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• 4 April,

5 A.D.

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Rebuilt-Capitoline games instituted

B.C. 387 temple of Janus shut; JESUS CHRIST born. (See B1. Manlius Capitoline thrown from the Tarpeian

Jews). rock on a charge of aiming at sovereign power The first appointment of curule magistrates

Varus defeated by Hermann and the Germans

9 Lucius Sextus, the first Plebeian consul .

Ovid banished to Tomi Marcus Curtius leaps into the gulf which had opened Death of Ovid and Livy

18 in the forum

Tiberius retires to Caprea ; tyranny of Sejanus

26 The Gauls defeated in Italy

A census being taken by Claudius, the emperor and Treaty with Carthage to repress Greek piracy

censor, the inhabitants of Rome are stated to War with the Samnites (with breaks) 51 years

343 amount to 6,944,000.-[It is now considered that Latin war


the population of Rome within the walls was Embassy to Alexander the Great.


under a million.) Defeat at Caudium


Caractacus brought in chains to Rome Priests first elected from the Plebeians


St. Paul arrives in bonds at Rome Etruscans, Samnites, and others, defeated at Senti Nero burns Rome to the ground, and charges the num by Fabius

295 crime upon the Christians End of the third Samnite war

290 Seneca, Lucan, &c., put to death The Gauls invade the Roman territory ; siege of Peter and Paul said to be put to death Arezzo 284 Jerusalem levelled to the ground by Titus 8 Sept.

70 Etruscans defeated at Vadimonian lake 310 and 283 Coliseum founded by Vespasian

75 Pyrrhus of Epirus invades Italy, 281 ; defeats the The Dacian war begins (continues 15 years)

86 Romans at Pandosia, 280 ; and at Asculum, 279; Pliny, junior, proconsul in Bithynia, senis Trajan defeated by them at Benevento

275 his celebrated account of the Christians All Italy subdued by Rome

266 Trajan's expedition into the East against the ParFirst Punic war commenced (see Punic Wars) 264 thians, &c. ; subulues Dacia

106 First Roman fleet built 260 Trajan's colunin erected at Rome

114 Attilius Regulus said to be put to a cruel death by Adrian resides in Britain, and builds the wall. the Carthaginians 255 The capitol destroyed by lightning

188 End of first Punic war ; Sicily annexed 241 Byzantium taken ; its walls razed

196 Temple of Janus closed


The Goths are paid tribute Corsica and Sardinia annexed


[The Goths, Vandals, Alani, Suevi, and other First Roman embassy to Greece

228 Northern nations attack the empire.) Invasion of the Gauls; beaten by the consuls . 225 Pompey's amphitheatre burnt !

248 Second Punic war breaks out 218 Invasion of the Goths

250 The Romans are defeated by Hannibal at Thrasy Pestilence throughout the empire

252 mene, 217; Cannæ

2 Aug. 216 Great victory over the Goths obtained by ClauSyracuse taken by Marcellus

dius II. ; 300,000 slain

269 Marcellus defeated by Hannibal, and slain near Dacia relinquished to the Goths

270 Venusia 208 Palmyra conquered, and Longinus put to death

273 Scipio defeats Hannibal at Zama in Africa

The era of Martyrs, or of Diocletian

284 The Macedonian wars with Philip begin, 213 and The Franks settle in Gaul. Fréret

287 200 ; his defeat at Cynoscephale

Constantius dies at York

306 Death of Scipio Africanus the elder .

185 Four emperors reign at one time Third Macedonian war begins 171 ; Perseus beaten Constantine the Great, it is said, in consequence of at Pydna ; Macedon annexed

168 a vision, places the cross on his banners, and First public library erected at Rome

167 begins to favour the Christians Philosophers and rhetoricians banished from Rome 101 Constantine defeats Licinius, at Chrysopolis, and Third Punic war begins

reigns alone

18 Sept. 323 Corinth and Carthage destroyed by the Romans (see He tolerates the Christian faith Corinth and Carthage) 146 Puts his son Crispus to death

324 Celtiberian and Numantine war in Spain


Constantine convokes the first general council of Attalus III. of Pergamos bequeaths his kingdom

Christians at Nice

325 and riches to the Romans

The seat of empire removed from Rome to ByzanThe Servile war in Sicily 132 tium, 321 ; dedicated by Constantine

