Page images

Nov. 1530

read to the diet

AUBEROCHE, Guienne, S. France. The AUGSBURG (Bavaria), originally a colony earl of Derby defeated the French, besieging this settled by Augustus, about 12 B.c.; became a free place, 19 Aug. 1344.

city, and flourished during the middle ages. Here AUCKLAND, capital of New Zealand (north In A.D. 952, a council confirmed the order for the

many important diets of the empire have been heid. island), was founded Sept. 1840. The population celibacy of the priesthood. Augsburg has suffered of the district, in 1857, was estimated at 15,000 much by war, having been frequently taken by Europeans, and 35,000 natives. The seat of govern- siege, -in 788, 1703, 1704, and, last, by the French, ment was removed to Wellington on Cook's Strait, Dec. 1864.

10 Oct. 1805, who restored it to Bavaria in March,

1806. AUCTION, a kind of sale known to the Ro- Augsburg Diet, summoned by the emperor Charles mans, mentioned by Petronius Arbiter (about A.D. V., to settle the religious disputes of Germany, 66). The first in Britain was about 1700, by met 20 June, and separated Elisha Yale, a governor of Fort George, now

Confession of Augsbury, compiled by Melanchthon, Madras, in the East Indies, who thus sold the goods

Luther and others, signed by the Protestant he had brought home. Auction and sales' tax

princes, presented to the emperor Charles V., and

25 June, 1530 began, 1779. Various acts of parliament have Interim of Augsburg, a document issued by regulated auctions and imposed duties, in some Charles V. : an attempt to reconcile the Catholics cases as high as five per cent. By 8 Vict, c. 15 and Protestants: (it was fruitless and was with(1845), the duties were repealed, and a charge im


read 15 May, 1548 posed "on the licence to be taken out by all auc

“ Peace of Religion " signed at Augsburg, 25 Sept. 1555 tioneers in the United Kingdom, of 101." In 1858 League of Augsturg, for maintenance of the treaties there were 4358 licences granted, producing, 43,5801.

of Münster, Nimeguen : a treaty between Holland

and other powers against France, signed 9 July, 1686 The abuses at auctions, terined “knock-outs," caused by combinations of brokers and others, ex- AUGURY. Husbandry was in part regulated cited much attention in Sept. 1866. An act regu- by the coming or going of birds, long before the lating sales of land by auction was passed 15 July, time of Hesiod. Three augurs, at Rome, with ves1867. Certain sales are now exempt from being con- tals and several orders of the priesthood, were ducted by a licensed auctioneer, such as goods and formally constituted by Numa, about 710 B.C. The chattels under a distress for rent, and sales under number increased, and was fifteen at the time of the provisions of the Small Debts' acts for Scotland Sylla, 81. The college of augurs was abolished by and Ireland.

Theodosius about A.D. 390. AUDIANI, followers of Audæus of Mesopotamia, who had been expelled from the Syrian

AUGUST, the eighth Roman month of the church on account of his severely reproving the

year (previously called Sextilis, or the sixth from vices of the clergy, about 338, formed a secť and March), by a decree of the senate received its prebecame its bishop. He was banished to Scythia, sent name in honour of Augustus Cæsar, in the where he is said to have made many converts. His year 8 B.C., because in this month he was created followers celebrated Easter at the time of the Jewish consul, had thrice triumphed in Rome, added Egypt passover, attributed the human figure to the Deity, civil wars. He added one day to the month, making

to the Roman empire, and made an end of the and had other peculiar tenets.

it 31 days. The appearance of shooting stars on AUDIT-OFFICE, Somerset House. Com- the roth of Aug. was observed in the middle ages, missioners for auditing the public accounts were when they were termed “ St. Lawrence's tears. appointed in 1785, and many statutes regulating Their periodicity was noticed by Mr. Forster early their duties have since been enacted.

in the present century. AUDLEY'S REBELLION, see Rebellions,

AUGUSTAN ERA began 14 Feb. 27 B.C., 1497

or 727 years after the foundation of Rome. AUERSTADT (Prussia). Here on 14 Oct. 1806, AUGUSTIN or AUSTIN FRIARS, a religious the French, under Davoust, signally defeated the order, which ascribes its origin to St. Augustin, Prussians, under Blucher; see Jena.

