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there, about 2500 buildings (mosques, dwellings, Important speech of the sultan to his council re&c.) lestroyed 6 Sept. 1865 specting the finances

16 May, 1872 Fuad Pacha proposes confiscation of the property Mahmoud Pacha, grand vizier, having made of the mosques : opposition of the Sheikh-ul-Islam

enemies through dismissing foreign employés, &c., 21 Sept.

is dismissed and replaced by Midhat Pacha, Lord Lyons, ambassador at Constantinople .

about 30 July, Revolt of the Maronites under Joseph Karam, Midhat Pacha, who favoured Austria, dismissed ;

replaced by Mehemed Ruchdi about 20 Oct. The grand vizier, Fuad Pacha, superseded by The Roumelian railway connecting Constantinople, Ruchdi Mehemed Ali

5 June, 1866
Adrianople, &c., opened

17 June, 1873 Revolution in Bucharest (see Danubian princi See Carulia, Egypt, Greece, Montenegro, and Servia.

palities). Insurrection in Candia (which see)

Aug

TURKISH SULTANS, International conference respecting cholera at Con 1299. Othman, Osman, or Ottoman, founded the empire; stantinople 13 Feb.-26 Sept.

retained the title emir, but ruled despotically, European Turkey very unsettled

Jan. 1867 1326. Orchan, son, took the title "sultan.' Maronite revolt, under Joseph Karam, suppressedl; 1360. Amurath (or Murad), I. ; stabbed by a soldier, his flight, Jan. ; Turks leave

28 March,

of which wound he died. Ministerial changes : Ali Pacha becomes grand 1389. Bajazet I., Nderim, son; defeated by Tamerlane, vizier; Fuarl Pacha, foreign minister I Feb.

and died imprisoned. "The recommendation of the European powers to 1403. Solyman, son : dethroned by his brother.

thesultan to give up Candia finally declined 31 Mar. 1410. Musa-Chelebi : strangled. Omar Pacha, commander-in-chief of the Turkish 1413. Mahomet I., son of Bajazet. armiy

April, 1421. Amurath II., son. Destruction of the dockyards in the Golden hörn by 1451. Wahomet II., son : took Constantinople, 1453. fire

2 April, 1481. Bajazet II., son. The Sultan, with his son and nephew, visits Paris, 1512. Selim I., son.

1-12 July ; arrives at Buckingham Palace, 1520. Solyman I. or II., the Magnificent, son. London, 12 July; entertained by the queen at 1506. Selim II., son, Windsor, 13 July; by the lord mayor, 18 July ; 1574. Amurath III., son : killed his five brothers; their at a ball at New India House, 19 July; gives

mother, in grief, stabbed herself. 2500l, to the poor of London, 22 July; sails from 1595. Mahomet III., son: strangled all his brothers, Dover, 23 July; at Vienna, 27 July-i Jug: ; re

and drowned his father's wives. turns to Constantinople

7 Aug.

1603. Ahined (or Achinet) I., son. The Sultan declines the proposition of Russia, for 1617. Mustapha I., brother : deposed by the Janissaries, the suspension of hostilities in Crete, and an in

and imprisoned. ternational commission

4 Sept.

1618. Osman II., nephew: strangled by Janissaries. Ministerial crisis; Fuad Pacha resigns, but re 1622. Mustapha I. again : again deposed, sent to the sumes his office

Jan. 1868

Seven Towers, and strangledl. Meeting of the new council of state (including 1623. Amurath IV., brother of Osman II.

Jews and Christians), with legislative, but not 1640. Ibrahim, brother : strangled by the Janissaries. executive, functions

18 May,

1648. Mahomet IV., son : deposed by Arrival of prince Napoleon Jerome at Constanti 1687. Solyman II. or III., brother. nople.