330 Two Plebeian consuls chosen

Constantine orders the heathen temples to be Agrarian disturbances : Gracchus slain


330 The Jugurthine war

II2-106 Revolt of 300,000 Sarmatian slaves suppressed The Mithridatic war (which see) 108-63 Death of Constantine, soon after being baptized

337 The Ambrones defeated by Marius

The army under Julian proclaims him emperor The Social war


Julian, who had been educated for the priesthood, Pome besieged by four armies (viz. : those of and had frequently officiated, abjures Christianity,

Marius, Cinna, Carbo, and Sertorius) and taken 87 and re-opens the heathen temples, becoming the Sylla defeats Marius : becomes dictator; sanguinary

payan pontiff proscriptions, 82 : abdicates.

79 Julian killed in battle in Persia ; Christianity Bithynia bequeathed to the Romans by king Nico restored by Jovian

363 medes.


The empire divided into Eastern and Western by Revolt of Spartacus and the slaves .

73.71 Valentinian and Valens, brothers : the former has Syria conquered by Pompey.

65 the Western portion, or Rome. The Catiline conspiracy suppressed by Cicero . 63

(See Western and Eastern Empires; and Italy.) The first triumvirate : Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus 60 Rome placed under the exarchate of Ravenna

404 Cæsar's carnpaigns in Gaul, 58; in Britain

55 Taken by Alaric

24 Aug.

410 Crassus killed by the Parthians

53 Taken and pillaged by Genseric

15 July, 455 Gaul conquered and made a province


Odoacer takes Rome, and becomes king of Italy War between Cæsar and Pompey

Rome recovered for Justinian by Belisarius

536 Pompey defeated at Pharsalia (which see)

Retaken by Totila the Goth, 546; recovered by Cæsar defeats arnaces Zela; and writes home

Belisarius, 547 : seized by Totila .

549 “ Veni, vidi, vici"


Recovered by Narses, and annexed to the eastern Cato kills himself at Utica ; Cæsar dictator for ten

empire ; and the senate abolished

553 years.

Rome at her lowest state.

about 600 Cesar killed in the senate-house

15 March,

44 Rome independent under the popes' Second triumvirate : Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus

43 Pepin of France compels Astolphus, king of the Cicero killed, proscribed by Antony :

Lombards, to cede Ravenna and other places to Battle of Philippi ; Brutus and Cassius defeated

the Holy Church

755 Lepidus ejecteil from the triumvirate, 36; war be Contirmed and added to by Charlemagne

774 tween Octavius and Antony, 32; Antony defeated Charlemagne crowned emperor of the West by the totally at Actium

· 2 Sept.
31 pope at Rome

800 Octavius emperor, as Augustus Cosas

Rome taken by Arnulf and the Germans .

836 The empire now at peace with all the world'; the Otho I. crowned at Rome









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4 Sept.



Nov. 1799

24 Dec.

The emperor Henry IV. takes Rome March, 1084 Arnold of Brescia, endeavouring to reforin church

and state and to establish a senate, is put to death as a heretic

1155 The pope removes to Avignon

1309 Nicola di Rienzi, tribune of the people, establishes a republic, 20 May; is compelled to abdicate,

15 Dec. 1347 Returns ; made senator, 1 Aug. ; assassinated,

8 Oct. 1354 Papal court returns to Rome

: 1377 Rise of the families, Colonna, Orsini, &c. about Julius II. conquers the Romagna, Bologna, and Perugia

1503-13 The city greatly embellished by pope Leo X.

1513-21 It is captured by the constable de Bourbon, who is slain

6 May, 1527 Ferrara annexed

1597 St. Peter's dedicated

18 Nov. 1626 Expulsion of the Jesuits

16 Aug. 1773 Harassed by the French, German, and Spanish

factions from the 16th to the 18th century. The French invasion ; the Legations incorporated with the Cisalpine republic

1796 The French proclaim the Roman republic,

20 March, 1798 Recovered for the pope by the Neapolitans, Retaken by the French, 1800; restored to Pius VII.

July, 1801 Annexed by Napoleon to the kingdom of Italy, and declared second city of the empire

