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Theodore sends a letter to the queen of England desiring alliance, which arrived 12 Feb. 1863.
Stern and Rosenthal, missionaries, beaten and imprisoned for censuring Theodore in letters intercepted, before Sept. 1863.
Theodore imprisons consul Cameron (on suspicion of his
Mr. Rassam, lieut. Prideaux, and Dr. Blanc arrive at
Mr. Flad sent to England by Theodore to obtain British workmen, April; arrives, July; introduced to queen Victoria, and receives from her an autograph letter, dated 4 Oct. 1866.
The British parliament meets; the queen's speech
announces the war, 19 Nov.; 2,000,000l. voted, 26, 27 Nov. 1867.
Arrival of sir R. Napier at Annesley bay, 4 Jan. 1868. Telegram: the army reported well; Theodore hemmed in by rebels, 8 Jan. 1868.
The captives relieved of their chains 29 March, 1868
Battle of Arogee or Fahla; Theodore's troops at-
the rest of the captives, with their property, sent to the British camp 12 April, 1868 Theodore rejects the terms offered; Magdala bombarded and stormed; Theodore kills himself 13 April, ["I fail to discover a single point of view from which it is possible to regard his removal with regret."-Sir R. Napier 18 June,] Magdala burnt to the ground 17 April, Death of Theodore's queen 10 May, Henry Dufton of the "Intelligence department" shot by Shosho robbers 28 May, Immediate return of the troops;-all had embarked, 2 June,
Troops arrive at Plymouth, 21 June; sir R. Napier 2 July, [Cattle said to have been employed in the expedi tion: 45 elephants, 7417 camels, 12,920 mules and ponies, 7033 bullocks, 827 donkeys. Natives also were largely employed in the transport service.] Theodore's son Alamayou, aged 7, arrives at Plymouth, 14 July; presented to queen Victoria, 16 July, Pension of 350l. to col. Cameron [he died 30 May, 1870]: 5000l. given to Mr. Rassam; 2000l. to Dr. Blanc; 2000l. to lieut. Prideaux; announced 23 Dec., Prince Alamayou sailed to India for education (returned to England end of 1871) 26 Jan., 1869 Expenses of the war: 5,000,000l. voted 18 Dec., 1868; 3,300,000l. more voted 4 Mar., Report of a commission on the expenses of the expedition disclosed much waste, attributed to urgency and divided authority
War between Gobazye, king of Amhara, and Kassă, king of Tigré; Kassa victor. 21 June, 1871 Gobazye beaten and taken prisoner 11 July, Kassa proposes to be crowned emperor and negus of all Abyssinia, 21 Nov.; punishes the Catholic missionaries for partisanship; and forms alliance with Egypt July, Kassa crowned king at Axum
14 Jan. 1872
American Academy of Sciences, Boston, 1780.
Ancona, of the Caliginosi, 1642.
ABYSSINIAN ERA is reckoned from the creation, which the Abyssinians place in the 5493rd year B. C., on 29 Aug. old style; their dates consequently exceed ours by 5492 years, 125 days. To reduce Abyssinian time to the Julian year, subtract 5492 years, 125 days.
ACACIANS. 1. Followers of Acacius, bishop of Cæsarea, in the fourth century, who held peculiar doctrines respecting the nature of Christ. Partisans of Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, promoter of the Henoticon (which see), 482-4. ACADEMICAL STUDY, see Education,
ACADEMIES. Academia was a shady grove without the walls of Athens (bequeathed by Academus for gymnastic exercises), where Plato first taught philosophy, and his followers took the title of Academics, 378 B. C. Stanley.-Rome had no academies.-Ptolemy Soter is said to have founded an academy at Alexandria, about 314 B. C. Abderahman I., caliph of Spain, founded academies about A.D. 773. Theodosius the Younger, Charlemagne, and Alfred are also named as founders of academies. Italy is celebrated for its academies; and Jarckius mentions 550, of which 25 were in Milan.
