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in Berks, against Charles I. The town was unsuc- ABRANTES (Portugal). By a treaty between cessfully attacked by sir Stephen Hawkins in 1644, France and Portugal, signed here 29 Sept., 1801, and by prince Rupert in 1645. On these occasions the war was closed, and the French army withdrew; the defenders put every Irish prisoner to death a money compensation having been agreed to, and without trial; hence the term “ Abingdon law.” territories in Guiana ceded to France. ABJURATION of the pope was enjoined by

ABSALOM'S REBELLION and death statute in the reigns of Henry VIII., Elizabeth, and (1024—23 B. C.) is described 2 Sam. xv.-xix. James I., and of certain doctrines of the church

ABSCONDING DEBTORS' ACT, passed of Rome by stat. 25 Charles II. 1673. The oath

9 Aug. 1870. of abjuration of the house of Stuart was enjoined by stat. 13, 14 Will. III. 1702; the form was changed ABSENTEE TAX (45. in the pound), levied in after reigns. By 21 & 22 Vict. c. 48 (1858) one

in Ireland in 1715 on the incomes and pensions oath for the three oaths of abjuration, allegiance, of absentees (long complained of), ceased in 1753. and supremacy was substituted. See Oaths. A tax of 28. in the pound was proposed in vain

by Mr. Flood in 1773 and by Mr. Molyneux in ABKASIA, a province of the Caucasus, annexed 1783. by Russia, the last prince Michael Shervashiji being

ABSOLUTION. Till the 3rd century, the deposed: an insurrection against the Russian authorities, 8 Aug. 1866, was quelled with much lution; but soon after the power was reserved to

consent of the congregation was necessary to absobloodshed.

the bishop; and in the 12th century the form “I ABNEY PARK, see Cemeteries.

absolve thee" had become general. ABO, a port of Russia, founded prior to 1157,

ABSTINENCE. It is said that St. Anthony was till 1809 capital of Swedish Finland. It has lived to the age of 105 on twelve ounces of bread suffered much by fire, especially in 1775 and 1827; and water daily, and James the hermit to the age was seized by the Russians in Feb. 1808; ceded to of 104; that St. Epiphanius lived to 115; Simeon them, 17 Sept. 1809; and rebuilt by them after the

the Stylite to 112; and Kentigern, commonly called great fire in 1827. The university erected by Gus

St. Mungo, to 185 years of age. Spottiswood. tavus Adolphus and Christina, 1640, et seq., was Ann Moore, the fasting woman of Tutbury, Staffordshire, removed to Helsingfors, 1827. The peace of Abo, was said to have lived twenty months without food ; by which Sweden ceded part of Finland to Russia,

but her imposture was detected by Dr. A. Henderson, was signed, 18 Aug. 1743.

Nov. 1808.

A man named Cavanagh at Newry, in Ireland, was ABOLITIONISTS, the party in the northern

reported to have lived two years without meat or

drink, Aug. 1840. His imposture was discovered in part of the United States, opposed to slavery. They England, where he was imprisoned as a cheat, Nov. 1841. formed a small society at Boston about which Sarah Jacobs, the Welsh fasting girl, aged 13, said by her became the nucleus of a great political party, and father to have lived for more than a year without food, ultimately attained its object by the war of 1861-4. after being closely watched for a week, died from exSee Slavery in United States.

haustion 17 Dec. 1869. Her parents were sentenced at

Carmarthen to imprisonment for fraudulent deception, ABORIGINES (without origin),

a name given ABSTINENTS, ascetics that wholly abstained from wine,

13 July, 1870. See Fasts, Teetotallers, to the earliest known inhabitants of Italy (whence

flesh, and marriage, appeared in France and Spain in came the Latini); now applied to the original in- the 3rd century. habitants of any country: -The Aborigines Protection Society was established in 1838. Reports on

ABYDOS, see Hellespont. The tablet of Abythe condition of the aborigines in the British dos, dedicated to the memory of his ancestors by colonies were presented to parliament in 1834 and

Pharaoh Rameses II. (1311-1245 B. c.) a valuable 1837.

historic record was bought for the British Museum,

1837. ABOUKIR (Egypt), the ancient Canopus. In ABYSSINIA, the country of the Habese, the bay Nelson defeated the French fleet, 1 Aug. N. E. Africa. Its ancient history is very uncer

