whose

leader was killed ATHENÆA were great festivals celebrated at

Royalty abolished ;-Athens governed by archons, Athens in honour of Minerva. One was oalled Medon the first

(1070 H.) 1044 Panathenæa, the other Chalcea; they are said to Alcmeon, last perpetual archon, dies have been instituted by Erechtheus or Orpheus, Cherops, first decennial archon

752 1397 or 1495 B.C.; and revived by Theseus, whó Hippomenes deposed for his cruelty

713 caused them to be observed by all the Athenians,

Erixias, 7th and last decennial archon, dies

684

Creon, first annual archon the first every fifth year, 1234 B.C. Plutarch. Draco, the 12th annual archon, publishes his laws ATHENÆUM, a place at Athens, sacred to

said “to have been written in blood" Minerva, where the poets and philosophers recited

Solon supersedes them by his excellent code

Pisistratus, the tyrant," seizes the supreme their compositions. That of Rome, of great beauty,

power, 560; flight of Solou, 559. Pisistratis was erected by the emperor Adrian, 125.- The establishes his government, 537; collects a public ATHENÆUM Club of London was formed in 1823, library, 531; dies

527 for the association of persons of scientific and literary First tragedy acted at Athens, on a waggon, by attainments, and artists, and noblemen and gentle Thespis

535 men, patrons of learning, &c., by the earl of Aber- Hipparchus assassinated by Harmodius and Aristo: deen, marquis of Lansdowne, Dr. T. Young, The law of ostracism established ; Hippias and the Moore, Davy, Scott, Mackintosh, Faraday, Croker, Pisistratida banished Chantry, Lawrence, and others; the clubhouse was Lemnos taken by Miltiades

504 erected in 1829-30 on the site of the late Carlton The Persian invåders defeated at Marathon. palace; it is of Grecian architecture, and the

Death of Miltiades

439 Aristides, surnamed the Just, banished

483 frieze is an exact copy of the Panathenaic pro

Athens taken by the Persian Xerxes cession which formed the frieze of the Parthenon.

Burnt to the ground by Mardonius -The Liverpool Athenæum was opened i Jan. Rebuilt and fortified by Themistocles; Piræus 1799.-At Manchester, Bristol, and many other built

1283

II 82 • 1179

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1070

753

683

621

594

514

510

480

479

473

B.C.

1456

459

448

Greece

447

. .1871

445

444
440

406

Themistocles banished ,

471

Athens taken by Alaric, and spared from slaughter A.D. 396 Cimon, s:n of Miltiades, overruns all Thrace 469 By Mahomet II. . Pericies takes part in public affairs, 469 : he and

By the Venetians

1406 Cimon adorn Athens, 464; the latter banished 461 Restored to the Turks.

1479 Athens begins to tyrannise over Greece

Athens suffered much during the War of IndepenThe long wall built

457 dence, 1821-7. Taken by the Turks (see Greece) Literature, philosophy, and art flourish

17 May, 1827 The first sacred (or social) war:(which see) Tolmidas conducts an expedition into Boeotia, and

Becomes the capital of the kingdom of modern

1833 is defeated and killed near Coronea.

Population, 11,298, 1861 ; 44,510.
The thirty years' truce between the Athenians and
Lacedæmonians

ATHLONE, Roscommon, Ireland, was burnt Herodotus said to have read his history in the during the civil war in 1641. After the battle of

council at Athens Pericles obtains the government

the Boyne, colonel R. Grace held Athlone for Pericles subdues Samos

James II. against a besieging army, but fell when Satirical comedies prohibited at Athens.

it was taken by assault by Ginckel, 30 June, 1691 ; Alliance between Athens and Coreyra, then at war

see Aughrim. with Corinth, 433; leads to the Peloponnesian war (lasted 27 years); it began .

ATLANTA, see United States, 1864.

431 A dreadful plague, which had ravaged Ethiopia, Libya, Egypt, and Persia, extends to Athens, and

ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH, see Electric continues for five years.

