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the Dutch by the peace of 1783. It surrendered to Duke of Clarence

1829 the British, under colonel Stewart, 26 Aug. 1795, Marquis Camden and was confirmed to England by the peace of

Duke of Wellington

The Prince Consort Amiens, in 1802 ; see Ceylon. Of a series of actions

Viscount Palmerston

16 June, 1862 off Trincomalee between sir Edward Hughes and Duke of Edinburgh

I5 Manh, the French admiral Suffrein, one was fought 18 Feb. 1782, the enemy having eleven ships to nine ; TRINITY SUNDAY, the Sunday following on 12 April following, they had eighteen ships to Whitsunday. The festival of the Holy Trinity was eleven, and on 6 July, same year, they had tiiteen instituted by pope Gregory IV. in 828, on his ships to twelve. In all these contlicts the French ascending the papal chair, and is observed by the were defeated.

Latin and protestant churches on the Sunday next

following Pentecost or Whitsuntide, of which, TRINIDAD, an island in the West Indies, originally, it was merely an octave. The observance discovered by Columbus in 1498, was taken from the of the festival was first enjoined in the council of Spaniards by sir Walter Raleigh in 1595; by the Arles, 1260. It was appointed to be held on the French from the English in 1676. Taken by the present day by pope John XXI. in 1334. British, with four ships of the line, and a military force under command of sir Ralph Abercromby, to

TRINOBANTES, a British tribe which oci whom the island capitulated, 18 Feb. 1797; they pied Middlesex and Essex, and joined in opposing captured two, and burnt three Spanish ships of war

the invasion of Julius Cæsar, 54 B.C. ; but soon in the harbour. This possession was confirmed to submitted. They joined Boadicea and were defeated England by the peace of Amiens in 1802. The in- by Suetonius Paulinus near London, 61. surrection of the negroes occurred 4 Jan. 1832. TRIPLE ALLIANCE was ratified between Population in 1861, 84,438. Governor, Hon. Arthur the States-General and England against France, for H. Gordon, 1866; James R. Longden, 1870.

the protection of the Spanish Netherlands; Sweden TRINITY AND TRINITARIANS. Theophilus, alterwards joining the league, it was known as the bishop of Intioch, who flourished in the 2nd cen

Triple Alliance, 23 Jan. 1608.- Inother Triple

Alliance was that between England, Holland, and tury, was the first who used the term Trinity, to express the three sacred persons in the Godhead: Great Britain, Russia, and Austria, 28 Sept. 1795

France against Spain, Jan. 1717.- Another between His “Defence of Christianity was edited by Gesner, at Zurich, in 1546. Watkins. An order of TRIPOLI (three cities). I., in Syria, comthe Trinity, termed Mathurins, was founded about prised three quarters built by the Tyrians, Sidonians, 1198 by John de Matha and Felix de Valois. The and Arabians; was taken by the Crusaders 110% Trinity fraternity, originally of fifteen persons, was and made a county for Raymond of Toulouse. It instituted at Rome by St. Philip Neri, in 1548. was conquered by the Egyptians in 1832; restond The act to exempt from penalties persons denying to the Porte 1835; surrendered to the British 1841. the doctrine of the Trinity (such as Unitarians and II., a Turkish province, N. Africa, comprised the Swedenborgians) passed in 1813.

cities Sabrata, &a (the present Tripoli, the capitai),

and Leptis (the ancieni Tripolitana), after having TRINITY COLLEGES, see Cambridge, and been held by Greeks, Romans, Vandals, and SarsOxford. Trinity College, Dublin, called the Uni- cens, was conquered and annexed by the Turks versity : grant of the Augustine monastery of All | 1551. Hamet Bey; pacha in 1741, made himself Saints within the suburbs for erecting this college, independent, and the government remained in his conferred by queen Elizabeth, 1591. First stone family till 1835, when Tripoli was restored to nomi: laid by Thomas Smith, mayor of Dublin, 1 Jan. nal subjugation to the sultan. Population (1871) 1593. "New charter, 1637: Made a barrack for about 1,150,000. soldiers, 1689. Burns. The principal or west front erected, 1759. Library erected, 1732. This college Greeks, who committed dreadful cruelties, 5 0-1.