1798; see Nile. A Turkish army of 15,000 was tain. The kingdom of Auxumitæ (from its chief defeated here by 5000 French under Bonaparte, 25 town Auxume) flourished in the Ist and 2nd July, 1799. A British expedition to Egypt under centuries after Christ. The religion of the Abysgeneral sir Ralph Abercromby landed here, and sinians is a corrupt form of the Christianity introAboukir surrendered to them after an obstinate and duced about 329 by Frumentius. About 960, sanguinary conflict with the French, 8 March, 1801; Judith, a Jewish princess, murdered a great part see Alexandria.

of the royal family, and reigned forty years. The ABRAHAM, ERA OF, used by Eusebius; go

young king escaped : and the royal house was called from the patriarch Abraham, who died 1822 Icon Amlac. In the middle ages it was said to

restored in 1268 in the person of his descendant B. C. The era began i Oct. 2016 B. C. To reduce this era to the Christian, subtract 2015 years and Portuguese missions, commenced in the 15th cen

be ruled by Prester John or Prete Janni. The three months. Nicolas.

tury, after much struggling against opposition, ABRAHAM, HEIGHTS OF, near Quebec, were expelled about 1633: The encroachments of Lower Canada. The French were defeated and the Gallas and intestine disorders soon after broke Montcalm, their commander, killed here by general up the empire into petty governments. From the Wolfe, who fell in the moment of victory, 13 Sept. visits of James Bruce, 1768-73; Henry Salt, 18091759; see Quebec.

10; Edward Rüppell, 1834-7; major Harris, 1841;

Mansfield Parkyns, 1844-7, much information ABRAHAMITES, a sect holding the errors of respecting Abyssinia has been gained. Several Paulus, was suppressed by Cyriacus, the patriarch expeditions into Abyssinia have been organised by of Antioch, early in the nînth century. A deistical the French government. The brothers Antoine sect of this name was banished from Bohemia by and Arnauld Abbadie visited the country 1837-45. Joseph II. in 1783.

Abyssinia is now divided into four provinces. In

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1847 Ras Ali was ruler of Amhara ; Ras Ubie of the rest of the captives, with their property, sent Tigré and Samien; and Sahela Selassie of Shoa.

to the British camp

· 12 April, 1868 Population between 3,000,000 and 4,000,000.

Theodore rejects the terms offered ; Magdala bombarded and stormed; Theodore kills himself

13 April, Treaty of commerce with the king of Shoa concluded by ["I fail to discover a single point of view from captain Harris, 16 Nov. 1841.

which it is possible to regard his removal with reMr. Plowden (made British consul at Massowah, 1848),

gret.”—Sir R. Nopier

18 June,] concludes treaty with Ras Ali, ruler of Amhara, 2 Nov.

Magdala burnt to the ground

17 April, 1849.

Death of Theodore's queen

10 May, Ras Ali deposed by his son-in-law Theodore, who is

Henry Dufton of the “ Intelligence department" crowned, and takes the title of negus, or king of kings, shot by Shosho robbers

28 May, n Feb. 1855

Immediate return of the troops ;-all had embarked, Protestant missionaries received, replacing Roman catho

2 June, lies, 1855. Mr.: Powden (who had joined the party of Theodore) Troops arrive at Plymouth, 21 June ; sir R. Napier

killed by rebels, Feb. ; his friend Bell killed soon after, [Cattle said to have been employed in the expediwhen avenging him ; Theodore overcomes the rebels

tion : 45 elephants, 7417 camels, 12,920 mules and massacres about 150 prisoners as a sacrifice to

and ponies, 7033 bullocks, 827 donkeys. Natives their manes, 1860.

also were largely employed in the transport serTheodore sends a letter to the queen of England desiring vice.) alliance, which arrived 12 Feb. 1863.

Theodore's son Alamayou, aged 7, arrives at PlyStern and Rosenthal, missionaries, beaten and impri

mouth, 14 July; presented to queen Victoria, soned for censuring Theodore in letters intercepted,

16 July, » before Sept. 1863.

Pension of 3501. to col. Cameron (he died 30 May, Theodore imprisons consul Cameron (on suspicion of his

1870) : 50ool. given to Mr. Rassam ; 20001 to Dr. intriguing with the Turks ?) and others, about 22 Nov.