bishop of Hippo, who died 430. They first appeared AUGHRIM, near Athlone, in Ireland, where tuted by pope Alexander IV., 1256. The rule re

about the rith century, and the order was constiIrish, headed by the French general St. Ruth, and quires poverty, humility, and chastity. the English under general Ginckel. The former held the doctrine of free grace, and were rivals of

Luther was an Augustin monk. The Augustins were defeated and lost 7000 men; the latter lost only 600 killed and 900 wounded. St. Ruth was

the Dominicans. The order appeared in England slain. This engagement proved decisively fatal to

soon after the conquest, and had 32 houses at the the interest of James II., and Ginckel was created suppression, 1536. One of their churches, at Austin earl of Athlone.

Friars, London, erected 1354, and since the Re

formation used by Dutch protestants, was partially AUGMENTATION OF POOR LIVINGS' destroyed by fire, 22 Nov. 1862. It was restored, OFFICE, established in 1704. 5597 clerical livings, and reopened, 1 Oct. 1865. A religious house of not exceeding gol. per annum, were found by the the order, dedicated to St. Monica, mother of commissioners under the act of Anne capable of Augustin, was founded in Hoxton-square, London, augmentation, by means of the bounty then 1864. established.

AULIC COUNCIL, a sovereign court in AUGMENTATIONS COURT, established Germany, established by the emperor Maximilian I., in 1535 by 27 Hen. VIII. c. 27, in relation to cap. 28 being one of the two courts, the first called the same session, which gave the king the property of Imperial Chamber civil and criminal, instituted at all monasteries having 2001. a year. The court was Worms, 1495, and afterwards held at Spires and abolished by Mary, 1553, and restored by Elizabeth, Wetzler, and the other the Aulic council at Vienna, 1558.

1506. These courts having concurrent jurisdiction,



Jan. 1686

· 1773

were instituted for appeals in particular cases from Caledonia, &c., mostly discovered within two the courts of the Germanic states.

centuries. Accidental discoveries were made by the

Spaniards as early as 1526; but the first accurate AURAY (N. W. France). Here, on 29 Sept, knowledge of these southern lands is due to the 1364, the English, under John Chandos, defeated Dutch, who in 1606 explored a part of the coast of the French and captured their leader Du Guesclin. Papua or New Guinea. Torres, a Spaniard, passed Charles of Blois, made duke of Brittany by the through the straits which now bear his name, between king of France, was slain, and a peace was made in that island and Australia, and gave the first correct April, 1365.

report of the latter, 1606. The Dutch continued AURICULAR CONFESSION. The con

their discoveries. Grant in 1800, and Flinders again fession of sin at the ear (Latin, auris) of the priest (1801-5) completed the survey. 'M'Culloch. was an early practice, since it is said to have been forbidden in the 4th century by Nectarius, arch- largest island and smallest continent; estimated

AUSTRALIA (formerly New Holland), the bishop of Constantinople. It was enjoined by the

area about three million square miles, including council of Lateran in 1215, and by the council of five provinces New South Wales, Victoria (formerly Trent in 1551. It was one of the six articles of Port Phillip), South Australia, West Australia (or faith enacted by our Henry VIII. in 1539, but was abolished in England at the Reformation. Its re- Population, with Tasmania and New Zealand, in

Swan River), and Queensland (all which see). vival here has been attempted by the church party 18-1, about 1,958,650. called Puseyites, Tractarians, or Ritualists.*

Mr. R. H. Major, in 1872, alleged that Australia was AURIFLAMMA orORIFLAMME, the national known to the French prior to

1537 golden banner mentioned in French history, belong. Alleged discovery by Manoel Godinho de Eredia, a ing to the abbey of St. Denis, and suspended over

The Dutch also discover Australia

March, 1606 She tomb of that saint. Louis le Gros was the first

The coast surveyed by Dutch navigators ; north, by king who took this standard from the abbey to Zeachen, 1618; west, by Edels, 1619; south, by battle, 1124. Henault. It appeared for the last Nuyts, 1627 ; north, by Carpenter time at Agincourt, 25 Oct. 1415. Tillet. Others

Wm. Dampier explores the W. and x. w. coasts,

1684-90 say at Montlhery, 16 July, 1465.