TRIPOLITZA (Greece), was stormed by the grants degrees upon examination without residence. The Roman Catholics desire exemption from mixed 1821; retaken by the Egyptians, 30 June, 1825; education and special privileges. Great changes given up to the Greeks, 1828. were proposed by the Irish University bill, which

TRIREMES, gallers with three banks of oars, was brought into parliament Feb. 1873, but with

are said to have been invented by the Corinthians, drawn. Religious tests were abolished in the same 784 or 700 B.C. year.

TRIUMPHS were granted by the Roman senate TRINITY HOUSE, LONDON, founded by to generals of armies after they had won great viesir Thomas Spert, 1512, as an ** association for tories. They were received into the city with great piloting ships," was incorporated in 1514, and re- magnificence and public acclamations. There were incorporated in 1604, 1660, and 1685: The present the great, called the Triumph; and the less, the Trinity House was erected in 1795. By their charter Ovation ; see Ovation. the brethren of the Trinity House have the power of examining, licensing, and regulating pilots, and TRIUMVIRATES, ROMAN. In 60 B.C.. of crecting beacons and lighthouses, and of placing Julius Crsar, Pompey, and Crassus formed a coali, buoys in the channels and rivers. Spert, the first tion to rule the state. This lasted ten years, and master, died 8 Sept. 1541.—TRINITY "Houses, the civil war ensued. The second triumvirate, 43 originally guilds or fraternities, founded at Dept- B.C., was formed by Octavius Cæsar, Mark Antony, ford, Hull, and Newcastle, were incorporated by and Lepidus, through whom the Romans totally lost Henry VIII., 1536-41.

their liberty. Lepidus was expelled in 36; Antony was subdued in 31, and Octavius made himself

absolute; see Rome. In Feb. 1849, a triumvirate William Pitt Earl Spencer,

was appointed at Rome, consisting of Joseph Maze Duke of Portland

1807 zini, Armellini, and Saffi, which resigned on 1 July, Earl Carnden.

1849, when the city was taken by the French. Earl of Liverpool

1815 Marquis Camden

TRIVIUM, see Arts.


1790 1806







TROPPAU, CONGRESS OF, in Austrian Troyes was taken by the allied armies, 7 Feb. ; re-
Silesia. The emperors Francis of Austria and taken by Napoleon, 23 Feb.; and again taken by
Alexandria of Russia met at Troppau, 20 Oct. 1820. the allies, 4 March, 1814.
The congress between them and the king of
Prussia, against Naples, took place 10 Nov.; and

TRUCE OF GOD (Frera or Trenga Dei), a the conference was transferred to Laybach, as nearer

term given to a cessation of the private feuds and to Italy, 17 Dec. 1820; see Laybach.

conflicts so general during the middle ages all over

Europe, said to have been strongly advocated by the TROUBADOURS AND TROUVERES (from bishop of Aquitaine, in 1032. The clergy stiemtroubar, trourer, to find or invent), the poets of the ously exerted their influence for the purpose. A middle ages (from the nth to the 15th century). synod at Roussillon, 1027, decreed that none shoud The former flourished in the south of France and

attack his enemy between Saturday evening (at north of Spain, and used the Langue d’oc (that is, nones) and Monday morning (at the hour of prime). oc for oui, yes); the latter flourished in the north of Similar regulations were adopted in England, 1042 France, and used the Langue d’oil (that is, oil for the time). The truce of God was confirmed by

(sometimes Friday and Wednesday being chosen for our). The Troubadours produced romances, but excelled chiefly in lyric poetry; the Trouvères ex

many councils of the church, especially the Lateran celled in romances, several of which are extant; as,

Council, in 1179. the Brut d'Angleterre, and the Rou, by Wace; the “ Romance of the Rose,” by Guillaume de Lorris wayes, in goods (sold at “ tommy shops) instead