430

Telegraph, under Electricity. Death of Pericles of the plague

429 Disastrous expedition against Sicily ; death of the ATMOLYSIS, a method of separating the

commanders, Demosthenes and Nicias ; Athenian constituent gases of a compound gas (such as atfleet destroyed by Gylippus

415-413 mospheric air) by causing it to pass through a vessel Givernment of the four hundred "

411 of porous material (such as graphite); first made Alcibiades defeats the Laceda monians at Cyzicus;

known in Aug. 1863, by the discoverer, the late (ich ich see) Alcibiades, accused of aspiring to sovereign pow

410 professor T. Graham, F.R.S., master of the mint.

power, banished

407 Athens victorious in a sea fight at Arginusze

ATMOSPHERE, see Air. Athenian tleet destroyed by Lysander at Ægospo

ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAYS. The idea tami

405 He besieges Athens by land and sea ; its walls are

of producing motion by atmospheric pressure was destroyed, and it capitulates, and the Pelopon

conceived by Papin, the French engineer, about nesian war terminates

404

1680. Experiments were made on a line of rail, Rule of the thirty tyrants, who are overthrown by laid down across Wormwood Scrubs, London, beThrasybulus

403 tween Shepherd's Bush and the Great Western Sourates (agedd 70) put to death.

399 railroad, to test the efficacy of atmospheric tubes, The Corinthian war begins

395 Conon rebuilds the long walls, and fortifies the

the working of the air-pump, and speed of carriages Pirrus

upon this new principle on railroads in June, 1840,

393 Plato founds the academy

and then tried for a short time on a line between War against Sparta

378 Croydon and London, 1845. Atmospheric pressure The Laceda-monian fleet' defeated at Naxus by was also tried and abandoned, in 1848, on the South Chabrias

376 Devon line. An atmospheric railway was comGeneral peace Philip, king of Macedon, opposes the Athenians;

menced between Dalkey and Killiney, in the vicinity see Macaron

of Dublin, in Sept. 1843; opened 29 March, 1844;

359 Second sacred (or social) war

357-355

discontinued in 1855. A similar railway was proFirst Philippie of Demosthenes

352 posed to be laid down in the streets of London by Mr. Peace with Macedon.

T. W. Rammell, in 1857. Mr. Rammell's Pneumatic Battle of Cheronaa (which sre); the Athenians and

Railway was put in action successfully at the Crystal Thebans defeated by Philip

7 Aug. 338 Philip assassinated by Pausanias

Palace on 27 Aug. 1864, and following days. An Athens submits to Alexander, who spares the act for a pneumatic railway between the Waterloo

335 railway station and Whitehall was passed in July, Death of Alexander

323 1865. Atmospheric pressure was proposed for a The Lamian war; the Athenians and others rise

submarine railway from Dover to Calais, in 1869; see analist Macedon, 323 : defeated at Cranon Pneumatic Despatch.

Demosthenes poisons himself Athens surrenders to Cassander, who governs well, ATOMIC THEORY, in chemistry, deals with 18; execution of Phocion

317 the indivisible particles of all substances. The Demetrius Poliorcetes expels Demetrius Phalereus,

somewhat incoherent labours of his predecessors and restores the Athenian democracy, 307; the latter takes the chair of philosophy.

296

(such as Wenzel, in 1777) were reduced by John A league between Athens, Sparta, and Egypt

Dalton to four laws of combining proportion, which Athens taken by Antigonus Gonatas, king of Mace

have received the name of "Atomic Theory." His don, 268 ; restored by Aratus

256 “Chemical Philosophy,” containing the exposition The Athenians join the Achaan league

of his views, appeared in 1808. Dr. C. Daubeny's They join the Etolians against Macedon, and send

work on tbe Atomic Theory was published in 1850. for assistance to Rome

215 A Roman tleet arrives at Athens

In his standard of Atomic weights Dalton takes The Romans proclaim liberty at Athens

196 hydrogen as I. Berzelius, who commenced his elaboSubjugation of Greece

rate researches on the subject in 1848, adopts oxygen The Athenians implore assistance against the as 100. The former standard is used in this country,

Romans from Mithridates, king of Pontus, whose the latter on the continent. The theory is acgeneral, Archelaus, makes himself master of

cepted by some, and rejected by other chemists. In Athens

88 Athens besieged by Sylla, the Roman general ; it is 1855 Hinrichs propounded a new hypothetical reduced to surrender by famine

86 science, Atomechanics, in which pantogen, composed Cicero studies at Athens, 79 ; and Biorace.

of panatoms, is regarded as the primary chemical The Athenians desert Pompey, to follow the inte- principle.

rests of C-sar Athens visited by the apostle Paul

ATREBATES, a Belgic people, subdued by Many temples, &c., erected by Hadrian 122-135 / Cæsar, 57 B.C. ; see Artois.