Blanc ; 2000l. to lieut. Prideaux ; announced 1863 ; sends them to Maglala, July, 1864. News of the imprisonment arrives in London, May, 1864.

Prince Alamayou sailed to India for education (reMr. Hormuzd Rassam, an Arab Christian, assistant to

turned to England end of 1871)

26 Jan., 1869 col. Merewether, British political resident at Aden, Expenses of the war : 5,000,000l

. voted 18 Dec., sent on mission to Abyssinia, arrives at Massowah 20

1868 ; 3,300,000l. more voted Aug. 1864.

Report'of'a commission on the expenses of the exMr. Rassam, lieut. Prideaux, and Dr. Blanc arrive at

pedition disclosed much waste, attributed to Matemma from Massowah, 27 Nov. 1865. Are well received by Theodore, Jan. 1866.

urgency and divided authority

Aug. 1870

War between Gobazye, king of Amhara, and Kassa, They write that they are well treated ; all seized and

king of Tigré; Kassa victor

21 June, 1871 imprisoned, about 13 April, 1866.

Gobazye beaten and taken prisoner 11 July, Mr. Flad sent to England by Theodore to obtain British

Kassa proposes to be crowned emperor and negus workmen, April ; arrives, July ; introduced to queen

of all Abyssinia, 21 Nov. ; punishes the Catholic Victoria, and receives from her an autograph letter,

missionaries for partisanship; and forms alliance dated Oct. 1866.

with Egypt

July, Mr. Flad returned with workmen to Massowah, 29 Kassa crowned king at Axum

14 Jan. 1872 Oct. ; Theodore received the queen's letter about 19 Dec. 1866.

ABYSSINIAN ERA is reckoned from the Lord Stanley's ultimatum to Theodore, demanding re

lease of the captives in three months, sent 16 April, creation, which the Abyssinians place in the 5493rd 1867. (Not received.)

year B. C., on 29. Aug. old style; their dates Mr. Flad received by the king; and made to join his consequently exceed ours by 5492 years, 125 days. family in prison, May, 1867.

To reduce Abyssinian time to the Julian year, subPreparations for war ; sir Robert Napier appointed com tract 5492 years, 125 days.

mander of an expedition; pioneer force sails froin Bombay, 14 Sept. 1867

ACACIANS. 1. Followers of Acacius, bishop A formal letter from the British government sent to Theodore, 9 Sept. 1867: (Suppressed for prudential liar doctrines respecting the nature of Christ. 2.

of Cæsarea, in the fourth century, who held pecureasons by Mr. Rassam.) The king encumbered with baggage, and checked by Partisans of Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople,

rebels ; Mr. Flad and the king's artisans with him, II promoter of the Henoticon (which see), 482-4.

Oct. 1867:
Advanced brigade (3500) sail from Bombay, 7, 8 Oct. ;

ACADEMICAL STUDY, see Education, land at Zoulla, 21 Oct. 1867.

1872. Napier's proclamation issued in Abyssinia, 6 Nov. 1867. Captives at Magdala reported well, 11 Nov. 1867.

ACADEMIES. Academia was a shady grove Report that the Gallas have joined the revolt against without the walls of Athens (bequeathed by AcadeTheodore, 25 Nov. 1867.

mus for gymnastic exercises), where Plato first The British parliament meets; the queen’s, speech taught philosophy, and his followers took the title

announces the war, 19 Nov. ; 2,000,000l. voted, 26, 27 Nov. 1867:

of Academics, 378 B. c. Stanley:-Rome had no Arrival of sir R. Napier at Annesley bay, 4 Jan. 1868.

academies.-Ptolemy Soter is said to have founded Telegram : the army reported well ; Theodore heinmed an academy at Alexandria, about 314, B. C. Abin by rebels, 8 Jan. 1868.

derahman I., caliph of Spain, founded academies The captives relieved of their chains

29 March, 1868 about A.D. 773. Theodosius the Younger, CharleSir R. Napier arrives before Magdala

2 April, »

magne, and Alfred are also named as founders of Theodore massacres about 300 native prisoners

9 April, »

academies. Italy is celebrated for its academies; Battle of Arogee or Fahla ; Theodore's troops at

and Jarckius mentions 550, of which 25 were in tack the British first brigade ; defeated with

Milan. much slaughter (Good Friday)

10 April,

PRINCIPAL ACADEMIES. Theodore retires to his stronghold in Magdala, and American Academy of Sciences, Boston, 1780.

requests Mr. Rassam to mediate ; lieut. Prideaux Ancona, of the Caliginosi, 1642. sent to sir R. Napier returns with a letter ; Theo

Basil, 1460. dore receives it indignantly, and sends an insult Berlin, Royal, 1700; of Princes, 1703; Architecture, ing reply ; lieut. Prideaux returning, meets Mr.