Tasman coasts S. Australia, and Van Diemen's AURORA FRIGATE, sailed from Britain


1642-4 in 1771, to the East Indies, and was never again

Terra Australia (Western Australia) named New heard of.

Holland by order of the States-General


William Dampier lands in Australia AURORÆ BOREALES AND AUS- Explorations of Willis and Carteret

1763-6 TRALES (Northern and Southern Polar Lights), Capt. Cook, sir Joseph Banks, and others, land at

Botany Bay, and name the country New South though rarely seen in central Europe, are frequent Wales'

28 April, 1770 in the arctic and antarctic regions. "In March, 1716, Exploration of Furneaux an aurora borealis extended from the west of Íre Governor Phillip founds Sydney near Port Jackson, land to the confines of Russia. The whole horizon with 1030 persons

26 Jan. 1788 lat. 57° N. was overspread with continuous haze of [The 82nd anniversary of this event was kept with a dismal red during a whole night, Nov. 1765.

much festivity, 26 Jan. 1870.)

Great distress in consequence of the loss of the Mr. Foster, the companion of captain Cook, saw

store ship “Guardian," captain Rivu the aurora in lat. 58° $. The aurora is now attri- Voyages of Pligh

1789-92 buted to the passage of electric light through the First church erected

Aug. 1793 rarefied air of the polar regions. In August and

Government gazette first printed September, 1859 (and about 24 Oct. 1870), when

Bass's straits discovered by Bass and Flinders

1798 brilliant aurorre were very frequent, the electric Colony of Van Diemen's land (now Tasmania) estabtelegraph wires were seriously affected, and com lished munications interrupted. Auroræ were seen at Rome Grant, 1800, and Flinders survey the coasts of Ausand Basel, and also in Australia.


1801-5 Insurrection of Irish convicts quelled

1804 AUSCULTATION, see Stethoscope.

Governor Bligh for his tyranny deposed and sent

1808 AUSTERLITZ, a town in Moravia, where a Superseded by governor Macquarie

1809 battle was fought between the French and the Expeditions into the interior by Wentworth, Lawallied Austrian and Russian armies, 2 Dec. 1805. son, Bloxland, 1813; Oxley, &c.

1817-1823 Three emperors commanded : Alexander of Russia, Population, 29.783 (three-fourths convicts) Francis of Austria, and Napoleon of France. The

West Australia forned into a province

1829 killed and wounded exceeded 30,000 on the side of Sturt's expeditions into South Australia :

Legislative council established.

1828-31 the allies, who lost forty standards, 150 pieces of South Australia erected into a province Aug. 1834 cannon, and thousands of prisoners. The decisive Sir T. Mitchell's expeditions into E. Australia 1831-6 victory of the French led to the treaty of Presburg, First Roman Catholic bishop (Polding) arrives, signed 26. Dec. 1805; see Presburg.

Sept. 1835 Port Phillip (now Victoria) colonised

Nov. AUSTIN FRIARS, see Augustin Friars.

First Church of England bishop of Australia (Broughton) arrives

June, 1836 AUSTRALASIA, the fifth great division of Colony of South Australia founded the world. This name originally given it by De Eyre's expedition overland from Adelaide to King Brosses, includes Australia, Van Diemen's} Land,

George's Sound

1836-7 New Guinea, New Zealand, New Britain, New Capt. Grey explores Nw. Anstralia

Melbourne founded


Count Strzelecki explored New South Wales and * The rev. Alfred Poole, a curate of St. Barnabas, Tasmania, 1838-43: discovered gold-fields in BathKnightsbridge, was suspended by his bishop froin his urst, Wellington, &c. (kept secret by sir George office for practising auricular confession in June, 1858, Gipps)

1839 and the suspension was confirmed in Jan. 1859. Mucher: Suspension of transportation citement was created by a sinilar attempt by the rev. Strzelecki explores the Australian Alps ; discovers Temple West at Boyne Hill, in Sept. 1858.

Gipps' land ; Eyre explores west Australia 1840








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Great exertions of Mrs. Chisholm ; establishment Exploration of South Australia ; capt. Cadell disof “Home for Female Emigrants”

1841-6 covers mouth of the river Roper, and fine pasCensus-87,200 males : 43,700 females 1841 toral country, lat. 14 S.