Berlin, Royal, 1700; of Princes, 1703; Architecture,
Bologna, Ecclesiastical, 1687; Mathematics, 1690;
Brescia, of the Erranti, 1626.
Massachusetts, Arts and Sciences, 1780.
New York, Literature and Philosophy, 1814.
Nismes, Royal Academy, 1682.
Padua, for Poetry, 1613; Sciences, 1792.
Paris, Sorbonne, 1253: Painting, 1391; Music, 1543 and
Rome, Umoristi, 1611; Fantascici, 1625: Infecondi, 1653;
Stockholm, of Science, 1741; Belles Lettres, 1753; Agri
culture, 1781; Royal Swedish, 1786.
Toulon, Military, 1682.
Turin, Sciences, about 1759; Fine Arts, 1778.
Turkey, Military School, 1775
Upsal, Royal Society, Sciences, 1720.
Venice, Medical, &c., 1701.
Verona, Music, 1543; Sciences, 1780.
Vienna, Sculpture and the Arts, 1705; Surgery, 1783;
Warsaw, Languages, and History, 1753.
ACADIA, see Nova Scotia.
ACANTHUS, the foliage forming the volutes of the Corinthian capital, ascribed to Callimachus, about 540 B.C.
ACAPULCO, Mexico. A Spanish galleon, from Acapulco, laden with gold and precious wares (estimated at above 1,000,000l. sterling), taken by commodore Anson, who had previously acquired booty in his voyage amounting to 600,000l., June, 1743. He arrived at Spithead in the Centurion, after having circumnavigated the globe, 15 June,
ACARNANIA, N. Greece. The people became prominent in the Peloponnesian war, having invited the help of the Athenians against the Ambracians, 432 B.C. The Acarnanians were subdued by the Lacedæmonians in 390; they took part with Macedon against the Romans in 200, by whom they were defeated in 197, and subjugated in 145.
ACCENTS were first introduced in the Greek language by Aristophanes of Byzantium, a grammarian and critic who taught at Alexandria about 264 B.C. Accents were first used by the French in the reign of Louis XIII. (about 1610).
ACCESSION, THE, i.e., that of the House of Hanover to the throne of Great Britain, in the person of George I., elector of Hanover, son of Sophia, daughter of Elizabeth, daughter of James I. He succeeded, I Aug., 1714, by virtue of the act of settlement passed in the reign of William III., 12 June, 1702, which limited the succession to his mother (as a Protestant) in the event of queen Anne dying without issue.
ACCESSORIES TO CRIMES. The law respecting them consolidated and amended in 1861.
ACCIDENTS, see under Coal, Fires, Railways &c. For compensation for accidents, see Campbell's Act and Passengers. In 1865, it was computed that, in one year, about 250 persons are killed, and 1200 injured, in the streets of London.
ACCIDENTAL DEATHS IN ENGLAND AND WALES.
1856, 9716 | 1860, 9225 | 1864, 10,997 1868, 11,033 1857, 8930 1861, 9213 1865, 11,397 1869, 10,725 1858, 8947 1862, 90051866, 11,262 1870, 10,906 1859, 9241 1863, 99521867, 11,172 1871, 11,316
ACCLIMATISATION OF ANIMALS. This has been prosecuted with great vigour since the establishment of the Zoological society of London in 1829, and of the Société d'Acclimatation in Paris. Numbers of European animals have been naturalised in Australia; the camel has been conveyed to Brazil (1859); alpacas are bred at Paris; and ostriches in Italy (1859). On 6 Oct. 1860, the Bois de Boulogne, near Paris, was opened as a zoological garden, containing only acclimatised animals. An English acclimatisation society was founded 10 June, 1860, by hon. Grantley Berkeley, Mr. J. Crockford, Mr. F. Buckland, &c., and the prince of Wales became president in April, 1865. It was not successful. An acclimatising garden was established at Melbourne, Australia, in Feb. 1861, and efforts made to naturalise English birds, fishes, &c.