1799. Rassam with some of the captives proceeding to Bologna, Ecclesiastical, 1687; Mathematics, 1690 ; the British camp

· 11 April,

Sciences and Arts, 1712. Theodore sends a letter of apology offering a present Brescia, of the Erranti, 1626. of cattle ; Mr. Rassam understanding this present Brest and Toulon, Military, 168z. to have been accepted, tells the king's ministers ; Brussels, Belles Lettres, 1773.

.

Caen, Belles Lettres, 1705.

ACCENTS were first introduced in the Greek Copenhagen, of Sciences, 1743.

language by Aristophanes of Byzantium, a gramCortona, Antiquities, 1726.

marian and critic who taught at Alexandria about Dublin, Arts, 1742 ; Painting, Sculpture, &c., 1823. Erfurt, Saxony, Sciences, 1754.

264 B.C. Accents were first used by the French in Faenza, the Philoponi, 1612.

the reign of Louis XIII. (about 1610). Florence, Belles Lettres, 1272; Dela Crusca (now united

with the Florentine, and merged under that name), ACCESSION, THE, i.e., that of the House of 1582; Del Cimento, 1657 (by cardinal de' edici); Hanover to the throne of Great Britain, in the Antiquities, 1807.

person of George I., elector of Hanover, son of Geneva, Medical, 1715.

Sophia, daughter of Elizabeth, daughter of James I. Genoa, Painting, de., 1751 ; Sciences, 1783.

He succeeded, i Aug., 1714, by virtue of the act of Germany, Naturæ Curiosi, now Leopoldine, 1662. Göttingen, 1734-7.

settlement passed in the reign of William III., Hurlem, the Sciences, 1760.

12 June, 1702, which limited the succession to his Irish Academy, Royal, Dublin, 1782.

mother (as a Protestant) in the event of queen Anne Lisbon, History, 1720; Sciences, 1779.

dying without issue. London; see London and Societies. Royal Academy of Fine Arts, 1763; of Music, 1734-43 and 1822.

ACCESSORIES TO CRIMES. The law reLyous, Sciences, 1710; Physic and Mathematics added, specting them consolidated and amended in 1861.

1758. Mairid, the Royal Spanish, 1713; History, 1730 ; Painting and the Arts, 1753.

ACCIDENTS, see under Coal, Fires, Railways Manheim. Sciences, 1755; Sculpture, 1775.

&c. For compensation for accidents, see CampMantua, the Vigilanti, Sciences, 1704.

bell's Act and Passengers. In 1865, it was comMarseilles, Belles lettres, 1726.

puted that, in one year, about 250 persons are Massiu husetts, Arts and Sciences, 1783.

killed, and 1200 injured, in the streets of London. Milan, Architecture, 1380 ; Sciences, 1719. Munich, Arts and Sciences, 1759 : Sciences, 1779.

ACCIDENTAL DEATHS IN ENGLAND AND WALES. Naples, Rossano, 1540 ; Mathematics, 1560 ; Sciences,

1856, 9716 | 1860, 9225 | 1864, 10,997 1868, 11,033 1695; Herculaneum, 1755.

1857, 8930 1861, 9213 1865, 11,397 1869, 10,725 New York, Literature and Philosophy, 1814.

1858, 8947 | 1862, 9005 1866, 11,262 | 1870, 10,906 Nismes, Royal Academy, 1682.

1859, 9241 | 1863, 9952 | 1867, 11,172 1871, 11,316 Padua, for Poetry, 1613; Sciences, 1792. Palermo, Medical, 1645.

ACCLIMATISATION OF ANIMALS. This Paris, Sorbonne, 1253: Painting, 1391 ; Music, 1543 and has been prosecuted with great vigour since the

1672 ; French (by Richelieu), 1635 ; Fine Arts, 1648 ; establishment of the Zoological society of London Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (by Colbert), 1663; Sciences

in 1829, and of the Société d'Acclimatation in Paris. (hy Colbert), 1666 ; Architecture, 1671; Surgery, 1731 ; Military, 1751 ; Natural Philosophy, 1796, see Institute.