26 June, Arrests on account of a supposed plot against the

1691. Ahmen (or Achmet) II., son of Ibrahim, nephew.

1695. Mustapha II., eldest son of Mahomet IV. : desultan

30 Sept.

posed. Dispute with Greece for intervention in the Cretan

1703 Ahmed (or Achmet) III., brother: deposed, and insurrection ; see Grecce .

Dec.

died in prison in 1736. Fuad Pacha dies.

Feb. 1869

1730. Mahmud I. (or Mahomet V.), son of Mustapha II. The prince and princess of Wales's visit April, 1754. Osman III., brother. Memorial of the porte to the European powers de 1757. Mustapha III., brother.

siring the abolition of the consular jurisdictions 1774. Abdul-Ahmed, brother. termed " capitulations"

June, 1789. Selim III., son of Mustapha Ill. ; deposed by the The khedive or viceroy of Egypt censured for

Janissaries. assuming sovereign powers encroaching on those 1807. Mustapha IV., son of Abdul-Ahmed ; deposed, of the sultan

Aug.

and, with the late sultan Selim, murdered. System of compulsory education promulgated, Oct. ” 1808. Mahmud II., or Mahomet VI., brother. Arrival of the empress of the French at Constanti 1839. Ahlul-Medjid (son), 2 July (born 23 April, 1823); nople

clied 25 June, 1861. Inauguration of the Sueż canal

1861. Abdul Aziz, brother, born 9 Feb. 1830. "The khedive submits to the sultan

Dee. Heir presumptive; Murad (son of Abdul-Medijid), born Modification of the “ capitulations" April, 1870

21 Sept. 1840. Great fire at Pera ; British embassy and about 7900 houses destroyed : great loss of life

5 June,

TURKEY TRADE, commenced in the year Another fire at Constantinople; about 1500 houses 1550. The Turkey or Levant Company of London burnt.

11 July, Change in the cabinet ; Mustapha Fazyl, finance

was instituted by charter of Elizabeth, in 1579. minister

14 Aug.

TURKEYS AND GUINEA FOWLS, first Reported treaty between Turkey and Greece to resist European aggression in the East.

brought to England about 1523, and to France in

21 Oct. Russia repudiates the treaty of Paris, 1856, 31 Oct.

1570. Turkeys are natives of America, and were A note delivered to the porte (see Russia), 15 Nov. consequently unknown to the ancients. The sultan agrees to a conference on the Black Sea question alone

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about 3 Dec.

TÜRKHEIM (E. France). Here the elector Mustapha Fazyl, replaced by Mehemed Ruchdi of Brandenburg and the Imperialists were defeated

about

15 Jan. 1871 by the French under urenne, 5 Jan. 1675. The Black Sea question settled by the conference at London (see Russia)

13 March,

TURKISH BATHS, see Baths. Omar Pacha, general, dies

18 April, Insurrection in Yemen, subdued

May,

TURKOMANS, see White Sheep. Great fires at Constantinople

7 June,

TURNER'S ACT, 13 & 14 Vict. c. 35 (1850), Aali Pacha, grand vizier, an able statesman, dies

6 Sept.

relates to the court of chancery. Mahmoud Pacha, grand vizier .

Sept. "Tunis made an integral part of the empire, by de

TURNER'S LEGACIES. Joseph M. W. cree

23 Oct.

Turner, a great landscape painter, was born in April, Political reforins inaugurated by the new ministry 1775, and died 19 Dec. 1851. He bequeathed to the

Vor. nation all the pictures and drawings collected by

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him and deposited at his residence, 47, Queen Anne- ! The Tuscan army demand alliance with thr Sar street, London, on condition that a suitable gallery dinians; the grand-tiuke refuses, and depart, to should be erected for them within ten years; and

Bologna; the king of Sardinia is proclaimed dhe

tator, and a directed his funded property to be expended in

provisional goverument feriled

27 Ajri, ros founding an asylum at Twickenham for decayed

The king assumes the command of the army, 'trit artists. The will was disputed by his relatives, but declines the dictatorship a compromise was made. The oil-paintings (100 in The Sarlinian commissary Buoncompagni investei number) and the drawings (1100) were obtained by with the powers of government the nation, and the engravings and some other pro

23 Mar.

DUKES.