May, 1808 Restored to the pope, who returns

23 Jan. 1814 He re-establishes the Inquisition and the Jesuits,

Aug The papal government endeavour to annul all inno

vations, and thus provoke much opposition; the Carbonari increase in numbers

1815-17 Political assassinations in the Romagna

1817 The “Young Italy' party established by Joseph

Mazzini; temporary insurrections at Bologna suppressed by Austrian aid

1831 Election of Pius IX.

16 June, 1846 He proclaims an amnesty; and authorises a national

guard and municipal institutions
The Romans desire to join the king of Sardinia
against the Austrians; the pope hesitates; the
Antonelli ministry retires; and the Mamiani
ministry is formed

1848 Count Rossi, minister of justice of the pontifical government, assassinated on the staircase of the

Chamber of Deputies at Rome.
Insurrection at Rome, the populace demand a

democratic ministry and the proclamation of
Italian nationality; the pope (Pius IX.) hesi-
tates, the Romans surround the palace, and a
conflict ensues. The pope accepts a popular
ininistry (Cardinal Palma, the pope's secretary,
shot in this conflict)

16 Nov. A free constitution published

20 Noy. The pope escapes in disguise from Rome to Gaëta, M. de Corcelles leaves Paris for Rome, a French

armed expedition to Civita Vecchia having

preceded him, to afford protection to the pope, Protest of the pope against the acts of the provisional government

28 Nov. A constituent assembly meets at Rome

5 Feb. 1849 The Roman National Assembly divests the pope

of all temporal power, and adopts the republican form of government

8 Feb. The pope appeals to the great catholic powers,

18 Feb. Civita Vecchia occupied by the French force under Marshal Oudinot


The re-establishment of the pope's authority proclaimed at Rome

15 July, 1849 Oudinot issues a general order stating that the

pope (or his representative) now re-possesses the administration of affairs, but that public security in the pontifical dominions still remains under the special guarantee of the French army,

3 Aug. The pope arrives at Portici on a visit to the king of

Naples He arrives at Rome ; cardinal Antonelli becomes foreign minister

April, 1850 He issues the bull establishing a Roman catholic hierarchy in England (see Papal Agression),

24 Sept. Important concordat with Austria 18 Aug. 1855 The pope visits his dominions

May-Sept. 1857 Insurrection in the Romagna, at Bologna, and Ferrara

June, 1859 The pope appeals to Europe for help against Sardinia

12 July, The Legations form a defensive alliance with Tuscany, Parma, and Modena

20 Aug The queen of Spain engages to send troops to Rome, if the French retire

26 Aug. The assembly at Bologna vote annexation to Pied

mont, 7 Sept. ; the king engages to support their cause before the great powers, 15 Sept. ; the pope annuls the acts of the assembly at Bologna ; and announces the punishment due to those who attack the holy see, 26 Sept. ; and dismisses the Sardinian chargé d'affaires at Rome

1 Oct. The Roinagna, Modena, and Parma formed into a

province, to be called Emilia The Sardinian government annul the Tuscan and Lombard concordats

27 Jan., 20 March, 1860 Riots at Rome suppressed by the police with great cruelty

19 March, The pope excommunicates all concerned in the rebellion in his states

26 March, General Lamoricière takes command of the papal

army, March ; which is re-organised, and increased by volunteers from Ireland, &c. Mar, Tuscan volunteers enter the papal states and are repulsed

19 May, Irish volunteers are severely treated for insubor! dination ; many dismissed

July, The papal army estimated at 20,000

Aug. Insurrection in the Marches, 8 Sept. ; Fossembrone

subdued by the papal troops ; the people appeal to the Sardinian government, whose troops, under Cialdini and Fanti, enter the Papal States,

1 Sept. Fanti takes Pesaro, 12 Sept. ; and Perugia, including general Schmidt and 1600 prisoners,

14 Sept. Ancona besieged by sea and land

17 Sept. Severe allocution of the pope against France and Sardinia ; he appeals to Europe for help, 28 Sept.

ni defeats Lamoricière at Castel-Fidanlo, Sept. ; and takes Ancona

29 Sept. Additional French troops sent to Rome

Oct. The Marches vote for annexation to Sardinia, Xoy. Subscriptions raised for the pope in various coun

tries; the formal collection forbidden in France

and Belgium ; perinitted in England . Nov. Monastic establishments suppressed in the Lega.

tions; the monks pensioned ; educational institutions founded.