TRUCK SYSTEM of paying workmen's and Jean de Meung. The Troubadours were usually of money, was prohibited by parliament'in 1831. accompanied by Jongleurs, who sang their masters' By the Truck act a commission to inquire into its verses, with the accompaniment of the guitar. alleged prevalence was appointed ; act passed 10 Histories of these French poets, and specimens of Aug. 1870. their works, have been published in France. These poets, although frequently very licentious, tended TRUMPET. Some of the Greek historians to promote civilisation during those warlike times. ascribe the invention of the trumpet to the Tyr

rhenians, and others to the Egyptians. It was in TROY or ILIUM, capital of the Troas, Asia use in the time of Homer. First torches, then Minor; see Homer.

shells of fish, sounded like trumpets, were the

signals in primitive wars, Potter. The Jewish Arrival of Scamander in Phrygia. Bloir. B.C. 1546 feast of trumpets was appointed 1490 B.C. (Lev. Teucer succeeds his father Dardanus succeeds ; builds Dardania

xxii. 24). Offa, king of Mercia, is said to have

1480 Reign of Erichthonius

had trumpets sounded before him when travelling, Reign of Tros; from whom the people are called about A.D. 790. The speaking trumpet is said to Trojans, and the city Troas

have been used by Alexander the Great in 335 B.C.; Ilus, his son, reigns; the city called Ilium. 1314 improved by Kircher in A.D. 1652; by Salland, 1654 ; Reign of Laoinedon Arrival of Hercules in Phrygia. Hesione delivered

and philosophically explained by Morland, 1671. from the sea monster. Blair; Usher

TRUMPET-FLOWER, Bignonia radicans, War of Hercules and Laomedon Reign of Priam or Podaries.

was brought hither from North America, about Rapie of Helen, by Alexander Paris, son of Priam, 1640. The Trumpet Honeysuckle, Lonicera semper20 years before the sacking of Troy. Homer's virens, came from North America in 1656. The Mind, hook xxiv.

Bignonia capensis was brought to England from the Commencement of the invasion of the Greeks to

Cape in 1823 The Large - tlowered Trumpetrecover Helen Troy taken and burnt in the night of the uth of

1193 | Hower, or Bignonia grandiflora, was brought from

China in 1800.
June, i.e., 23rd of the inonth Thargelion. Parian
Marbles. 408 years before the first Olympiad.

TRUSS. A transverse spring-truss for ruptures
Apollo lorus, Hales, anii Clinton, 1183; others. 1184
Æneas arrives in Italy. Lenglet.


was patented by Robert Brand in 1771, and by [Some time after the destruction of Troy, a new many other persons since. The National Truss

city was built with the same name, about thirty Society, to assist indigent persons, was established stadia distant from the old site. It was favoured

in 1786; and many similar societies since. by Alexander the Great in his Asiatic expedition, but never rose to much importance, and in the TUAM (W. Ireland). St. Jarlath, the son of age of Strabo was nearly in ruins. Priestley. ]

Loga, who lived about 501, is looked upon as the Dr. Schliemann, during his excavations at Hissarlek in the Troad, discovered the remains of a very

first founder of the cathedral of Tuam, though the ancient city with téruples, which he named abbey is said to have been founded in 487. The “Novuin Ilium"

A.D. 1872-3 church was anciently called Tuaim-da-Gualand.

In 1151, Edan O'Roisin was the first archbishop, at TROY WEIGHT. The Romans introduced least the first who received the pall, for some of his their ounce, our avoirdupois ounce, into Britain. predecessors are sometimes called bishops of ConThe present ounce was brought from Grand Cairo naught, and sometimes archbishops, by Irish hisinto Europe, about the time of the Crusades, 1095, torians. The see of Mayo was amexed to Tuam in and was first adopted at Troyes, a city of France, 1559. Tuam is valued in the king's books, by an whence the name. It is used to weigh gold, silver, extent returned anno 28 Eliz., at 50l. sterling per and precious stones. The Troy weight, Scots, was

Beatson. It ceased to be archiepiscopal, established by James VI. (our James I.) in 1618; conformably with the statute 3 & 4 Will. IV., 1833; see Standard.

and is now a bishopric only, to which Killala and

Ichonry, a joint see, has been added; see ArchTROYES (Central France), where a treaty was bishops. concluded between England, France, and Burgundy, whereby it was stipulated that Henry V. should TUBULAR BRIDGES. The Britannia Tumarry Catherine, daughter of Charles VI., be ap- bular Suspension Bridge, then the most wonderful pointed regent of France, and, after the death of enterprise in engineering in the world, was con. Charles, should inherit the crown, 21 May, 1420. / structed, 1846-50 (Mr. R. Stephensou and Mr. Fair.