GRAND-DUKES.

Prince Napoleon arrives at Leghorn, addresses the

Tuscans, and erects his standard perty were transferred to the next of kin. The

The grand-luke Leopold II. abdicates in fatuur drawings were cleaned and mounted under the

of his son Ferdinand

21 July, careful superintendence of Mr. Ruskin, and the Tuscan constituent assembly meets

II An pictures were sent to Marlborough-house for ex It declares against the house of Lorraine, 304 hibition. In 1861, many of the pictures were re

votes for annexation to Sardinia

Sent. moved from the South Kensington Museum to the

Prince Eugene of Savoy-Carignan elected governorNational Gallery, others in 1869. The sketches,

general of central Italy; he declines: but non

inends Buoncompagni, Nov. ; who is accepted by plates, &c.; of Turner's Liber Studiorum, were the Tuscans

8 Dr. sold for about 20,000l. 28 March, 1873.

Annexation to Sardinia voted by universal suffnare, 11, 12 March ; decreed

22 Manik, 1800 TURNING, see Lathe. In our dockyards,

Prince Eugene appointed governor 26 March, blocks and other materials for our ships of war are

Florence made the capital of Italy, by decree pont lished

u Da 166 now produced by an almost instantaneous process,

(See Italy, and Florence.) from rough pieces of oak, by the machinery of Mr. (afterwards sir Mark Isambard) Brunel (died 1849) ;

SOVEREIGNS OF TUSCANY. see Blocks.

1531. Alexander I. TURNPIKES, see Tolls.

1537. Cosmo L. TURPENTINE TREE, Pistacia Terebinthus, 1569. Cosmo I., Meliri. came from Barbary, before 1656. Spirits of turpen

1574. Frucis 1. tine were first applied, with success, to the rot in 1587. Ferdinand I. sheep; one-third of the spirit diluted with two-thirds

1608. Cosmo II.

1021. Ferdinand II. water. 1772.

1670. Cosmo III. (visited England, and wrote an acTURRET SHIPS, see Navy of England.

count of his travels).

1723. John Gaston (last of the Medici). TUSCAN ORDER OF ARCHITECTURE, a

1737. Francis II. (duke of Lorraine), became emperor of debased Doric, used in Tuscany for buildings, in

Germany in 1745.

1765. Leopold I. (emperor in 1790). which strength is chietly required. Wotton. 1790. Ferdinand III (second son of Leopold L): e1

pelled by the French in 1800. TUSCANY, formerly a grand duchy in Central

KINGS ON ETRURIA. Italy, the northern part of the ancient Etruria (which see). It formed part of the Lombard king- 1801. Louis I., duke of Parma.

1803. Louis II. dom, after the conquest of which by Charlemagne, 774, it was made a marquisate for Boniface about

1808-14. Eliza Bonaparte (married to Bacciochi, wale 828. His descendant, the great countess Matilda, prince of Lucca). bequeathed the southern part of her domains to the pope. (1115). In the northern part (then called 1814. Ferlinand III, restored. Tuscia), the cities, Florence, Pisa, Siema, Lurea, &c., 1824. Leopolii II., 18 June (born 3 Oct. 1797 ; abiicated, gradually became flourishing republies. Florence 21 July, 1859), died 29 Jan. 1870. became the chief under the government of the