Nov. 1867 Very numerous insolvencies

1841-2 Despatch from lord Kimberley objecting to the Incorporation of city of Sydney

1842 complex tariffs between the Australian colonies, Lrichhardt's expedition (never returned)


13 July, 1871 Sturt proceeds from South Australia to the middle Meeting of delegates from New South Wales, Vicof the continent

1845 toria, South Australia, and Tasmania; they object Census (including Port Phillip)114,700 males; to imperial interference with their mutual fiscal 74,800 females

1846 arrangements. Kennedy's expedition, 1842; killed

1848 Synod of the church of Australia and Tasmania Great agitation against transportation, which had held at Sydney

25 Oct. 1872 been revived by earl Grey.

GOVERNORS. Port Phillip erected into a separate province as Captain Arthur Phillip

1788 Victoria 1850 | Captain Hunter

1795 Gold discovered by Mr. Hargraves, &c.*

1851 Captain Philip G. King Census-males, 106,000 ; females, 81,000 (exclusive Captain William Bligh .

1806 of Victoria, 80,000)

Colonel Lachlan Macquarie (abie and successfui Mints established. March, 1853 administration).

1809 Transportation ceased

General sir Thomas Brisbane

1821 Gregory's explorations of interior 1848, 1855-8 | Sir Richard Bourke

1831 Death of archdeacon Cowper (aged 80), after about Sir George Gipps

1838 fifty years' residence

· July, 1858 Sir Charles Fitzroy, governor-general of all the AusQueensland made a province

4 Dec. 1859 tralian colonies, with a certain jurisdiction over J. M.Douall Stuurt's expeditions

1858-62 the lieutenant-governors of Van Diemen's Land, Expedition into the interior under Mr. Landells Victoria, and South and Western Australia . 1846 organised Aug. 1860 Sir William T. Denison

1854 Robert O'Hara Burke, wm. John Wills, and others, Sir Jolm Young, of New South Wales only

1860 start from Melbourne

20 Aug.

See New South Wales. Burke, Wills, and two others, cross the Australian Acts for the government of Australia, 10 Geo. IV. continent to the gulf of Carpentaria ; all perish

C. 22, 14 May (1829), 6 & 7 Will. IV. c. 68, 13 Aug. on their return, except John King, who arrives (1836), 13 & 14 Vict. c. 59, 5 Aug. (1850). Act for at Melbourne

Nov. 1861 regulating the sale of waste lands in the AustraStuart, Mókinlay, and Landsborough cross Aus- lian colonies, 5 & 6 Vict. c. 36, 22 June (1842). tralia from sea to sea

1861-2 Remains of Burke and wills recovered ; public AUSTRASIA, Esterreich (Eastern Kingdom), funeral

21 Jan. 1863 also called Metz, a French kingdom which lasted Strong and general resistance throughout Australia

from the 6th to the 8th century. It began with the to the reception of British convicts in West Aus- division of the territories of Clovis by his sons, 511,

tralia Cessation of transportation to Australia in three

about June, 1864 and ended by Carloman becoming a monk and suryears announced amid much rejoicing 26 Jan. 1865 rendering his power to his brother Pepin, who thus Morgan, a desperate bushranger and murder

became sole king of France, 747. rounded and shot

April, Boundary disputes between New South Wales and AUSTRIA, a Hamburg company's steamship, Victoria, in summer of 1864 ; settled amicably sailed from Southampton to New York 4 Sept. 1853,

19 April, Total population of Australia, exclusive of natives,

with 528 persons on board. On 13 Sept. in lat. 1,298,667

Jan. 1866

45° N., long. 41° 30' W., it caught fire through the Metting of ministers from the Australian colonies carelessness of some one in burning some tar to

at Melbourne to arrange postal communication fumigate the steerage. Only 67 persons were saved with Europe

March, 1867-upwards of 60 by the Maurice, a French barque;

the rest by a Norwegian barqué. A heartrending

account was given in the Times, 11 Oct. 1858, by * GOLD DISCOVERY. - Mr. Edward Hargraves went to

Mr. Charles Brews, an English survivor. California in search of gold, and was struck with the similarity between the rocks and strata of California and

AUSTRIA, Esterreich (Eastern Kingdom), those of his own district of Conobulas, some thirty miles anciently Noricum and part of Pannonia, was anWest of Bathurst. On his return home, he examined the nexed to the Roman empire about 33; was overrun soil, and after one or two months' digging, found a by the Huns, Avars, &c., during the 5th and 6th quantity of yold, 12 Feb. 1851. He applied to the colonial centuries, and taken from them by Charlemagne, government for a reward, which he readily obtained, with an appointment as commissioner of crown lands.