Dec. The French emperor advises the pope to give up his

revolted provinces Publication of Rome et les Evêques, 6 Jan.; and of

La France, Rome et l'Italie, 15 Feb. ; great excitement, and strong advocacy of the pope's temporal government (attacked by prince Napoleon) in the French chambers

March, 1861 Cavour claims Rome as capital of Italy, 27 March, Petition to the emperor Napoleon to withdraw French troops from Rome

ro May, The emperor of France declines a union with

15 Nov.



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26 April, A French force repulsed with loss

30 April Engagement between the Romans and Neapolitans;

the former capture 60 prisoners and 400 muskets,

Austria and Spain for the maintenance of the pope's temporal power

June, Grand ceremony at the canonization of 27 Japanese martyrs (see Canonization)

8 June The pope declares a severe allocution against the Italians

9 June, Garibaldi calls for volunteers, taking as his watchword, “Rome or death!”

19 July, 1862

5 May,

The French under marshal Oudinot commence an

attack on Rome After a brave resistance, the Romans capitulate to

3 June, the French army

30 June, The Roman assembly dissolved . An officer from Oudinot's camp arrives at Gacta, to

present the pope with the keys of ihe two gates of Rome by which the French army had entered

4 July,

4 July,

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Railway between Rome and Naples completed ; its

opening opposed by the papal government, Nov. 1862 Earl Russell's offer to the pope of a residence at

Malta, 25 Oct.; declined
Antonelli's resignation of his office not accepted,

5 March, 1863 Convention between France and Italy : French

troops to quit Rome within two years, 15 Sept. 1864 Encyclical letter of the pope, publishing a "sylla

bus," censuring 80 errors in religion, philosophy, and politics ; (caused much dissatisfaction, and was forbidden to be read in churches in France and other countries)

8 Dec, Jews persecuted at Rome

Dec. Fruitless negotiations between the pope and the

king of Italy (by Vegezzi); mutual concessions proposed

21 April to 23 June, 1865 Pope's severe allocution against secret societies (Freemasons, Fenians, &c.)

25 Sept. Merode, the papal minister of war, dismissed,

20 Oct. A part of the French troops leave the papal dominions

Nov. Rupture with Russia

Dec. 1865-Jan. 1866 A Franco-pontifical legion (1200 men) formed at Antibes, arrives ; blessed by the pope,

24 Sept. Pope's severe allocution against Italy and Russia, The pope invites all catholic bishops to meet at

Rome to celebrate the 18th centenary of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul

8 Dec. The pope's blessing given to French troops, 6 Dec,

who all quit Rome Rome tranquil Law prohibiting protestant worship except at

embassies in Rome enforced Negotiation with Italy fruitless; the Italian councillor, Tonello, quits Rome

April, 1867 599 bishops and thousands of priests present at the pope's allocution, 26 June; and canonization of 25 martyrs.

29 June, The pope receives an album and address from 100 cities of Italy

8 July, Cholera in Rome ; death of cardinal Altieri, while assisting the afflicted

II Aug The pope's allocution censures the sacrilegious

audacity of the Sub-alpine kingdom, in contiscating ecclesiastical property

20 Sept. Garibaldi arrested at Sinalunga, near the Roman frontier

23 Sept. Irruption of Garibaldians in Viterbo-conflicts with

various results ; reported appeal of Antonelli for help from the great powers

Oct. Zouave barracks at Rome blown up, many killed,

22 Oct. Attempt at insurrection in Rome suppressed, 22

Oct. ; state of siege proclaimed ; Garibaldi within 20 miles of Rome, 24 Oct. ; takes Monte Rotondo

26 Oct. French brigades enter Rome Italian troops cross the frontier, 30 Oct. ; occupy several posts

I Nov. Garibaldians defeated by the papal and French troops at Mentana (which sce).