1859. Ferdinand IV., 21 July (born 10 June, 1835): post Medici family; see Florence. The duchy in that

tested against the annexation of his grand duchy,

March, 1860. family began in 1531; and the grand-duchy in 1569. After the extinction of the Medicis in 1737, TUSCULUM (now Frascati), a city of Latium Tuscany was given by the treaty of Vienna (1738) (S. Italy). The Tusculans supported "Tarquinius to Francis, duke of Lorraine (married to Maria Superbus against the Romans, by whom they were Theresa of Austria in 1736), who had ceded his totally defeated, 497 B.C. The Tusculans, on achereditary estates to France. Population in 1860, count of their friendship with Rome, suffered much 1,826,830

from the other Latins, who took their city, 374, but

were severely chastised for it. 28 March, 1799

Here Cicero during The French enter Florence The gransi-uke is dispossessed, and his dominions

his retirement wrote his “Tusculanæ Disputationes," given to Louis duke of Parm: (of the royal house

about 46 B.C. of Spain), with the title of king of Etruria 180r

TWELFTH-DAY, the feast of the Epiphans, Tuscany incorporated with the French empire 1807 The grand-luchy given to Eliza, sister of Sapoleon 1808

or manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles, 6 Jan.; Ferdinand III, restored

1814

see Epiphany. Lucea united to Tuscany

1847 Leopold II. grants a free constitution

15 Feb. 1848

TWELVE TABLES, see Decemvirs. Insurrection at Florence; republic proclaimed ; the grand-duke flies

rı Feb. 1849

TWINS, joined together have been born freHe is restored by the Austrians

July, 1850 quently, but seldom lived long. Helen Judith, Rigorous imprisonment of the Madiai, husband joined Hungarian twins, were born in 1715, and and wife, converts to protestantism, for reading

died in 1723.

Millie-Christine, negro twins, born the Bible

May, 1852 in North Carolina in 1851,. were wholly distinct in The earls of Shaftesbury and Roden and others in vain intercerle for them at Florence

the upper part of the body, but one in the lower They are released after the intervention of the part of the spinal column and pelvis; the four legs British government

March, 1853 obeying nerves from a common centre. They sing [An annuity was provided for them by subscription] and danced well, and were named the “Two-headed

GRAND-DUCHESS.

GRAND-DUKES.

Oct.

Nightingale.” The will, understanding, and con the close of the Peloponnesian war, 404 B.C.; see science were distinct. See Siamese Twins.

Thirty Tyrants. TYBURN (W. London), at the west end of TYRE (Phænicia), a great city, said to have Oxford-road (now street), the chief place in London been first built by Agenor. Another city was built for the execution of malefactors till 1783. Pennant 1257 (about 2267, Hales) B.C. It was besieged by (who died 1798) remembered Oxford-street as "a the Assyrians, who retired from before it, after a deep, hollow road, and full of sloughs, with here and siege of upwards of five years, 713 B.C. Taken by there a ragged house, the lurking-place of cut- Nebuchadnezzar, 572 B.c., and the city demolished, throats."

when the Tyrians removed to an opposite island, TYBURNIA” (a N.W. suburb of London), and built a new and magnificent city. It was taken was built between 1839 and 1850, on the green by Alexander with much difficulty, after a siege of fields and nursery grounds in Paddington belonging seven months, July, 332 B.C. He joined the island to the see of London.

to the continent by a mole. Strabo. Tyre was TYLER'S INSURRECTION, in opposition French, 3 April, 1799; and by the allied fleet,

captured by the Crusaders, 7 July, 1124; by the to the poll-tax imposed on all persons above 15. during the war against Mehemet Ali, 1841. 5 Nov. 1380. One of the collectors, acting with indecent rudeness to Wat Tyler's daughter, was struck

TYRE, ERA OF, began on 19 Oct. 125 B.C., dead by the father, June, 1381. His neighbours with the month of Hyperberetæus. The months took arins, and in a short time almost the whole of were the same as those used in the Grecian era, the population of the southern and eastern counties and the year is similar to the Julian year. To rose, extorting freedom from their lords, and plun- reduce this era to ours, subtract 124; and if the dering. On 12 June, 1381, they gathered upon given year be less than 125, deduct it from 125, and Blackheath to the number of 100,000 men, and on the remainder will be the year before Christ. 14 June murdered Simon of Sudbury, archbishop of Canterbury, and sir Robert Hales, the royal trea TYROL, the eastern part of ancient Rhætia, surer. The king, Richard II., invited Tyler to a now a province of the Austrian empire, was ceded to parley, which took place on the 15th at Smithfield, the house of Hapsburg in 1359 by Margaret, the where the latter addressed the king in a menacing heiress of the last count.