Numbers of European animals have been naturalised Parma, the Innominati, 1550.

in Australia; the camel has been conveyed to Brazil Perousa, Insensui, 1561 ; Filigirti, 1574.

(1859); alpacas are bred at Paris; and ostriches in Philalelphia, Arts and Sciences, 1749.

Italy (1859). On 6 Oct. 1860, the Bois de Boulogne, Portsmouth, Naval, 1722 ; enlarged, 1806. Rome, I'moristi, 1611 ; Fantascici, 1625; In fecondi, 1653; taining only acclimatised animals. An English ac

near Paris, was opened as a zoological garden, conPainting, 1665: Arcari, 1690 : English, 1752; Lincei, climatisation society was founded 10 June, 1860, by

about 1600 ; Vuosi Lincei, 1847, St. Petersburg, Sciences, 1725; Military, 1732; the School hon. Grantley Berkeley, Mr. J. Crockford, Mr. F. of Arts, 1764.

Buckland, &c., and the prince of Wales became preStockholm, of Science, 1741; Belles lettres, 1753 ; Agri- sident in April, 1865. It was not successful. ‘An culture, 1781; Royal Swedish, 1786.

acclimatising garden was established at Melbourne, Toulon, Military, 1682. Turin, Sciences, about 1759; Fine Arts, 1778.

Australia, in Feb. 1861, and efforts made to natuTurkey, Military School, 1775.

ralise English birds, fishes, &c. Upsal, Royal Society, Sciences, 1720. Venice, Medical, &c., 1701.

ACCORDION, a small wind-instrument with Verona, Music, 1543 : Sciences, 1780.

keys, introduced into England from Germany about Vienna, Sculpture and the Arts, 1705 ; Surgery, 1783 : 1828.

Oriental, 1810.
Warsaw, Languages, and History, 1753.

ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL IN CHANWashington, United States, America, 1863.

CERY, &c., an office instituted in 1726, and abolished Woolwich, Military, 1741.

by an act passed 6 Aug. 1872. In 1811, the office

of accountant-general of the court of exchequer was ACADIA, see Nova Scotia.

abolished, and the duties transferred to the account

ant in chancery. ACANTHUS, the foliage forming the volutes of the Corinthian capital, ascribed to Callimachus,

ACCOUNTANTS' INSTITUTE established about 540 B.C.

at a meeting, 30 July, 1870. William Quilter in

the chair. A meeting to establish the “ AccountACAPULCO, Mexico. A Spanish galleon, ants’ society” was held 11 Jan. 1872. from Acapulco, laden with gold and precious wares (estimated at above 1,000,000l. sterling), taken by

ACCUSERS. By occult writers, such as commodore Anson, who had previously acquired Agrippa, accusers are the eighth order of devils, booty in his voyage amounting to 600,0001., June, whose chief is called Asteroth, or Spy. In Revela1743. He arrived at Spithead in the Centurion, tion, ch. xii. 10, the devil is called "the accuser of after having circumnavigated the globe, 15 June, the brethren.”False accusers were to be hanged, 1744.

by 24 Henry VI. 1446; and burnt in the face with

an F, by 37 Henry VIII. 1545. Stow. ACARNANIA, N. Greece. The people became prominent in the Peloponnesian war, having ACELDAMA, a field said to have been the one invited the help of the Athenians against the Am- / bought with the thirty picces of silver given to Judas bracians, 432 B.C. The Acarnanians were subdued Iscariot for betraying Christ, is still shown to by the Lacedæmonians in 390; they took part travellers. Matthew xxvii. 8; Acts i. 19.—This with Macedon against the Romans in 200, by whom name was given to an estate purchased by Judge they were defeated in 197, and subjugated in 145. Jetfreys after the “ bloody assizes” in 1685.

275, 274

242-228

229

221

220
219

217 213

ACEPHALI (Greek a, no; cephale, head), a acids was increased by the Arabs; Geber (8th centerm applied to certain sects who resisted their tury) knew nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Theories bishops and met privately, about 450; and since to of the constitution of acids were put forth by Becher levellers.