388

371

346

336

orators

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ATTAINDER, ACTS OF, whereby a person 1771. Edward Thurlow, esq., afterwards lord Thurlow. not only forfeited his land, but his blood was at- 1778. Alex. Welderburn, ait. lord Loughborough. tainted, have been numerous. Two witnesses in 1780. James Wallace, esq. cases of high treason are necessary where corruption 1782. Lloyd Kenyon, esą.

1783. James Wallace, esq. of blood is incurred, unless the party accused shall John Lee, esq. confess, or stand mute, 7 & 8 Will. III. 1694-5. Lloyd Kenyon, again; afterwards Lori Kenyon. Blackstone. The attainder of lord Russell, who was 1784. Sir Richard P. Arlen, aft. lord Alvanley. beheaded in Lincoln's-inn- fields, 21 July, 1683, was

1788. Sir Archibald Macdonald. reversed under William, in 1689. The rolls and re

1793. Sir John Scott, afterwards lord Eldon.

1799. Sir J. Mitford, afterwards Lord Redesdale. cords of the acts of attainder passed in the reign of

1801. Sir Edward Law, aft. lord Ellenborough, 14 Feb. James II. were cancelled and publicly burnt, 2 Oct. 1802. Hon. Spencer Percival (murdered by Bellingham, 1695. Amongst the last acts reversed was the attaint

11 May, 1812), 15 April. of the children of lord Edward Fitzgerald (who was 1806. Sir Arthur Pigott, 12 Feb. implicated in the rebellion in Ireland of 1798), 1807. Sir Vicary Gibbs, afterwards chief justice of the I July, 1819. In 1814 and 1833 the severity of at

common pleas, 7 April.

1812. Sir Thomas Plumer, aiterwards first vice-chancellor tainders was mitigated. Several'attainders reversed

of England, 26 June. about 1827, and one in 1853 (the earl of Perth). 1813. Sir William Garrow, 4 May.

1817. Sir Samuel Shepherd, 7 May. ATTICA, see Athens.

1819. Sir Robert Gifford, aft. lord Giffard, 24 July.

1824. Sir John Singleton Copley, afterwards lord LyndATTILA, surnamed the “Scourge of God," and

hurst, 9 Jan. thus distinguished for his conquests and his crimes, 1826. Sir Charles Wetherell, 20 Sept. having ravaged the eastern empire from 445 to 450,

1827. Sir James Searlett, 27 April. when he made peace with Theodosius. lle invaded

1828. Sir Charles Wetherell, again, 19 Feb.

1829. Sir Jas. Scarlett, again ; aft. lord Abinger, 29 June. the western empire, 450, and was defeated by Aëtius

1830. Sir Thos. Denman, aft. lord Denman, 26 Nov. at Chalons, 451; he then retired into Pannonia, 1832. Sir William Horne, 26 Nov. where he died through the bursting of a blood vessel 1834. Sir John Campbell, March. on his nuptials with Ildico, a beautiful virgin, 453. Sir Frederick Pollock, 17. Dec.

1835. Sir John Campbell, again, afterwards lord CampATTORNEY (from tour, turn), a person quali- 1841. Sir Thomas Wilde, 3 July

bell (and, 1859, lord chancellor), 30 April. fied to act for another at law. The number in

Sir F. Pollock, again ; aft. chief baron, 6 Sept. Edward III.'s reign was under 400 for the whole :844. Sir William W. Follett, 15 April. kingdom. In the 32nd of Henry VI., 1454, a law 1845. Sir Frederick Thesiger, 4 July reduced the practitioners in Norfolk, Norwich, and 1846. Sir Thomas Wilde, again; afterwards lord Truro, Suffolk, from eighty to fourteen, and restricted their

and lord chancellor, 6 July. increase. The number of attorneys now practising

Sir John Jervis, afterwards chief justice of the in the United Kingdom is said to be 13,824 (1872), 1850. Sir John Romilly, aft, master of the rolls, 11 July.

common pleas, 13 July. The qualifications and practice of attorneys and 1851. Sir Alex. James Edmund Cockburn, 28 March. solicitors are now regulated by acts passed in 1843, 1852. Sir Frederick Thesiger, again; afterwards lord 1861, and 1870.