It became an appanage manner, now and again lifting up his sword. On of the younger (or Tyrol) branch of the imperial this the mayor, Walworth, stunned Tyler with a

house, which came to the throne in the person of blow of his mace, and one of the king's knights Maximilian II., in 1618. The French conquered dispatched him. Richard temporised with the the Tyrol in 1805, and united it to Bavaria ; but in multitude by promising a charter, and thus led 1809 an insurrection broke out, headed by Andrew them out of the city, when sir R. Knollys and a Hofer, an innkeeper, who drove the Bavarians out band of knights attacked and dispersed them with of the Tyrol, thoroughly defeated some French demuch slaughter. The insurrection in Norfolk and tachments, but laid down his arms at the treaty of Suffolk was subdued by the bishop of Norwich, and

Vienna. He was subsequently accused of corre1500 of the rebels were executed.

sponding with the Austrians, captured and sent to

Mantua, and there shot by order of the French TYPE-COMPOSING MACHINES, see government, 20 Feb. 1810. The Austrian emperor under Printing, 1842-72.

ennobled his family in 1819, and erected his statue TYPE-FOUNDING, see under Printing, in Inspruck in 1834. The Tyrolese ritiemen were 1452, 1720.

very effective in the Italian war in 1859. TYRANT. In early Greek history, the term TYRONE (near Ulster, N. Ireland), formerly was applied to any man who governed with irre, the territories of the O'Neills, and the seat of the sponsible power. Solon objected to the term, and insurrection in 1641. chose the name Archon (ruler), 594 B.C. The earliest tyrants were those at Sicyon, beginning TYRRHENI, included the ancient Etruscans, with Cleisthenes, in the 7th century k.č. Tyranny and other tribes, said to have come from Lydia, Asia declined in Greece about 490 B.C., and revived after 'Minor.

U.

UBIQUITARIANS, or UBIQUARIANS, a rick V. lost Bohemia (having been driven from it small German sect, originated by John Brentius previously). Ulm was taken by the French in about 1560, who asserted that the body of Christ 1796. After a battle between the French and was present everywhere (ubique).

Austrians, in which the latter, under general Mack, UHLANS, the German lancers, very effective Ulm surrendered with 28,000 men, the flower of the

were defeated with dreadful loss by marshal Ney, in the war in 1870.

Austrian army, 17-20 Oct. 1805. UKRAINE (Polish for a frontier), a vast fertile plain in Russia, ceded to the Cossacks by

ULPHILAS'S BIBLE, see under Bible. Poland in 1672, and obtained by Russia in 1682.

ULSTER, the N. division of Ireland. After The country was divided, Poland having the West side of the Dnieper, and Russia the east. The

the death of Strongbow, 1176, John de Courcy was whole country was assigned to Russia by the treaty and Walter de Burgh, 1264; whose descendant,

made earl of Ulster; Hugh de Lacy was earl, 1243 ; of partition in 1795.

Elizabeth, married Lionel, son of Edward III., ULM, in Würtemberg, S. Germany, where a 1352. In 1611, the British colonisation of the PEACE was signed, 3 July, 1620, by which Frede- / forfeited lands (termed the Ulster settlements or

as

The

plantations) began, much land being granted to the but with little analogy to the modern dress. See corporation of London ; see Irish Society. The

under Nary. rebellion of the Irish chieftains, Roger More,

UNIGENITUS, see Bull. Phelim O'Neale, McGuire, earl of Inniskillen, and others, broke out on 23 Oct. 1641. Ulster k'ing of

UNINFLAMMABLE SALTS. At the Arms appointed for Ireland, 1553.-By the ancient British Association, 15 Sept. 1859, MM. Versmann “ Ulster tenant-right," the outgoing tenant of a and Oppenheim announced their discovers that farm received from his successor a sum of money fabrics steeped in solutions of tungstate of da, or for the privilege of occupancy. A modified form sulphate or phosphate of ammonia, burn without

flame. of this right was adopted in the Irish land act, passed 8 July, 1870.