791-796. He divided the government of the country, The excitement became intense throughout the colony of establishing margraves of Eastern Bavaria and New South Wales, rapidly spread to that of Victoria and

Austria. Louis the German, son of Louis le Débonother places; and in the first week of July, 1851, an naire, about 817, subjugated Radbod, margrave of aboriginal inhabitant, forinerly attached to the Welling: Austria ; but in 883 the descendants of the latter ton mission, and then in the service of Dr. Kerr, of Wal- raised a civil war in Bavaria against the emperor lawa, discovered, while tending his sheep, a mass of gold Charles the Fat, and eventually the margraves of among a heap of quartz. Three blocks of quartz (from two to three hundred weight), found in the Murroo

Austria were declared immediate princes of the Creek, fifty miles to the north of Bathurst, contained empire. In 1156 the margraviate was made an 112 lb. of pure gold, valued at 4pool. The “Victoria hereditary duchy by the emperor Frederic I. ; and nugget," a magnificent mass of virgin gold, weighing 340 in 1453 it was raised to an archduchy by the emperor ounces, was brought to England from the Bendigo dig. Frederic III. Rodolph, count of Hapsburg, elected gings; and a piece of pure gold of 106 lb weight was also found From the gold Gelds of Mount Alexander and

emperor of Germany in 1273, acquired Austria in Ballarat, in the district of Victoria, up to Oct. 1852, there

1278; and from 1493 to 1804 his descendants were were found 2,532,422 ounces, or 105 tons 10 cwt. of gold; emperors of Germany. On 11 Aug. 1804, the emand the gold exported up to the same date represented peror Francis II. renounced the title of emperor of 8.863,4771. sterling. In Nov. 1856, the “James Baines” Germany, and became hereditary emperor of Austria. and "Lightning" brought gold from Melbourne valued The condition of Austria is now greatly improving as 1,200,000. The "Welcome nugget” weighed 20197 ounces : value, 83761. 108. 101. ; found at Baker's win, under the enlightened rule of the present emperor. Ballarat, 11 June, 1858. Between May, 1851, and May The political constitution of the empire is based 1861, gold to the value of 96,000,000l. had been brought upon-1. The pragmatic sanction of Charles VI., to England from New South Wales and Victoria, 1734, which declares the indivisibility of the empire

· 1748


14 Nov. ".


24 Oct.

and rules the order of succession. 2. The pragmatic Death of Charles VI., the last sovereign of the male sanction of Francis II., 1 Aug. 1804, when he became

line of the house of Hapsburg; his daughter,

Maria Theresa, becomes queen of Hungary emperor of Austria only. 3. The diploma of Francis

20 Oct. 1740 Joseph, 20 Oct. 1860, whereby he imparted legisla- Silesian wars .

1740-2 ; 1744-5 tive power to the provincial states and the council Maria Theresa is attacked by Prussia, France, Baof the empire (Reichsrath). 4. The law of 26 Feb. varia, and Saxony ; but supported by Great Britain 1741 1861, on the national representation. Self-govern- | Francis, duke of Lorraine, who had married Maria

Theresa in 1736, elected emperor

1745 ment was granted to Hungary, 17 Feb. 1867. The

Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle : Parma, Milan, de. ceded empire was ordered to be named henceforth the

to Spain Austro-Hungarian monarchy, by decree, 14 Nov. Seven years' war; Silesia ceded to Prussia .

1745-63 1868. Population of the empire* in Oct. 1857, Galicia, &c., acquired from Poland .