1225 1224

1 204


1846-8 the metal.



bairn, engineers), about a mile southward of the in the register of Alkmaer in Holland, that in 1639, Menai Strait Suspension Bridge.*

I 20 tulips, with the offsets, sold for 90,000 forins:

and that one, called the l'iceroy, sold for 4203 On the Britannia rock, near the centre of the Menai

guilders! The States stopped this ruinous trittic. Strait, the surface of which is about ten feet above low water level, is built a tower two hun

The tulip tree, Liriodendron tulipifera, was brought dred feet above high water (commenced building,

to England from America, about 1663. May, 1846), and on which rest two lines of tubes or hollow girders strong enough to bear their

TUNBRIDGE WELLS (Kent). The springs weight and laden trains in addition, the ends were discovered, it is stated by Dudler, lord North, resting on the abutments on each shore ; each

who, when very ill, was restored to health by the tube being inore than a quarter of a mile in

use of the waters, 1606. The wells were risted by length. The height of the tube within is thirty feet at the Britannia tower, diminishing to

the queens of Charles I. and II., and soon becanie twenty-three feet at the abutments. The lifting

fashionable. of these tubes to their places was a most gigantic operation, successfully performed,

TUNGSTEN (also called wolfram and schee

27 June, 1849 lium), a hard whitish brittle metal. From tungstate The first locomotive passed through March, 1850 of lead, Schcele in 1781_obtained tungstic acid, The Conway tubular bridge, a miniature copy of whence the brothers De Luyart in 1786 obtained

the Britannia (principal engineers, Mr. Robt. Stephenson and Mr. Fairbairn) erected.

In 1859 it was employed in making a At Chepstow, a railway tubular bridge

new kind of steel. A bridge or viaduct on the tubular jirinciple (called the Albert viadut) over the river Tamar at Ply

TUNIS (N. Africa) stands nearly on the site of mouth, opened by the prince consort May: 1859 Carthage. Tunis was besieged by Louis IX, of The most stupendous tubular bridge in the world is that over the St. Lawrence, Canada ; see Victoria

France, who died near it 25 Aug. 1270. It remained Brilge.

under African kings till taken by Barbarossa, for

Solyman the Magnificent, 1531. Barbarossa vas TUDELA (N. Spain). , Near here marshal | expelled, by the emperor Charles V., when 10,000 Lannes totally defeated the Spaniards, 23 Nov. Christian slaves were set at liberty, June 1535 1808; see Ebro.

The country was recovered by the Turks under

Selim II. The bey of Tunis was first appointed in TUDOR SOVEREIGNS; see England, 1485- 1574; Tunis was reduced by admiral Blake, on the 1603

bey refusing to deliver up the British captives, TUESDAY, in Latin Dies Martis, the day of 1655.. In July, 1856, the bey agreed to make con Mars, the third day of the week, so called from stitutional reforms. He died 22 Sept. 1859; and Tuisto, Tiw, or Tuesco, a Saxon deity, worshipped the oath of fidelity to the constitution. An insur

his brother and successor Mohamed Essadok took on this day. Tuisto is mentioned by Tacitus; see Ieek Days.

rection broke out 18 April, 1864, and in May the

European powers sent ships of war to protert their TUGENDBUND (“ league of Virtue"), subjects. Tunis, previously a regency, and often informed in Prussia soon after the peace of Tilsić, subordinate, was decreed to be an integral part of the June, 1807, ostensibly for relieving the sufferers by empire, 23 Oct. 1871. the late wars, and for the revival of morality and patriotism, mainly by the instrumentality of the TUNNAGE AND POUNDAGE were ancient statesman von Stein, gradually became a formidable duties levied on every tuu of wine and pound of secret political society, opposed to the French pre- other goods, imported or exported, and were the dominance in Germany. Its head-quarters were at origin of our "customs. They commenced in Konigsberg. It excited the jealousy of Napoleon, England about 1346, and were granted to the kings who demanded its suppression in 1809. It was dis- for life, beginning with Edward IV. Charles I. solved at the peace in 1815.