UNION OF CALMAR, 1397; of Utrecht, 1579 ULTRAMONTANISTS (from ultra montes,

UNION OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND by beyond the mountains), a term originally applied in the accession of James VI. of Scotland as James L. France to those who upheld the extreme authority of England, 24 March, 1603. The legislative unia of the pope in opposition to the freedom of the

of the two kingdoms (as Great Britain) was atGallican church, which had been secured by various tempted, but failed in 1604 and 1670; in the reizi bulls, and especially by the concordat of 15 July, of Anne, commissioners were appointed, the articles 1801. Ultramontanists now are those who main- discussed, and, notwithstanding a great opposition tain the official infallibility of the bishop of Rome. made by the Tories, every article in the union is UMBRELLA, described in early dictionaries approved by a great majority, first in the house of

"a portable pent-house to carry in a person's commons, and afterwards by the peers, 22 Juis, hand to screen him from violent rain or heat." | 1706; was ratified by the Scottish parliament, io Umbrellas appear in the carvings at Persepolis. Jan. 1707, and became law, 1 May, same year. Niebuhr saw a great Arabian prince returning from UNION OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND a mosque, he and each of his family having a large effected, 2 July, 1800. umbrella carried by his side. Old chinaware shows

Proposed in the Irish parliament

22 Jan 1799 the Chinese shaded by umbrellas. It is said that Rejected by the commons of Ireland, the votes the first person who generally used an umbrella in being 105 for, to 106 against the union, 24 Jan. the streets of London was the benevolent Jonas The English house of commons on the same question Hanway, who died in 1786.

divided, 140, 141, and 149 for the union; against

it, 15, 25, and 28 respectively John Macdonald, a footman, who wrote his own life, in Lord Castlereagh detailed his plan of the unien, in

forms us that he hadi wa tine silk umbrella, which he the Irish house of lords, founded on the resolubrought froin Spain; but he could not with any comfort tions of the British parliament thereon 5 Feb. 1500 to himself use it, the people calling out, Frenchman! Votes of the commons agreeing to it, 161 against why don't you get a coach?'”. The hackney-coachmen 115, 17 Feb. ; and again, 152 against 108 21 Feb and chairmen were clamorous against their rival. The houses of lords and commons wait on the lor footman says he “persisted for three months, till they lieutenant with the articles of union, 27 Man h. took no further notice of this novelty. Foreigners The act passed in the British parliament 2 July, began to use theirs; and then the English." 1778. The imperial united standard first displayri at

the tower of London, and upon Bedfoni Tower, UNCTION, EXTREME, see Anointing.

Dublin Castle, on the act of legislative union ben UNDULATORY THEORY OF LIGHT, coming an operative law.

1 Jan. 1801 supposes a progressive wave-like motion between

For attempts to dissolve this union, see Repeal. the eye and the luminous body seen. It is said to UNION JACK. The original flag of England have been suggested by Francisco Grimaldi about was the banner of St. George, i.e., white with a red 1665, and was propounded by Robert Hooke and cross, which, 12 April, 1006 (three years after Huyghens, about 1672 ; opposed by Newton; but James I. ascended the throne) was incorporated with confirmed by Thomas Young by experiments in the banner of Scotland, i.e., blue with a white 1801, and is now generally adopted; see Emission. diagonal cross. This combination obtained the name

of - Union Jack," in allusion to the union with UNIFORMITY ACTS. That of 2 & 3 Edward VI., 15 Jan. 1549, ordained that the order of Scotland, and the word Jack is considered a corrupdivine worship, drawn up by Cranmer and others, tion of the word Jacobus, Jacques, or James. This “ with the aid of the Holy Ghost," should be the arrangement continued until the union with lrronly one used after 20 May. The penalties for land, 1 Jan. 1801, when the banner of St. Patrick, refusing to use it were fine and imprisonment. mated with it, and forms the present Union tag.