ACCORDION, a small wind-instrument with keys, introduced into England from Germany about 1828.
ACCOUNTANT-GENERAL IN CHANCERY, &c., an office instituted in 1726, and abolished by an act passed 6 Aug. 1872. In 1841, the office of accountant-general of the court of exchequer was abolished, and the duties transferred to the accountant in chancery.
ACCOUNTANTS' INSTITUTE established at a meeting, 30 July, 1870. William Quilter in the chair. A meeting to establish the "Accountants' society" was held 11 Jan. 1872.
ACCUSERS. By occult writers, such as Agrippa, accusers are the eighth order of devils, whose chief is called Asteroth, or Spy. In Revelation, ch. xii. 10, the devil is called "the accuser of the brethren."-False accusers were to be hanged, by 24 Henry VI. 1446; and burnt in the face with an F, by 37 Henry VIII. 1545. Stow.
ACELDAMA, a field said to have been the one bought with the thirty picces of silver given to Judas Iscariot for betraying Christ, is still shown to travellers. Matthew xxvii. 8; Acts i. 19.-This name was given to an estate purchased by Judge Jeffreys after the "bloody assizes" in 1685.
ACEPHALI (Greek a, no; cephale, head), a term applied to certain sects who resisted their bishops and met privately, about 450; and since to levellers.
ACETYLENE, a luminous hydrocarbon gas resembling coal gas, discovered by Berthelot, and made known in 1862.
ACHAIA (N. Peloponnesus), Greece, said to have been settled by Achæus, the son of Xuthus, about 1330 B.C. (?) The kingdom was united with Sicyon or subject to the Etolians until about 284 B.C. The Achæi, descendants of Achæus, originally inhabited the neighbourhood of Argos; but when the Heraclidae drove them thence, they retired among the Ionians, expelled the natives, and seized their thirteen cities, viz. Pellene, Ægira, Ægium, Bura, Tritæa, Leontium, Rhypes, Cerynea, Olenos, Helice, Patræ, Dyme, and Phara, forming the ACHEAN LEAGUE.
Supported by Athens and Antigonus Doson
The Social war begun; battle of Caphyæ in Arcadia;
Achaia invaded by Epaminondas
ACOUSTICS (from akouō, Greek, I hear), the science of sound, so named by Sauveur in the 17th century. The formation of sound in the air by the vibrations of the atmosphere, strings, &c., was ex
The league joined by Corinth (captured 243), Megara, 245 plained by Pythagoras about 500 B.C., and by Aris
totle, 330 B.C.
The Peloponnesus ravaged by the Etolians
Aratus poisoned at Ægium
Philopoemen, leader of the league, defeats the Spartan tyrant Machanidas
Alliance of the league with the Romans
Philopomen defeated by Nabis iu a naval battle
Their daughter Maud, princess, 1311: thrice married; forcibly married to John de Gravina, and dies in prison
The Achæans overrun Messenia with fire and sword
Achaia, a fief of Naples
Achaia made a Latin principality by William of
By his brother William, 1246; who conquers the
1324 1246-1430 about 1540 ACHONRY, SLIGO (N. Ireland), a bishopric founded by St. Finian, who erected the church of Achad, or Achonry, about 520, and conferred it on his disciple Nathy (Dathy, or David), the first bishop. The see, held with Killala, since 1612, was united with Tuam in 1834.
ACHROMATIC TELESCOPES, in which colour is got rid of, were invented by John Dollond, and described in Phil. Trans. of the Royal Society, London, 1753-8.
acids was increased by the Arabs; Geber (8th century) knew nitric acid and sulphuric acid. Theories of the constitution of acids were put forth by Becher (1669), Lemery (1675), and Stahl (1723). After the discovery of oxygen by Priestley, I Aug. 1774, Lavoisier (1778), concluded that oxygen was a constituent of all acids; but about 1810 Davy, GayLussac, and others, proved the existence of acids free from oxygen. In 1816 Dulong proposed the binary or hydrogen theory of acids, and in 1837 Liebig applied the theories of Davy and Dulong to explain the constitution of several organic acids. Oxygen acids were termed anhydrides by Gerhardt (died 1856). Many acids have been discovered through the advance of organic chemistry. Watts.