Nov. Italian troops retire from the papal states, Nov. The Roman committee of insurrection issue a narra

tive, and state that their watchword is “ Try again and do better"

Dee, The papal army increased to about 15,000,

Dec. The prope's short allocution (thanking and blessing

the French government) Ninc cardinals made ; Lucien Bonaparte one,

13 March, 1868 Sudden death of cardinal Andrea The pope, in his allocution, censures the Austrian new civil marriage law

22 June, Arrangement respecting the papal debt made with Italy

30 July, Encyclical letter of the pope, summoning an oueu

menical council at Rome on 8 Dec. 1869, and inviting ministers of the Greek and other churches,

13 Sept. The patriarch of the Greek church declined to attend,

about 3 Oct. Monti and Tognetti (for complicity in the explosion

of the Zouave barrrcks, 22 Oct. 1867), executed,

The pope celebrates a jubilee

11 April, 1869 In his allocution he deplores the opposition to the church in Austria and Spain

25 June, He declares, in a letter to archbishop Manning,

that no discussions on disputed points can take place at the council .

4 Sept. The council opened, see Council xxi. 8 Dec. An exhibition of objects of Christian art opened by

7 Feb. 1870 British and American bishops protest against dis

cussing the dogma of papal infallibility in the

council, 11 April; the discussion begins, 14 May, Count Arnim, on behalf of the North German con

federation, protests against the dogma May, Papal infallibility adopted by the council and pro

mulgated (533 for; 2 against ; many retire) : the council adjourns to u Nov.

18 July, Rome completely evacuated by French troops in

consequence of the war ; 8 mortars and 15,000 shells said to be ceded to the pope, 8 Aug. ; the troops sent from Civita Vecchia

21 Aug Conciliatory letter from Victor Emmanuel to the pope

8 Sept. Agitation in the papal provinces; the Italian troops invited to enter

about 10 Sept. The pope refuses terms offered him by the king of

Italy (sovereignty of the Leonine city and retention of his income)

11 Sept. Gen. Cadorna crosses the Tiber at Casale; sends

flags of truce to gen. Kanzler, commander of the Zouaves, who refuses to surrender; baron Arnim in vain negotiates between them

17 Sept. Skirmish with papal Zouaves ; several killed,

14 Sept. The Italians occupy Civita Vecchia without resist

about 15 Sept. Letter from the pope to gen. Kanzler directing that

a merely formal defence be made at Rome, and

that bloodshed be avoided After a brief resistance from the foreign papal

19 Sept. troops, stopped by order of the pope, the Italian troops under Cadorna make a breach and enter Rome amid enthusiastic acclamations of the people

20 Sept. [Reported Italian loss, about 22 killed,

wounded ; papal troops, 55 killed and wounded. ) Cardinal Antonelli issues a diplomatic protest

against the Italian occupation of Rome, 21 Sept. The papal troops surrender arins ; about 8500

foreigners march out with honours of war ; they insult the Italians ; the native troops retained,

22 Sept. About10,000 persons assemble in the Coliseum.choose 44 names for a provisional government (giunta),

22 Sept. Protest of the pope

26 Sept. Castle of St. Angelo occupied by Italian troops at the pope's request

28 Sept. Circular letter from the pope to the cardinals

complaining of the invasion and of his loss of liberty, and interference with his private post bag,

29 Sept. A giunta of 14 (the duke Gaetani chief)selecteil from the 44 names chosen ; approved by Cuciorna,

30 Sept. General Masi in command of Rome and the provinces ; S.P.Q.R. appears on the proclamations,

30 Sept. Plébiscite : out of 167,548 votes, 133,681 for union

with the kingdom of Italy ; 1507 against; the remainder did not vote

. 2 Oct. Cardinal Antonelli issues a protest; published, The pope said to have accepted 50,000 crowns (his monthly civil list) from the Italian government,

4 Oct. The result of the plébiscite sent to the king, 8 Oct.;

Rome and its provinces incorporated with the kingdom by royal decree

9 Oct. General La Marmora enters Rome as viceroy :

he proclaims that the pope shall be guaranteed in his sovereign powers as head of the church,

II Oct. The Roman provinces united into one by decree, The pope issues an encyclical letter adjourning the meeting of the council

20 Oct.



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23 Dec.

Antonelli protests against the occupation of the
Quirinal by the king

10 Nov. 1870 117. Adrian or Hadrian (Publius Ælius). Bili introduced into the Italian parliament respect 138. Antoninus Titus, surnamed Pius.

ing the transfer of the seat of government to 161. Marcus Aurelius (a philosopher) and Lucius Verus, Rome in about six months, and the preservation

his son-in-law; the latter died in 169. of the spiritual and temporal sovereignty of the 180. Commodus (L. Aurelius Antoninus), son of Marcus

about 12 Dec.