(1669), Lemery (1675), and Stahl (1723). After the ACETYLENE, a luminous hydrocarbon gas Lavoisier (1778), concluded that oxygen was a con

discovery of oxygen by Priestley, 1 Aug. 1774, resembling coal gas, discovered by Berthelot, and stituent of all acids; but about 1810 Davy, Gaymade known in 1862.

Lussac, and others, proved the existence of acids ACHAIA (N. Peloponnesus), Greece, said to free from oxygen. In 1816 Dulong proposed the have been settled by Achæus, the son of Xuthus, binary or hydrogen theory of acids, and in 1837 about 1330 B.C. (?) "The kingdom was united with Liebig applied the theories of Davy and Dulong to Sicyon or subject to the Ætolians until about explain the constitution of several organic acids. 284 B.C. The Achæi, descendants of Acbæus, origin- Oxygen acids were termed anhydrides by Gerhardt ally inhabited the neighbourhood of Argos; but (died 1856). Many acids have been discovered when the Heraclida drove them thence, they re- through the advance of organic chemistry. Watts. tired among the Ionians, expelled the natives, and seized their thirteen cities, viz. Pellene, Ægira, Latin church, unknown to the Greek church for

ACOLYTES, an inferior order of clergy in the Ægium, Bura,

Tritæn, Leontium, Rhypes, Cerynea, four hundred years after Christ. Olenos, Helice, Patru, Dyme, and Phara, forming the ACHAN LEAGUE.

ACOUSTICS (from akouð, Greek, I hear), the Achaia invaded by Epaminondas

science of sound, so named by Sauveur in the 17th

• B.C. 366 The ACHÆAN LEAGUE revived by four cities about century. The formation of sound in the air by the 280, and by others

vibrations of the atmosphere, strings, &c., was exAratus made prætor The league joined by Corinth (captured 243), Megara, 245 plained by Pythagoras about 500 B.c., and by ArisSupported by Athens and antigonus Doson

The speaking trumpet said to have been used by AlexThe Achæans defeated at Laducea, by the Spartans,

ander the Great, 335 B.C. under Cleomenes III., 226; totally defeat them at

Galileo's discoveries, about A.J. 1600. Sellasia

His theorem of the harmonic curve demonstrated by Dr. The Social war begun; battle of Caphyæ in Arcadia; Brook Taylor, in 1714; further perfected by D'Alembert, Aratus defeated

Euler, Bernouilli, and La Grange, at various periods of The Peloponnesus ravaged by the Ætolians

the eighteenth century. Peace of Naupactus

Hooke calculated the vibration of sounds by the striking Aratus poisoned at Ægium

of the teeth of brass wheels, 1681. Philopoemen, leader of the league, defeats the Spartan

Sauveur determined the number of vibrations belonging tyrant Machanidas

208

to a given note, about 1700. Alliance of the league with the Romans

198

Velocity of sound said to be 1473 feet in a second, by Philopoemen defeated by Nabis in a naval battle

194

Gassendi; 1172 feet by Cassini, Römer, and others : All the Peloponnesus joins the league

968 feet by Newton : 1090 feet, at the temperature of War with Messene : Philopoemen made prisoner and 32° Fahrenheit, by Tyndall; the velocity increases with slain

183

the rise of temperature. The Achaans overrun Messenia with fire and sword 182 Chladni (who raised acoustics to an independent science) The Romans enter Achaia, and carry off numbers,

published his important discoveries on the figures proincluding Polybius the historian

165

duced in layers of sand by harmonic chords, &c., in War with Rome, 150 ; Metellus enters Greece

147

1787, and since. The Achæans defeated by Mummius at Leucopetra,

Cagniard-Latour invented the Sirène (which see) 1819. 147: the league dissolved ; Corinth taken ; Greece

Savart deterinined the range of the perception of the subjected to Rome, and named the province of

human ear to be from 7 to 24,000 vibrations a second, Achaia

146

1830.

Biot, Savart, Wheatstone, Lissajons, Helmholtz, Tyndall, Achaia made a Latin principality by William of

and others in the present century have greatly inChamplitte

. A.D. 1205

creased our knowledge of acoustics. Obtained by Geoffrey Villehardouin, 1210 ; by Geoffrey II.