ie., white with a diagonal red cross, was amainThis act was confirmed in 1552; repealed by Mary, 1554; and re-enacted by Elizabetli in 1559. The UNION CHARGEABILITY ACT, proact of Uniformity, 14 Charles II. c. 4, was passed in viding for the better distribution of the charge for 1662. It enjoined uniformity in matters of religion, relieving the poor in unions, was passed in June, and obliged all clergy to subscribe to the thirty- 1865; One object of the act is the improvement of nine articles, and use the same form of worship, the dwellings of agricultural labourers. and same book of common prayer. Its enforcement UNION RELIEF ACT, passed in 1862, conon 24 Aug. 1662, termed Black Bartholomew's day, tinued in 1863, to enable boards of guardians of caused upwards of 2000 ministers to quit the church certain unions to obtain temporary aid to meet the of England. This day was commemorated by dis- extraordinary expenditure for relief occasioned by senters in 1862. The Act of Uniformity Amendment the distress in the cotton manufacturing districts. act, whereby shortened services were authorised, and other changes made, was passed 18 July, 1872.

UNION APPEAL ASSOCIATION, IREThe Uniformity of Process act, which made many

LAND, see Repeal of the Union. law changes, was passed 23 May, 1832.

UNIONISTS. A Spanish political parts, long UNIFORMS. Military uniforms were first headed by marshal Serrano. In 1869 they advocated used in France, “in a regular manner," by the election of the duc de Montpensier as king. See Louis XIV. about 1668. In England the uniform Progresistas and Spain. was soon afterwards adopted in the military service, UNIONS, see Poor, and Trades,

dent on

UNIT, a gold coin, value 208., issued by James I. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA were in 1604.

so styled by the congress of the revolted British UNITARIANS, termed Socinians from Lalius provinces, 9 Sept. 1776. Their flag was declared Socinus, who founded a sect in Italy, about 1546. and thirteen stars in a blue field, corresponding with

to be thirteen stripes, alternately red and white, They profess to believe in and worship one only

the then number of states of the union, 20 June, self-existent God, in opposition to those who wor

1777. The government of the United States is a ship the Trinity in unity. They consider Christ to

pure democracy. Each of the 37 states has a sepahave been a mere man; and do not admit the need

rate and independent legislature for the administraof an atonement or of the complete inspiration of the

tion of its local affairs, but all are ruled in matters Scriptures. Michael Servetus printed a tract in disp:ragement of the doctrine of the Trinity. In 1553, senate, elected for six years, and the house of repre

of imperial policy by two houses of legislature, the proceeding to Naples through Geneva, Calvin induced the magistrates to arrest him on'a charge of sentatives, elected for two years, to which delegates

are sent from the different members of the conblasphemy and heresy. Servetus, refusing to retract his opinions, was condemned to the flames, elected every fourth year by the free voice of the

federacy. The president of the United States is which sentence was carried into execution, 27 May, people. The election of Abraham Lincoln as presi1553. Servetus is numbered among those anato

Nov. 1860, was followed by the secession mists who made the nearest approach to the doctrine

of eleven slaveholding states, and led to the great of the circulation of the blood, before Harvey established that doctrine. Matthew Hamont was burnt

civil war, 1861-5; see Confederates, and below. at Norwich for asserting Christ not to be the Son The thirteen states of the union at the declaration of of God, 1 June, 1579. The Unitarians were nume independence in 1776: the italics indicate the then rous in Transylvania in the 17th century; they slaveholding states; those with a * prefixed, seceded came to England about 1700, and many of the

from the federal government in 1860 and 1861, and

were subdued in 1865. original English presbyterian churches became Unitarians about 1730. They were not included in New Hampshire.