Aurelius; poisoned by his favourite mistress, Inundation of the Tiber; great suffering of the

Martia, people, 27, 28 Dec. ; the king gives 200,000 lire ; 193. Publius Helvius-Pertinax; put to death by the previsits Rome suddenly, the city illwninated,

torian band. 4 A.M. 31 Dec.

[Four emperors now start up: Didianus Julianus, Law guaranteeing to the pope full personal liberty

at Rome; Pescennius Niger, in Syria ; Lucius and honours, a revenue of 3,225,000 livres, &c.,

Septimius Severus, in Pannonia ; and Clodius 13 May ; rejected by the pope in his allocution,

Albinus, in Britain.]

15 May, 1871 Lucius Septimius Severus; died at York in Britain, 2624th anniversary of the city kept; the pope cele

in 211; succeeded by his sons, brates a jubilee on the 25th anniversary of his 211. M. Aurelius Caracalla and Septimius Geta. Geta election

16 June,

murdered by Caracalla, 212; who is slain by his The Italian government remove to Rome, 2, 3 July, Allocution of the pope, appointing some Italian 217. M. Opilius Macrinus, prefect of the guards; bebishops ; still rejecting guarantees

headed in a mutiny. Grand reception of the king

21 Nov.

218. Heliogobalus (M. Aurelius Antoninus), a youth; put He opens the parliament, saying, " The work to

to death for his enorinities. which we have consecrated our life is completed," 222. Alexander Severus; assassinated by some soldiers

corrupted by Maximinus. The pope receives an address from nobles and others 235. Caius Julius Verus Maximinus; assassinated in his

tent before the walls of Aquileia. Commission appointed to dredge the bed of the 237. M. Antonius Gordianus, and his son ; the latter Tiber to recover antiquities


having been killed in a battle with the parEaster solemnities not performed by the pope,

tisans of Maximinus, the father strangled him31 March, 1872

self in a fitof despair, at Carthage, in his Soth year. The pope delivers an allocution complaining of per 238. Balbinus and Pupienus; put to death. secution of the church in Italy, Germany, and

Gordian III., grandson of the elder Gordian, in his Spain

16th year; assassinated by the guards, at the American Protestant church dedicated to st. Paul;

instigation of his successor founded

25 Jan. 1873 244. Philip the Arabian ; assassinated by his own soldiers ;

his son Philip was murdered at the same time, in B.C. KINOS OF ROME.

his mother's arms. 735. Romulus ; murdered by the senators,

249. Metius Decius ; he perished with his two sons, [Tatius, king of the Sabines, had removed to Rome

and their army, in an engagement with the in

747, and ruled jointly with Romulus six

251. Gallus Hostilius, and his son Volusianus; both slain 716. (Interregnum.]

by the soldiery. 215. Numa Pompilius, son-in-law of Tatius the Sabine, 253. Æmilianus; put to death after a reign of only four elected ; died at the age of 82.

months. 673. Tullus Hostilius ; murdered by his successor, by Valerianus, and his son Gallienus ; the first was whom his palace was set on tire ; his family

taken prisoner by Sapor, king of Persia, and perished in the flames.

flayed alive. 640. Ancus Martius, grandson of Numa.

260. Gallienus reigned alone. 616. Tarquinius Priscus ; son of Demaratus, a Corinthian [About this time thirty pretenders to imperial power emigrant, chosen king.

arise in different parts of the empire; of these 578. Servius Tullius, a manumitted slave ; married the

Cyriades is the first, but he is slain.] king's daughter; and succeeded by the united 268. Claulius II. (Gallienus having been assassinated by suffrages of the army and the people,

the officers of the guard) succeeds ; dies of the 534. Tarquinius Superbus, grandson of Tarquinius Pris.

plague. cus; assassinates his father-in-law, and usurps 270. Quintillus, his brother, elected at Rome by the senate the throne,

and troops ; Aurelian by the arny in Ilyricun. 510. [The rape of Lucretia, by Sextus, son of Tarquin,

Quintillus, despairing of success against his and consequent insurrection, leads to the aboli

rival, who was marching against him, opened his tion royalty and the establishment of the

veins and bled himself to death. consulate.)