gave great offence by levying them on his own

authority, 1628. They were granted to Charles II. TUILERIES (Paris), the imperial palace of for his lifetime, 24 June, 1000. By the act 27 France, commenced by Catherine de Medicis, after Geo. III. C. 13, these and other duties were repealed, the plans of Philibert de l'Orme, 1564; continued 1787, and a new arrangement of excise and custonis by Henry IV.; and finished by Louis XIV. This

was introduced. palace was stormed by the mob, 10 Aug. 1792 ; and ransacked in the revolutions of July, 1830, and TUNNELS, for drainage, are ancient. The Feb. 1848. Louis Napoleon made it his residence earliest tunnel for internal navigation was executed in 1851, and greatly renovated it. The restoration by M. Riguet, in the reign of Louis XIV., at Bezières of the Tuileries (much injured by fire by the com- in France. The first in England was by Mr. munists, May 1871), was determined on Oct. 1872.

Brinley, on the duke of Bridgewater's navigation,

near Manchester, about 1766. Project of the TULIPS, indigenous in the cast of Europe, came Gravesend tunnel, 1800—the report upon it, 1801. to England from Vienna about 1578. It is recorded The Thames Tunnel was projected by Mr. Brunel

in 1823, and opened for foot passengers, 25 March, * The Britannia tubular bridge was intended to supply 1843; see Thames Tunnel. Innumerable tunnels the place of one of the finest bridges in the kingdom : have been made for railways. The railway tunnel and the railway, of which the tubular bridge forms a j'art, is in like manner a substitute for one of the finest

at Liverpool was completed in the middle of 1829 inail-coach roadls ever constructed. The road from

lit up with gas, and exhibited once a week. On the London to Holyhead has been long regarded as the London and Birmingham railway there are eight highway from the British metropolis to Dublin ; and the tunnels (the Primrose-hill, Watford, Kilsby, &e.), late Mr Telforl was applied to by the government to

their total length being 7336 yards. Smiles. It perfect this route by the London and Holyheal mailcoach road, which he did by erecting a beautiful suspen

was computed by Mr. Fowler, that there were 80 sion bridge over the river Conway and over the Menai

miles of tunnels in the United Kingdom in 1865, Strait ; commenced in July, 1818, and finished in July,

which cost about 6,500,000!., at the average of 457. 1825

a yard; see Alps and Thames. A tunnel for a


Dec. 1522

Oct. 1529

Aug. 1571



Jan. 1784

railway beneath the channel from Dover to Calais, Constantinople taken by the Turks under Mahomet was proposed by Messrs. J. F. Bateman and J. Revy II., which ends the Eastern Roman empire, in Aug. 1869. M. Thomé de Gamond, after many

29 May, 1453

Belgrade relieved by Huniades' victory over the years' study, exhibited his plans in Paris, 1867; Turks

July, 1456 his scheme was revived in France, July, 1871. Greece subjected to the Turks (see Greece) 1458-60

The Turks take Otranto, diffusing terror throughTURAN, see Turkestan.

out Europe

Selim 1. raised to the throne hy the Janissaries; TÜRCKHEIM, see Türkheim.

murders his father, brothers, &c. .

1512 He takes the islands of the Archipelago

1514 TURIN, the ancient Augusta Taurinorum in

He overruns Syria

1515 Gains Egypt by defeat of Mamelukes.

Aug. 1516 Piedmont, capital of the Sardinian States, and of

Solymau takes Belgrale, Aug. 1521; and Rhodes, the kingdom of Italy, till 1804, when it was superseded by Florence. "Its importance dates from the Defeats Hungarians at Mohatz

29 Aug. 1526 permanent union of Savoy and Piedmont in 1416. Repulsed before Vienna, The French besieged this city; but prince Eugène

Peace with Austria

· 1533 defeated their army, and compelled them to raise

Cyprus taken from the Venetians. the siege, 7 Sept. 1700. In 1798, the French Treaty of commerce with England