ACIDS (now defined as salts of hydrogen) are generally soluble in water, redden organic blues, decompose carbonates, and destroy the properties of alkalies, forming alkaline salts. The number of
Latin church, unknown to the Greek church for ACOLYTES, an inferior order of clergy in the four hundred years after Christ.
The speaking trumpet said to have been used by Alexander the Great, 335 B.C.
Galileo's discoveries, about A.D. 1600.
His theorem of the harmonie curve demonstrated by Dr.
Hooke calculated the vibration of sounds by the striking
Sauveur determined the number of vibrations belonging to a given note, about 1700.
Velocity of sound said to be 1473 feet in a second, by
Chladni (who raised acoustics to an independent science)
Biot, Savart, Wheatstone, Lissajous, Helmholtz, Tyndall, and others in the present century have greatly increased our knowledge of acoustics.
ACRE, a land measure, formerly of uncertain quantity, and differing in various parts of the country, was reduced to a standard by Edward I., about 1305. In 1824 the standard acre was ordered by statute to contain 4840 square yards.
ACRE, Acca, anciently Ptolemais, in Syria, was taken by the Saracens in 638; by the crusaders under Baldwin I. in 1104; by Saladin in 1187; and again by Richard I. and other crusaders, 12 July, 1191, after a siege of 2 years, with a loss of 6 archbishops, 12 bishops, 40 earls, 500 barons, and 300,000 soldiers. It was then named St. Jean d' Acre. It was retaken by the Saracens in 1291, when 60,000 Christians perished, and the nuns, who had mangled their faces, to preserve their chastity, were put to death. Acre was gallantly defended by Djezzar Pacha against Bonaparte, till relieved by sir Sidney between 16 March and 20 May, 1799, when Bonaparte Smith, who resisted twelve attempts by the French, retreated. Acre, as a Turkish pachalic, was seized 27 May, 1832, by Ibrahim Pacha, who had revolted. On 3 Nov. 1840, it was stormed by the allied fleet under sir Robert Stopford, and taken after a bombardment of a few hours, the Egyptians losing upwards of 2000 in killed and wounded, and 3000
prisoners, while the British had but 12 killed and Statutes first printed in the reign of Richard III., 1483.
The statutes passed during each session were formerly
By the Statute Law Revision Act of 1861, 770 acts were
ACROPOLIS, the ancient citadel of Athens, built on a rock. Near it stood the temple of Minerva, the Parthenon, which see. Other cities had similar fortresses.
ACROSTIC, a poem in which the first or last letters of each line, read downwards, form a word, is said to have been invented by Porphyrius Optalianus in the 4th century. Double acrostics became very popular in 1867.
ACS OR ACZ (Hungary). The Hungarians under Görgey were defeated here by the Austrians and Russians, on 2 and 10 July, 1849.
ACT OF SETTLEMENT, &c.; see Accession, Succession, Supremacy, and Uniformity Acts.
ACTA DIURNA; see Newspapers.
"Acts of parliament abbreviation bill" introduced by
"Chronological Table and Index to the Statutes to the
The greatest number of acts passed in any one year since 1800 was 570, in 1846 (the railway year); 402 were local and personal, 51 private, and 117 public acts. In 1841. only 13 were passed (the lowest number), of which two were private. In three instances only, the annual number was under a hundred. The average number of the first ten years of the present century was 132 public acts. In the ten years ending 1850, the average number of acts, of public interest, was 112.
The number of public general acts passed in 1851 was 106;
in 1852, 88; in 1853, 137; in 1854, 125; in 1855, 134; in 1856, 120; in 1857, 86; in 1858, 109; in 1859, 101; in 1860, 154; in 1861, 134; in 1862, 114; in 1863, 125; in 1864, 121; in 1865, 127; in 1866, 122; in 1867, 146; in 1868, 130; in 1869, 117; in 1870, 112; in 1871, 117; in 1872, 98.