ACRE, a land measure, formerly of uncertain By his brother William, 1246; who conquers the quantity, and differing in various parts of the Moors, 1248; makes war with the emperor Michael, country, was reduced to a standard by Edward I., 1259; and gains three fortresses

1262 about 1305. In 1824 the standard acre was ordered Succeeded by Isabella, 1277; who marries Florenz of

by statute to contain 4840 square yards. Hainault

• 1291 Their daughter Maud, princess, 13i1; thrice married;

ACRE, Acca, anciently Ptolemais, in Syria, was forcibly married to John de Gravina, and dies in prison

taken by the Saracens in 638; by the crusaders Achaia, a fief of Naples

1246-1430

under Baldwin I. in 1104; by Saladin in 1187; and Conquered by the Turks

again by Richard I. and other crusaders, 12 July,

1191, after a siege of 2 years, with a loss of 6 archACHONRY, SLIGO (N. Ireland), a bishopric bishops, 12 bishops, 40 earls, 500 barons, and 300,000 founded by St. Finian, who erected the church of soldiers. It was then named St. Jean d'Acre. It Achad, or Achonry, about 520, and conferred it on was retaken by the Saracens in 1291, when 60,000 his disciple Nathy (Dathy, or David), the first Christians perished, and the nuns, who had mangled bishop. The see, held with Killala, since 1612, was their faces, to preserve their chastity, were put to united with Tuam in 1834.

death. Acre was gallantly defended by Djezzar colour is got rid of, were

invented by John Dollond, between 16 March and 20 May, 1799, when Bonaparte ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, in which Pacha against Bonaparte, til relieved by sir Sidney

Smith, who resisted twelve attempts by the French, and described in Phil. Trans. of the Royal Society, retreated. Acre, as a Turkish pachalic, was seized London, 1753-8.

27 May, 1832, by Ibrahim Pacha, who had revolted. ACIDS (now defined as salts of hydrogen) are On 3 Nov. 1840, it was stormed by the allied fleet generally soluble in water, redden organic blues, under sir Robert Stopford, and taken after a bomdecompose carbonates, and destroy the properties of bardment of a few hours, the Egyptians losing upalkalies, forming alkaline salts. The number of wards of 2000 in killed and wounded, and 3000

191

.

1218

1324

about 1540

prisoners, while the British had but 12 killed and Statutes first printed in the reign of Richard III., 1483. 42 wounded ; see Syria and Turkey.

Statutes of the Realm, from Magna Charta to George I.,

printed from the original records and MSS. in 12 vols. ACROPOLIS, the ancient citadel of Athens, folio, under the direction of commissioners appointed built on a rock. Near it stood the temple of

in 1801, 1811-28. Minerva, the Parthenon, which see. Other cities

The statutes passed during each session were formerly had similar fortresses.

printed annually in 4to and 8vo, now in 8vo only.

Abstracts are given in the Cabinet Lawyer. ACROSTIC, a poem in which the first or last Between 1823 and 1829, 1126 acts were wholly repealed, letters of each line, read downwards, form a word,

and 443 repealed in part, chiefly arising out of the conis said to have been invented by Porphyrius Optali

solidation of the laws by Mr. (afterwards sir Robert)

Peel; of these acts, 1344 related to the kingdom at anus in the 4th century. Double acrostics became

large, and 225 to Ireland solely ; and in 1856 many very popular in 1867.

obsolete statutes (enacted between 1285 and 1777) were

repealed. ACS OR Acz (Hungary). The Hungarians By the Statute Law Revision Act of 1861, 770 acts were under Görgey were defeated here by the Austrians wholly repealed, and a great many partially. By the and Russians, on 2 and 10 July, 1849.

similar act of 1863, a great number of enactinents were

repealed, commencing with the Provisions of Merton, ACT OF SETTLEMENT, &c.; see Accession,

20 Henry III. (1235-6), and ending with 1 James II. Succession, Supremacy, and Uniformity Acts. (1685). ACTA DIURNA; see Newspapers.

"Acts of parliament abbreviation bill" introduced by

Lord Brougham 12 Feb., passed 10 June, 1850. ACTA SANCTORUM (“acts of the saints"), 1410 acts (passed between 1689 and 1770) partially or a work begun by the Jesuits. The first volume ap

wholly repealed, 1867.

"Chronological Table and Index to the Statutes to the peared in 1643: the publication was interrupted in

end of 1869," published 1870. 1734, when the fifty-third volume was published, New Index to acts 1800-65, printed, 1868. but was resumed in 1846, and has advanced in the Publication of the revised edition of the statutes, begun order of months as far as October. The writers have 1870. been named Bollandists, from John Bolland, who

The greatest number of acts passed in any one year since published the first two volumes.