Great battle of Lepanto (which see)

7 Oct. republican army took possession of Turin, seized all Turks driven out of Persia by Shah Abbas

1585 the strong places and arsenals of Piedmont, and Great tire in Constantinople obliged the king and his family to remove to the

War with the Cossacks, who take Azof

1637 island of Sardinia. In 1799, the French were

The Turks defeat the Persians and take the city of driven out by the Austrians and Russians; but the


1638 city and all Piedmont surrendered to the French,

Candia (Crete) taken from Venice, after a 25 years'

1669 June 1800. In May 1814, it was restored to the viema besieged by Mahomet iv. but relieved by king of Sardinia ; see Italy; 1864. Here prince John of Poland

12 Sept. 1683 Humbert was married to his cousin Margherita Peace of Carlovitz

26 Jan. 1699 amidst great rejoicing, 22 April, 1868. See Mustapha II. deposed by Janissaries

1703 Treaties.

The Morea retaken by the Turks

1715 The Turks defeated at Peterwaradein.

1716 TURKESTAN, called by the Persians Turan,

They lose Belgrade ; and their power declines 1717
Peace of Erivan (with Persia)

1732 Independent Tartary, the original country of the Belgrade taken from Austria ; and Russia rolin Turks, in Central Asia, was reached by Alexander, quishes Azof

1739 331 B.C. The Russians are gradually encroaching The Turks defeated at Kars .

• 1745 on this country; on 14 Feb. 1865, a new province,

Insurrection of Wahabees.

1749 Turkestan, was created by decree, and gen. Kautf

Great sea-tight in the channel of Scio; the Russian

fleet defeats the Turkish mann made governor, 26 July, 1867.

1770 The Crimea rellel to Russia

Disastrous war with Russia and Austria, the Turks TURKEY. The Turks were originally a lose more than 200,000 men

1787-91 tribe of Tartars; but, by incorporation with the Cession of Oczacow

• 1791 peoples they have conquered, have become a mixed

War with the French, who invade Egypt

1798 Insurrection of Mamelukes at Cairo.

1803 About 760, they obtained possession of a

War against Russia and England part of Armenia, called from them Turcomania. Passage and repassage of the Dardanelles effected They gradually extended their power; but in the by the British ileet, but with great loss 13th century, being harassed by other Tartar tribes, danelles they returned to Asia Minor. "The Turkish empire

Murder of Hali Aga comprehends the almost independent principalities

The Janissaries massacre the newly disciplined troops

1808 of Moldavia and Wallachin, Servia, and Monte

The Russians defeated at Silistria

1809 negro, the hereditary vice-royalty of Egypt, and

Treaty of Bucharest (which sec)

28 May, 1812 Tunis. The population of the empire is estimated A caravan consisting of 2000 souls, returning from at 43,600,000 (1871).

Mecca, destroyed by a pestilential wind in the

deserts of Arabia ; 20 saved Alvp Arslan and the Turks conquer Armenia and Subjugation of the Wahabees (which see)

1818-19 Georgia

1065-8 Ali Pacha of Janina, in Greece, declares himself Asia Minor conquered, 1074-84; Jerusalem taken 1076


1820 Soliman Siah drowned in the Euphrates, while on Insurrection in Moldavia and Wallachia, 6 March, 1821

the march ; his son Ertoghul, granted territories Persecution of Christians, 6 March; the Greek near Angora, dies

1288 patriarch put to death at Constantinople, Othman, his son, emir of the sultan of Iconium,

23 April, founded the Ottoman empire at Prusa, Bithynia, (For the events in connection with the independby policy and conquest, in

I 299 ence of Greece, see Greece.) Organisation of Janissaries by Orcan about

1330 Horrible massacre at Scio (see Chios). 23 April, 1822 Nicæa conqueredl, 1330 ; and the Morea

Sea-fight near Mitylene ; Turks defeated

6 Oct. 1824 The Turks penetrate into Thrace, and take Adrian New Mahometan army organised


Jan. 1807

; see Dar

19 Feb 25 May,

9 Aug.


29 May, 1826 ople

Insurrection of the Janissaries at Constantinople; Anurath I. remodels the Janissaries .