Aurelianus; assassinated by his soldiers on his

march against Persia, in Jan. 275. REPUBLIC

275. [Interregnum of about nine months.) 510-82. First period. From the expulsion of Tarquin to Tacitus, elected 25 Oct. ; died at Tarsus in Cilicia, the dictatorship of Sylla.

13 April, 276. 82-27. Seconil period. From Sylla to Augustus.

276. Florianus, his brother; his title not recognised by 48. Caius Julius Caesar; perpetual dictator; assassi

the senate. nated, 15 March, 44 B.C.

M. Aurelius Probus; assassinated by his troops at 31. Octavianus Casar.


282. M. Aurelius Carus; killed at Ctesiphon by lightEMPERORS.

ning ; succeeded by his sons 27. AUGUSTUS IMPERATOR, died 19 Aug. A.D. 14.

283. Carinus and Numerianus; both assassinated, after A D.

transient reigns. 14. Tiberius (Claudius Nero).

284. Diocletian ; who associated as his colleague in the 37. Caius Caligula : murdered by a tribune.

government, 41. Claudius I. (Tiberius Drusus): poisoned by his wife 286. Maximianus Hercules; the two emperors resign in Agrippina, to make way for

favour of 54. Claudius Nero; deposed; kills himself, 68.

305. Constantius I. Chlorns and Galerius Maximianus: 68. Servius Sulpicius Galba; slain by the prætorians.

the first died at York, in Britain, in 306, and the 69. M. Salvius Otho; stabbed himseif.

troops saluted as emperor his son, Aulus Vitellius; deposed by Vespasian, and put to 306. Constantine, afterwards styled the Great; whilst death.

at Rome the prætorian band proclaimed Titus Flavius Vespasian.

Maxentius, son of Maximianus Hercules. Besides 79. Titus (Vespasian), his son.

these were 81. Titus Flavius Domitian, brother of Titus ; last of Maximianus Hercules, who endeavoured to recover the twelve Cæsars; assassinated.

his abdicated power. 96. Cocceius Nerva.

Flavius Valerius Severus, murdered by the last98. Trajan (M. Ulpius Crinitus).

named pretender; and

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307. Flavius Valerianus Licinius, the brother-in-law of Austrians, in which the latter were defeated with Constantine.

severe loss, 5 Nov. 1757. [Of these, Maximianus Hercules was strangled in

Gaul, in 310; Galerius Maximianus dies wretchedly ROSE, see under Flowers. The rose, a symbol in 311; Maxentius was drowned in the Tiber in of silence, gave rise to the phrase sub rosá, “under 312; and Licinius was put to death by order of the rose;" said, by Italian writers, to have risen Constantine in 324.)

from the circumstance of the pope's presenting 323. Constantine the Great now reigned alone; died on Whitsunday, 22 May, 337.

consecrated roses, which were placed over the conSons of Constantine; divided

fessionals at Rome, to denote secrecy, 1526. The Constantine II.

the empire between them; the pope sent a golden rose to the queen of Spain, which Constans.

first was slain in 340, and the 337

was given to her with much solemnity, 8 Feb. 1868.
second murdered in 350, when See Flowers.
Constantius II.

the third became sole em-

ROSE'S ACT, 33 Geo. III. c. 54 (1793) brought 360. Julian, the Apostate, so called for abjuring Chris- benefit societies under the control of government.

tianity, having been educated for the priesthood ;
mortally wounded in a battle with the Persians, ROSES, WARS OF THE, between the Lan-

castrians (who chose the red rose as their emblem) 363. Jovian; reigned eight months; found dead in his and the Yorkists (who chose the white rose), 1455

bed, supposed to have died from the fumes of 1485. It is stated that in the Wars of the Roses charcoal,

there perished 12 princes of the blood, 200 nobles, 364. Valentinian and Valens. 375. Valens with Gratian and Valentinian II.

and 100,000 gentry and common people. The union 379. Theodosius I., &c.

of the roses was effected in the marriage of Henry VII. 392. Theodosius alone.

with the princess Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV. The Roman empire divided ; see Eastern Empire, 1486. Western Empire, Popes, and Italy.

Richard II., who succeeded his grandfather Edward ROMILLY'S ACT, SIR SAMUEL, 52 Geo.