1772 35,018,988; reduced to 32,530,000 by the loss of War with France (see Battles)

1792-7 Venetia, &c., in 1866 (about 16,000,000 Slavs of By the treaty of campo Formio, the emperor gives different dialects). Population (31 Dec. 1869) :

up Lombardy (which see) and obtains Venice

15 Oct. 1797 Austria and other Cis-Leithan provinces, 20,394,980; Treaty of Luneville (more losses) Hungary and Trans-Leithan provinces, 15,509,455: Francis II., emperor of Germany, becomes Francis!.

of Austria: declared liereditary emperor of Austria Frederic II., the last male of the house of Bam

11 Aug. 1804 berg, killed in battle with the Hungarians His declaration against France

5 Aug. 1805 15 June, 1246 Capitulation of his army at Ulm

20 Oct. Disputed succession : the emperor Frederic II. se- War: Napoleon enters Vienna

questered the provinces, appointing Otto, count Austrians and Russians defeated at Austerlitz, of Eberstein, governor in the name of the eni

2 Dec peror; they are seized by Ladislaus, margrave of By treaty of Presburg, Austria loses Venice and the Moravia, in right of his wife, Frederic's niece,


1 Jan. 1806 Gertrude : he died childless. 1247 Vienna evacuated by the French .

12 Jan. Herman, margrave of Baden, inarries Gertrude, and Dissolution of the Germanic confederation, and holds the provinces till his death

formal abdication of the emperor.

6 Aug. Premislas Ottocar, of Bohemia, acquires the pro- The French again take Vienna

13 May, 180g vinces


But restore it at the peace Compelled to cede Styria to Hungary, he makes war Napoleon marries the archduchess Maria Louisa, and recovers it, in consequence of a great victory 1260 the daughter of the emperor

. 1 April, 1810 He inherits Carinthia, 1263 ; refuses to become em- Congress at Vienna

2 O't. 1614 peror of Germany, 1272; and to render homage to Treaty of Vienna

25 Feb. 1815 Rodolph of Hapsburg, elected emperor

1273 [Italian provinces restored with additions -- Lam War against Ottocar as a rebel : he is compelled to bardo-Venetian kingdom established, 7 April) cede Austria, Carinthia, and Styria to Rodolph 1274

Francis I. dies ; Ferdinand I. succeeils. 2 March, 1835 The war renewed : Ottocar perishes in the battle of New treaty of commerce with England 3 July, 1838 marchfeld

26 Aug. 1278 Insurrection at Vienna; flight of Metternich, Albert I. assassinated by his nephew while attempit

13 March, 1848 ing to enslave the Swiss

1 May, 1308 Insurrection in Italy, see Milan, l'enice, and sarSuccessful revolt of the Swiss


18 March, They totally defeat the Austrians under duke Leo- Another insurrection at Vienna ; the emperor tees pold, at Morgarten

to Inspruck

15-17 May, , The Tyrol acquired

· 1363

Archduke John appointed vicar-general of the The duke Leopold imposes a toll on the Swiss ; empire which they resist with violence: he makes war A constituent assembly meet at Vienna

· 22 July, on them, and is defeated and slain at Sempach Insurrection of Vienna ; murder of count Latour, July, 1386

6 Oct. Duke Albert V. obtains Bohemia and Hungary, and Revolution in Hungary, see Hungary 11 Sept. is elected emperor of Germany.

1437 The emperor abdicates in favour of his nephew, The emperor Frederic III., as head of the house of Francis-Joseph

2 Dec. Hapsburg, creates the archduchy of Austria with Convention of Olmitz

29 Nov. 1850 sovereign power

The emperor revokes the constitution of 4 March, Austria divided between him and his relatives, 1849

31 Dec. 1851 1457 ; war ensues between them till. 1463 Trial by jury abolished in the empire

15 Jan. 1852 The Low countries accrue to Austria by the mar: Death of prince Schwartzenburg, prime minister, ringe of Maximilian with the heiress of Burgundy 1477

4 April, Also Spain, by the marriage of Philip I. of Austria, Attempted assassination of the emperor by Libenyi, with the heiress of Arragon and Castile 1496 18 Feb.; who was executed

28 Feb. 1853 Bohemia and Hungary united to Austria under Commercial treaty with Prussia Ferdinand I.

1526 Austrians enter Danubian principalities Aug. 1854 Austria harassed by Turkish invasions

1529-45 Alliance with England and France relative to Charles V., reigning over Germany, Austria, Bo

eastern question

2 Dec. hemia, Hungary, Spain, the Netherlands, and Great reduction of the army

24 June, 1855 their dependencies, abdicates (see Spain) 1556 By a concordat the pope acquires great power in the The destructive 30 years' war 1618-48 empire