Chelmsford, and lord chancellor, 2 March.

Sir Alexander Cockburn, again ; aft. chief justice ATTORNEY-GENERAL, a law officer of 1856. Sir Richard Bethell, 15 Nov.

of common pleas and queen's bench, 28 Dec. the crown, appointed by letters patent. He has to 1858. Sir Fitzroy Kelly, 27 Feb. exhibit informations and prosecute for the king in 1859. Sir R. Bethell (since lord Westbury, and lord chanmatters criminal, and to file bills in exchequer, for cellor), 18 June. any claims concerning the crown in inheritance or

1861. Sir William Atherton, 27 July. profit. Others may bring bills against the king's 1863. Sir Roundell Palmer, 2 Oct.

1866. Sir Hugh M. Cairns, aft. lord chancellor, 13 Jnly. attorney. The first attorney-general was William

Sir John Rolt (made justice of appeal), 28 Oct. Bonneville, 1277

7867. Sir John Karslake, i July.

1868. Sir Robert Porrett Collier, 12 Dec. 1660. Sir Jeffrey Palmer.

1871. Sir John Duke Coleridge, 10 Nov. 1670. Sir Heneage Finch, afterwards earl of Nottingham. 1673. Sir Francis North, knt., afterwards lord Guildford. 1675. Sir William Jones.

ATTORNEYS AND SOLICITORS' 1679. Sir Cresvel Levinz, or Levinge, knt.

ACT, passed 14 July, 1870. 1681. Sir Robert Sawyer, knt. 1687. Sir Thomas Powis, knt.

ATTRACTION, described by Copernicus, 1689. Henry Pollexfen, esq.

about 1520, as an appetence or appetite which the Sir George Trehy, kit.

Creator impressed upon all parts of matter; by 1692. Sir John Summers, knt., afterwards lord Somers. 1693. Edward Ward, esq.

Kepleras a corporealaifection tending to union, 1605. 1695. Sir Thomas Trevor, knt., afterwards lord Trevor. In 1687, sir I. Newton published his “ Principia, 1701. Edward Northey, esq.

containing his important researches on this subject. 1707. Sir Simon Harcourt, knt.

There are the attractions of Gravitation, Magnetism, 1708. Sir James Montagu, knt.

and Electricity (which see). 1710. Sir Simon Harcourt, again; aft. lord Harcourt. Sir Edward Northey, knt.

ATTWOOD'S MACHINE, for proving the 1718. Nicholas Lechmere, esq., aft, lord Lechmere.

laws of accelerated motion by the falling of weights, 1720. Sir Robert Raymond, aft, lord Raymond. 1724. Sir Philip Yorke, after, earl of Hardwicke.

invented by George Attwood ; described 1784: he 1734. Sir John Willes, knt.

died 11 July, 1807. 1737. Sir Dudley Ryder, knt. 1754. Hon. William Murray, aft, earl of Mansfield.

AUBAINE, a right of the French kings, which 1756. Sir Robert Henley, knt., aft, earl of Northington. existed from the beginning of the monarchy, where1757. Sir Charles Pratt, knt., afterwards lord Camden,

by they claimed the property of every stranger who 1762. Hon. Charles Yorke. 1763. Sir Fletcher Norton, knt., aft. Lord Grantley.

died in their country, without having been na1765. Hon. Charles Yorke, again': afterwards lord Morden, turalised, was abolished by the national assembly and lor chancellor; see Chancellors.

fn 1790-91; re-established by Napoleon in 1804, 1766. William de Grey, afterwards lord Walsingham. and finally annulled 14 July 1819.

99

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