1800 was 570, in 1846 (the railway year); 402 were local

and personal, 51 private, and 117 public acts. In 1841. ACTINOMETER, an instrument to measure only 13 were passed (the lowest nunber), of which two the heating power of the solar rays, invented by were private. In three instances only, the annual

number was under a hundred. sir John F. Herschel, and described by him in 1825.

The average nunber

of the first ten years of the present century was 132 See Sun.

public acts. In the ten years ending 1850, the average ACTIUM, a promontory of Acarnania, W.

number of acts, of public interest, was 112. Greece, near which was fought, 2 Sept. 31 B.C. (the The number of public general acts passed in 1851 was 106; battle between the fleet of Octavius Cæsar, and that

in 1852, 88 : in 1853, 137; in 1854, 125; in 1855, 134 ; in

1856, 120; in 1857, 86; in 1858, 109; in 1859, 101 ; in of Marc Antony and Cleopatra, which decided the

1860, 154 ; in 1861, 134 ; in 1862, 114 ; in 1863, 125 ; in fate of Antony'; 300 of his galleys going over to 1864, 121; in 1865, 127; in 1866, 122 ; in 1867, 146; in Cæsar. This victory made Octavius master of the 1868, 130; in 1869, 117; in 1870, 112 ; in 1871, 117; in world, and the Roman empire is commonly dated

1872, 98. 1 Jan. 30 B.C. (the Actian Era). The conqueror ACTS, in dramatic poetry, first employed by built Nicopolis (the city of victory), and instituted the Romans. Five acts are mentioned by Horace the Actian games.

(Art of Poetry) as the rule (about 8 B.c.). ACTON BURNEL, or Shrewsbury. At the parliament held here by Edward I., Oct. 1283, the

ACTUARY, ACTUARIUS, the Roman acstatute of merchants" against debtors was enacted.

countant. The Institute of Actuaries founded in

1848, publishes its proceedings in the “Assurance ACTRESSES appear to have been unknown to Magazine." the ancients; men or eunuchs performing the female parts. Charles II. is said to have first encouraged

ADAM AND EVE, ERA OF, in the English the public appearance of women on the stage in Bible, 4004 B.C.; see Creation. England, in 1662; but Anne, queen of James I., had

ADAMITES, a sect said to have existed about previously performed in a theatre at court. Theat. 130, and to have been quite naked in their reBiog. Mrs. Colman was the first English public ligious assemblies, asserting that if Adam had not actress; she performed the part of Ianthe in Dave

sinned there would have been no marriages. nant's "Siege of Rhodes,” in 1656. Victor.

Their chief was named Prodicus; they defied the ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, supposed to elements, rejected prayer, and said it was not nehave been written by Luke in continuation of his cessary to confess Christ. Eusebius. A sect with Gospel. It terminates A.D. 63.

this name arose at Antwerp in the 12th century, ACTS OF PARLIAMENT, OR STATUTES, see

under Tandemus or Tanchelin, whose followers, Parliament. The following are among the most

3000 soldiers and others, committed many crimes.

It became extinct soon after the death of its chief; celebrated early statutes :

but another of the same kind, named Turlupins, Provisions of Merton, 1235-6.

appeared shortly after in Savoy and Dauphiny. A Statute of Marlborough, 1267.

Fleming named Picard, revived this sect in of Bigamy, 1275-6. of Gloucester, the earliest statute of which any re

Bohemia, about 1415; it was suppressed by Ziska, cord exists, 6 Edw. I. 1278.

1420. of Mortmain, 1279.

ADDA, a river N. Italy, passed by Suwarrow Quo Warranto, Oct. 1280. Statute of Merchants or Acton-Burnel, 1283.

after defeating the French, 27 April, 1799. Statutes of Wales, 1284.

ADDINGTON ADMINISTRATION. Mr. of Winchester, Oct. 1284. of Westminster, 1275, 1285, 1290.

Pitt, having engaged to procure Roman Catholic Statute forbidding the levying of taxes without the con- emancipation to promote the union with Ireland, sent of parliament, 1297.

and being unable to do so as a minister, resigned of Præmunire, 1306.

3 Feb. 1801. A new ministry was formed by Mr.

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