18 Aug. War of Spanish succession


Anunesty for political offenriers of 1848-9, 12 July, 1856 Mantua ceded to the emperor 3 Jan. 1708 dustrians quit the principalities

March, 1857 By treaty of Utrecht he obtains part of the duchy Austria remonstrates against the attacks of the free of Milan

11 April, 1713

Sardinian press
By treaty of Rastadt he acquires the Netherlands Firm reply of count Cavour
Naples, &c., added to his dominions

15 Nov. 1715

Diplomatic relations between Austria and Sardinia Further additions on the east (Temeswar, &c.) by

broken off in consequence

23-30 March, the peace of Passarowitz

1718 Emperor and empress visit Hungary May, Naples and Sicily given up to Spain


Death of marshal Radetzky (aged 92) : 5 Jan. 1858

Excitement throughout Europe, caused by the * The empire is now divided into two parts, separated

address of the emperor Napoleon III. to the by the river Leithe. The Cis-Leithan section comprises

Austrian ambassador :-"I regret that our rela14 provincial diets : Galicia, Bohemia, Silesia, Moravia,

tions with your government are not as good as lower and upper Austria, Styria, the Tyrol and Vorala formerly, but I beg of you to tell the emperor burg, Salzburg, Carinthia, Carniola, Trieste, and Istria, that my personal sentiments for him have not Dalmatia, and the Bukovina. The Trans-Leithan section

changed "

1 Jan. 1859 coinprises Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Slavonia, and

The emperor of Austria replied in almost the saine the city of Fiume.



16 Nov. 1315

29 May,

6 Jan. 1453

19 Feb.

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Prince Napoleon Bonaparte marries princess
Clotilde of Sardinia

30 Jan. 1859 Austria prepares for war; enlarges her armies in

Italy; and strongly fortities the banks of the
Ticino, the boundary of her Italian provinces, and

Feb. & March,
Lord Cowley at Vienna on a

“ mission of peace, Intervention of Russia- proposal for a congress;

disputes respecting the admission of Sardinia --Sardinia and France prepare

for war,

March & April, Austria demands the disarmament of Sardinia and

the dismissal of the volunteers from other states within three days

23 April, This deinand rejected

26 April, The Austrians cross the Tirino

26 April, The French troops enter Piedmont .

· 27 April Te French emperor declares war (to expel the Austrians from Italy).

3 May, Resimation of count Bnol, foreign minister ; ap

jurintment of count Rechberg 13-18 May, The Austrians defeated at Montebello, 20 May; at

Palestro. 30-31 May: at Magenta, 4 June ; at
Malegnano (Marignano)

8 June, Priree Metternich dies, aged 86 (he had been

actively engaged in the wars and negotiations of Napoleon 1.).

U June, austrians defeated at solferino (near the Mincio);

the emperors of Austria and France and king of Sardinia present

24 June, Amistice agreed upon, 6 July: the emperors meet,

11 July; the preliminaries of peace signed at Villa Franca (Lombarly given up to Sardinia, and an Italian confederation proposed to be formed),

12 July, » Manifesto justifying the peace issued to the army, 12 July; to the people

. 15 July, Patent issued, granting greatly increased privileges to the Protestants,-announced

Sept. Conference between the envoys of Austria and Free at Zurich

8 Aug. to Sept. Many national reforms proposed

Treaty of Zurich, confirming the preliminaries of

Villa Franca, signed
Derrees removing Jewish disabilities,

6, 10 Jan. 18 Feb. 1860 Patent issued for the summoning the great imperial

council (Reichsrath), composed of representatives eierted by the provincial diets

5 March, Distovery of great corruptions in the army financial

arrangements, a deficiency of about 1,700,00ol. discovered ; general Eynatten commits suicide : 82 persons arrested

March, Anstria protests against the annexation of Tuscany &., by Sardinia

March, Baron Bruck, suspected of complicity in the army frauds, dismissel 20 April; commits suicide,

23 April, The Reichsrath assembles, 30 May ; addressed by the ein peror

1 June, Liberty of the press further restrained.

July, Insettled state of Hungary (which see) July-oct. Frienilly meeting of the emperor and the regent of Prussia at Toplitz