Delaware. the Toleration act till 1813. There were 229 con

Massachusetts,

Maryland,

Rhode Island. gregations in England in 1851. Their tenets re

* Virginia. Connecticut.

* North Carolina. semble those of the Arians and Socinians (which see).

New York.

* South Carolina. The Unitarian marriage bill was passed, June, 1827. New Jersey

Georgia. In Dec. 1833, by a decision of the vice-chancellors Pennsylvania.

See separate articles. the Unitarians (as such) lost the possession of lady

The following have been added :-Hewley's charity; the decision was affirmed on ap

Vermont (from New York) peal in 1842.

1791 * Tennessee (from North Carolina).

1796 UNITED BRETHREN, see Moravians. Kentucky (from Virginia)

1792

Columbia district (under the immediate government UNITED IRISHMEN, a political society

of congress) contains Washington, the scat of which met secretly, was formed to establish a re

government

Ohio (created) public about 1795. Theobald Wolf Tone, the

* Louisiana (bought from France in 1803) founder, was captured by sir John Warren in the

Indiana (created)
Iloche, one of six frigates destined to support the * Mississippi (from Georgia).

1817 rebellion, in Oct. 1798. He anticipated his punish- Minois (created) ment by suicide in prison Nov. 1798.

* Alabama (from Georgia)

1819

Maine (from Massachusetts) UNITED KINGDOM England and Wales

Missouri (froin Louisiana)

1821 * Arkansas

1836 were united in 1283; Scotland to both in 1707; and

Michigan the British realm was named the United Kingdom

*Florida (ceded by Spain, 1820); made a state

1845 on the union of Ireland, 1 Jan. 1801; see Union. * Teras The UNITED KINGDOM ALLIANCE, for the total sup Iowa pression of liquor traffic, was founded, 1 June, Wisconsin..

1848

California 1853. See Permissive Bill. The subscribed mani

1850 festo of this alliance occupied a page of the Times, Oregon (territory, 1850), state

Minnesota (territory, 1849); state

1857

1859 1 Dec. 1871.

Kansas (territory, 1854); state
New Mexico (territory).

1850 UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH,

Utah (territory). in Scotland, was formed 13 May, 1847; see Burghers, Washington (territory). and Relief Church.

Nevada (territory, 1861); state.

1864 Colorado (territory)

1861 UNITED PROVINCES (Holland, Zealand, Dakota (territory) Utrecht, Friesland, Groningen, Overyssell, and Arizona (territory)

1863 Guelderland), the deputies of which met at Utrecht, Idaho (territory) 23 Jan. 1579, and signed a treaty for their mutual

West Virginia (from Virginia); state
Montana (territory)

1864 defence; see Holland.

Nebraska (territory, 1854); state.

1867 UNITED SERVICE INSTITUTION, Wyoming (territory). Whitehall, London, was established in 1830. Its

Alaska (territory). museum contains many remarkable military and

Electoral College in 1872, 366 members: 40 for New naval relics. The lectures given are reported in its

England, 95 for the southern States, 12 for the Pacific journal, which first appeared in 1857. The United

States, 84 for the middle States, and 135 for the Service Gazette first published 9 Feb. 1833.

western States.
POPULATION. See Slarcry in America.
Slaves. Total

Slaves.
Total

Slares, Total. 1776

2,614,300 1830.
2,009,050 12,858,670 | 1860.

3,952,801 31,445,980
896,849 5,309,756 1850
3, 204,313 23,191,876 | 1870

38,546,677 1810

1,191,364 7,239.903

1790-1

1802 1812 1816

1818

1820

1837

1846

1861

1853

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1868

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1800

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