III. in 1377, was deposed and succeeded in 1399

by his cousin Henry IV. (son of John of Gaunt, III. c. 101 (1812) relates to charities.

duke of Lancaster, the fourth son of Edward III.),

in prejudice to the right of Roger Mortimer RONCESVALLES (in the Pyrenees), where, (grandson of Lionel, duke of Clarence, Edward's it is said, Charlemagne's paladin, Roland, or third son), who was declared presumptive heir to Orlando, was surprised, defeated and slain by the the throne in

1385 Gascons, 778. On 25 July, 1813, marshal Soult Roger's grandson, Richard duke of York,' first was defeated here by the British entering France. openly claimed the crown in

1449 Attempts at compromise failed, and the war began

in ROOF. The largest in the world was said to be


The Lancastrians were defeated at St. Alban's; the that over a riding-school at Moscow, erected in

protector Somerset was slain; a truce was made, 1791, being 235 feet in span. The roof of the

and Richard was declared successor to Henry VI. London station of the Midland railway, in Eustonroad, London, N.W., is 240 feet wide, 690 feet long, The war was renewed, and the Yorkists defeated the

Lancastrians at Bloreheath 125 feet high. The extent of ground covered is

23 Sept. 1459

The Yorkists eventually dispersed, and the duke about 165,000 square feet.

was attainted.

He defeated his opponents at Northampton, took ROPE-MAKING MACHINE. One was

Henry prisoner, and was declared heir to the patented by Richard March in 1784, and by Edmd.

crown; but fell into an ambuscade near WakeCartwright, in 1792. Many improvements have been field, and was put to death

31 Dec. 1460 made since

His son (Edward) continued the struggle ; was installed as king

4 March, 1461 ROSAMOND'S BOWER. Rosamond was Defeated the Lancastrians at Towton

29 March, daughter of lord Clifford, and mistress of Henry II. Was deposed by Warwick, who restored Henry VI. about 1154. A conspiracy against her was formed

Edward defeated the Lancastrians at Barnet, 14 by the queen, prince Henry, and his other sons.

April, and finally at Tewkesbury Henry kept her in a labyrinth at Woodstock, where

4 May, 1471

The struggle ended with the defeat and death of his queen, Eleanor, it is said, discovered her apart

Richard III. at Bosworth

22 Aug. 1485 ments by the clue of a silk thread, and poisoned her. She was buried at Godstow church, from whence

ROSETTA (in Egypt), taken by the French in Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, had her ashes removed, 1798; and by the British and Turks, 19 April, 1801.

The Turks repulsed the British here, 22 April, 1807. 1191.

Near Rosetia was fought the battle of the Nile, ROSARY, see Beads.

i Aug. 1798; see Nile. Mehemet Ali rendered great ROSAS (N. E. Spain), Bay of, where a brilliant between Rosetta and Alexandria.

service to his country by constructing a canal naral action was fought by the boats oỉ the Tigre, Cumberland, Volontaire, Apollo, Topaze, Philomel, The Rosetta Stone, discovered by the French in 1999, was

brought from Rosetta in a French vessel, from whence Scout, and Tuscan, led by lieut. John Tailour (of

it was taken by Mr. Wm. R. Hamilton, who deposited the Tigre), which ended in the capture or destruc

it in the British Museum. In 1841, Mr. Letronne pubtion of eleven armed vessels in the bay, I Nov. lished the text and a translation of the Greek inscrip1809;, for which purpose lord Collingwood had tion. It is a piece of black basalt, about 3 feet long organised the expedition commanded by capt. Hallo and 24 feet wide, with an inscription in three languages, well. Rosas was gallantly defended by lord Coch viz., hieroglyphics, modified hieroglyphics (enchorial),

and Greek, setting forth the praises of Ptolemy rane, 27 Nov.; but surrendered, 4 Dec. 1809.

Epiphanes (about 196 B.C.). It has been studied by ROSBACH (Rosebecque), Flanders. Here

Dr. T. Young and Champollion. Charles VI. of France beat the Flemings, who had ROSICRUCIANS, a sect of mystical pbilorevolted against their count, 27 Nov. 1382.–At sophers who appeared'in Germany in the 14th ROSBACH, in Prussia, a great battle was fought century, and again early in the 17th century. The between the Prussians, commanded by Frederick latter derived their name from the Confessă Roseæ the Great, and the combined army of French and Crucis of Valentine Andreas, 1615. They swore

23 May,

Sept. 1470


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