they are suppressed and inassacred, 14-16 June, Bajazet I. overruns provinces of the Eastern empire 6000 houses burnt at Constantinople

30 Aug. 1389 et seq. Battle of Navarino ; the Turkish fleet destroyed He defeats Sigismund of Hungary at Nicopolis

by the fleets of England, France, and Russia (see 23 Sept. 1396 Narrino)

20 Oct. 1827 He besieges Constantinople; but is interrupted by Banishment of 132 French, i20 English, and 85 the approach of Tamerlane (or Timour), by whom

Russian settlers from the empire

5 Jan. 1828 he is defeated and made prisoner, at Ancyra, War with Russia

26 April, 28 July, 1402 The czar Nicholas takes the field

20 May, Macedonia annexel

1430 Capitulation of Brahilow

19 June, Ladislas of Hungary defeated and slain at Varna

Surrender of Anapa by Ainurath

10 Nov. 1444

Eminences of Shimla taken by Russians, 20 July, Amurath defeats John Huniadies at Kossova

Oct. 1448
The car arrives before Varna

5 Aug The Turks, invading Hungary, repelled by Huni Battle of Akhalzic

24 Aug. ades 1450 Fortress of Bajazet taken

9 Sept.

1361 1362

23 June

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30 Oct.



25 April

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The sultan proceeds to the camp with the sacred standard

26 Sept. 1828 Dardanelles blockaded.

I O't. Surrender of Varna

II Oct. Russians retreat from Shumla

16 Oct. Surrender of the castle of the Morea to the French, Siege of Silistria raised by Russians

10 Nov. Victory of the Russians at Kuleftscha, near Shumla

11 June, 1829 Battle near Erzeroum

2 July, Adrianople is entered by the Russians, 20 Aug : armistice agreed on

29 lug. Treaty of peace at Adrianople

14 Sept. Fire at Constantinople; extinguished by the men of H.M.S. Blonde

22 Jan. 18 30 The Porte acknowledges the independence of Greece Treaty with America

7 May, Great tire at Pera; British embassy destroyed,

2 Aug. 1831 New military "order of glory" (Nischan) founded

19 Aug St. Jean d'Acre taken by Ibrahim Pacha, son of Mehemet Ali

2 July, 1832 He defeats the army of the Sultan at Konieh,

21 Dec. Ibrahim Pacha marches within eighty leagues of

Constantinople, and the sultan asks the aid of

Jan. 1833 The Russians enter Constantinople

3 April, Treaty with Russia, offensive and defensive,

8 July, Office of grand vizier abolished

30 March, 1838 Treaty of comineree with England, concluded by lord Ponsonby, ratified

16 Aug [For the events of 1839 and 1840 in relation to

Syria ; see Syria.) Christians admitted to office in Turkey June, 1849 The Turkish government refuses to surrender the

Hungarian and Polish refugees on the joint demand of Russia and Austria

16 Sept. {The Porte (countenanced by England) firmly resists

this demand.) Russia suspends intercourse with the Porte,

12 Nov. The British fleet, under sir W. Parker, anchors in

Besika lay
Diplomatic relations between Russia and the Porte

resumeul, 31 Dec. ; the latter sending the refugees

to konieh Turkish Croatia in a state of rebellion Treaty with France respecting the Holy Places (which see)

13 Feb. 1852 Imperial order of Medjidie founded

Aug. Prince Menschikoff repairs to Constantinople as

Russian negotiator, 28 Feb. ; his preremptory demands rejected

19 April, 1853 Reschid Pacha becomes foreign minister; the

ultimatum being rejected, Menschikoff quits Constantinople

21 May, Hatti-sheriff issued, confirming the rights of the Greek Christians

6 June, Russian manifesto against Turkey 26 June, Russian army crosses the Pruth

2 July, Grand national council-war to be declared if the

principalities are not evacuated 26 Sept. War declared against Russia

The Russians retire from the principalities, which

are thereupon oceupied by the Austrians, Sept. 1854 Peace with Russia by treaty of Paris 30 March, 1050 Austrians quit the principalities