ACTS, in dramatic poetry, first employed by the Romans. Five acts are mentioned by Horace (Art of Poetry) as the rule (about 8 B.C.).
ACTUARY, ACTUARIUS, the Roman accountant. The Institute of Actuaries founded in 1848, publishes its proceedings in the "Assurance Magazine."
ADAM AND EVE, ERA OF, in the English Bible, 4004 B.C.; see Creation.
ADAMITES, a sect said to have existed about ligious assemblies, asserting that if Adam had not 130, and to have been quite naked in their resinned there would have been no marriages. Their chief was named Prodicus; they defied the elements, rejected prayer, and said it was not necessary to confess Christ. Eusebius. A sect with this name arose at Antwerp in the 12th century, under Tandemus or Tanchelin, whose followers, 3000 soldiers and others, committed many crimes. It became extinct soon after the death of its chief; but another of the same kind, named Turlupins, appeared shortly after in Savoy and Dauphiny. A Fleming named Picard, revived this sect in Bohemia, about 1415; it was suppressed by Ziska, 1420.
ADDA, a river N. Italy, passed by Suwarrow after defeating the French, 27 April, 1799.
ADDINGTON ADMINISTRATION. Mr. Pitt, having engaged to procure Roman Catholic emancipation to promote the union with Ireland, and being unable to do so as a minister, resigned 3 Feb. 1801. A new ministry was formed by Mr.
Addington, March-July, 1801; after various changes separate articles headed with the name of the PREit terminated about 10 May, 1804. MIER, given below in italics
ADMINISTRATIONS OF ENGLAND AND OF GREAT BRITAIN. Until the Restoration, 1660, there was not any cabinet in the modern sense. The sovereign was aided by privy councillors, varying in number, the men and offices being frequently changed. The separation of the cabinet from the privy council became greater during the reign of William III., and the control of the chief, now termed the "premier," began in the reign of Anne. "The era of ministries may most properly be reckoned from the day of the meeting of the parliament after the general election of 1698." Macaulay. For a fuller account of each, since 1700, see
HENRY VIII-Abp. Warham; bps. Fisher and
Earl of Surrey; Tunstall, bishop of London, &c. . 1523
Lord Wriothesley; Thomas, duke of Norfolk; lord Lisle; sir William Petre; sir William Paget, &c. 1544 EDWARD VI. Lord Wriothesley, now earl of Southampton, lord chancellor (expelled); Edward, earl of Hertford, lord protector, created duke of Somerset; John, lord Russell; Henry, earl of Arundel; Thomas, lord Seymour; sir Wm. Paget; sir Wm. Petre, &c. John Dudley, late lord Lisle and earl of Warwick, created duke of Northumberland; John, earl of Bedford; bishop Goodrich, sir William Cecil, &c.
MARY.-Stephen Gardiner, bp. of Winchester; Ed-
Lord Burleigh; sir Thomas Bromley Robert
Thomas, lord Ellesmere; Thomas, earl of Suffolk
ville and earl of Manchester
control; chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. In 1850 the number was fifteen, and included the secretary-atwar, the postmaster-general, and the chief secretary for Ireland. In the Palmerston-Russell cabinet (which see), the president of the poor-law-board replaced the secretary for Ireland. The average duration of a ministry has been set down at four, five, and six years; but instances have occurred of the duration of a ministry for much longer periods: sir Robert Walpole was minister from 1721 to 1742 (21 years); Mr. Pitt, 1783 to 1801 (18 years); and lord Liverpool 1812 to 1827 (15 years). Several ministries have not lasted beyond a few months, as the Coalition Ministry in 1783, and the "Talents" Ministry in 1806. The "Short-lived" Administration lasted 10 to 12 Feb. 1746.