26 July, . Free debates in the Reichsrath ; strictures on the

concordat, the finances, &c, ; proposals for sepa

rate constitutions for the provinces, Aug. & Sept. The Reichsrath adjourned Diploma conferring on the 'Reichsrath legislative

Iwwers, the control of the finances, &c., a maniiesto issued to the populations of the empire (not

well received). Blerting of the emperor with the emperor of Russia

anii prince recent of Prussia at Warsaw : no important result

20-26 Oct. The government professes non-intervention in Italy, but increases the annyin Venetia,

Oct. & Nov. The empress goes to Madeira for health Nov. Sale of Venetia, publiely spoken of, is repudiated in

Ministerial crisis : M. Schmerling becomes minister

-Inore political concessions
The proscribed Hungarian, count Teleki, at Dres:

Io Nov.

Amnesty for political offences in Hungary, Croatia, &c., published .

7 Jan. 1861 Reactionary policy of the court leads to increased general disaffection

Jan. & Feb. The statutes of the new constitution for the Austrian monarchy published ..

26 Feb. Civil and political rights granted to Protestants.

throughout the empire, except in Hungary and Venice.

8 April, Meeting of Reichsrath -no deputies present from

Hungary, Croatia, Transylvania, Venetia, or Istria Ministry of marine created

Jan. 1862 Inundation of the Danube, causing great distress, Increased taxation proposed

March, At an imperial council, the emperor present, the

principle of ministerial responsibility is resolved Deficiency of 1,400,0001. in financial statementindignation of the Reichsrath

June, Amnesty to condemned political offenders in luna gary proclaimed

18 Nov. Reduction in the army assented to: and a personal

liberty law (resembling our habeas corpus act) passed

Dec. Insurrection in Russian Poland, Jan. ; Austria joins

in the intercession of England and France April 1863 Meeting of the German sovereigns (except kings of

Prussia, Holland, and Denmark) with the emperor of Austria at Frankfort, by his invitation ; the draft of a reform of the federal constitution agreed to

16-31 Aug. Transylvanian deputies accept the constitution,

and take seats in the Reichsrath Austria joins Prussia in war with Denmark (see Denmark)

Jan. 1864 Galicia and Cracow declared to be in a state of siege The Archduke Maximilian becomes emperor of Mexico (see Mericu)

April, The emperor and the king of Prussia meet at Carlsbad

22 June, Resignation of count Rechberg, foreign minister,

succeeded by count Mensdorff-Pouilly Peace with Denmark, signed at Vienna

30 Oct. Emperor opens Reichsrath, 14 Nov. ; great freedom of debate; the state of siege in Galicia censured

Dec. Austria supports the confederation in the dispute

respecting the duchies . Apparent reunion between Austria and Piussia

Jan. 1865 Great financial difficulty ; proposed reduction in the army by the chambers

Jan. Contest between the government and the chambers

April, Reported failure of Mr. Hutt's mission to Vienna, to promote free trade

June, New ininistry formed; count Mensdorff as nominal

premier ; counts Belcredi and Esterhazy as ministers: conciliatory measures towards Hungary,

proposed Convention of Gastein (see Gastein) signed 14 Aug

27 July, Emperor's rescript suppressing the constitution,

with the view of giving autonomy to Hungary

(arhich see) Rejoicings in Hungary, but dissatisfaction in Austria, Croatia, &c.

Nov., Dec., Treaty of commerce with Great Britain, signed

16 Dec. Amnesty for Italy issued .

1 Jan. 1866 Warın isputes with Prussia (aggressive), respecting the settlement of Holstein

Jan., Mar. Preparations for war begin

March, The archduke Albrecht made commander of the southern ariny, 6 May; Benedek of the Northern

12 May, War declared by Prussia, 18 June ; by Italy (which

20 June. The Austrians enter Silesia, 18 June ; and the Prus: sians Boheinia

23 June The Italians defeated by the archduke Albrecht, at Custozza

24 June, Prussian vietories at Nachod, &c.

27-29 June, Benedek totally defeated at Königgrätz or Sadowa

3 July, (For details of the war see Prussia and Italy.)

27 Oct.

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den, is given up to Austria, which causes general indiguativn, about 20 Dec.; he is released on parole

13 Dec.

31 Dec.

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