March, 1857 Misunderstanding among the allied powers respecting Moldavian elections, which are annulled,

July, Death of Reschid Pacha

- 7 Jan 1853 Lord Stratford de Reicliffe, many years English

ambassador at Constantinople, returned to England, Jan. ; he is succeeded by sir H. Litton Bulwer; accredited

12 July, Indecisive contiets in Montenegro between the natives and the Turks

Massacre of Christians at Jeida (which see), 15 June;
Turkish financial reforms begun
The first Turkish railway opened (from Aidan to

19 Sept. Base coinage called in ; a fictitious Turkish coware

begun at Birmingham suppressed The allied powers determine the Montenegribe boundaries

8 Nov. Prince Alexander Cousa elected hospovlar of both Moldavia and Wallachia

5 and 7 Feb. 1859 [The Purte at first objects, but afterwanis alcedes

to the double election.] Eletric telegraph completed between Aden and Suez

May, Great fire at Constantinople; 1000 houses destroyed

10-14 Sept Conspiracy against the sultan, 17 Sept.; his brother implicated ; several condemned to die ; reprieved,

Sept, and it Great agitation for financial reform Jlleged ill treatment of Christians in Turkey : piram posed intervention of the great powers, 5 Mar; the Turkish governinent promises investigation and redress, 30 May; all the powers satisfiel except Russia

June, 1860 War between the Druses and Maronites in Lebanon; inassacres (see Druses)

June, Massacre of Christians at Damascus (see Dawasts, and Syria)

9-11 July, Convention on behalf of the Great Powers at Paris armed intervention of the French agreed to,

2 Aug Inundations at Galatz; loss about 175,000!.

24 Feb. 1861 Christians revolt in the Herzegovina, aided by the Montenegrins

March, Great need of financial reform : the British anbassador, sir H. Lytton, proposes a scheme,

April, Discussion respecting the French occupation of Syria; it ceases

5 June, Death of the sultan, A bulul-Medjid ; accession of Abdul Aziz, his brother

25 June, Economical reforms begun; Fuad Pacha made president of the council.

The late sultan's jewels sold in London
Imperial order of knighthood (Osmaneh) to include

civil as well as military persons, founded, Sept. Imperial guari reorganised

Fuah Pacha made grand vizier
He puts forth a budget ; treaties of commerce with
Sweden, Spain, &#.

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(See Russo-Turkish War.] Insurrection in Epirus and Albania, favoured by

the Greek government at Athens-Hellenic empire proclaimed

27 Jan. 1854 Volunteers from Athens join it

14 March, Rupture between Greece and Turkey 28 Mirch,

(Several conflicts ensue with varied success. ) Osman Pacha storms Peta, the central point of the insurrection

25 pril, English and French governments, after many

remonstrances, send troops, which arrive at the Pireus ; the king of Greece submits, and promises strict neutrality: the Greek volunteers are recalled

25 and 26 May, Abdi Pacha and Fuad Efendi take the intrenchedi

camp at Kolampaka, and the insurrection shortly after ceases

18 June, Reschid Pacha, having retired (3 June), resumes his office

1 July, Convention between Turkey and Austria

14 June,

March, 1862 A Turkishi loan (8,000,000?.) taken up in London,

May, Secularisation of the property of the mosques,

(value about 3,000,000l.) said to be determined on, Insurgents in the Herzegovina submit; peace maile with Montenegro

23 Sept. Dispute with Servia (which sce) settled

70t. Ministerial crisis through the sultan's attenpt at

reaction; Fuad Pacha and others resign, but resume office

7 Jan. 1863 A new bank established

28 Jan. Fuad Pacha becomes seraskier

12 Feh Exhibition of the produce of the empire opened in March; closed

26 July, The sultan visits Egypt

7-17 April, Fuad Pacha made grand vizier

I June,
Great immigration of the Caucasian tribes April, 1864
Financial reforms ; conversion and verification of
the Turkish debt

Aug 1865
Cholera rages at Constantinople, nearly 50,000

deaths, Aug. ; cholera subsides, Sept. ; great tire

22 Nov.

5 Oct.



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