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BANK HOLIDAYS ACT passed 25 May,

445

been instituted, the first being the Hibernian bank, Irish bankruptcy laws consolidated in 1836, and in 1825. The note-circulation of joint-stock banks,

further amended in

1857 Scotland, 4,280,000l.; and in Ireland, 6,785,000l, ; New Bankruptcy Act for Ireland, passed on I, Oct. 1855, was, in England, 3,990,8001; in Scotch bankruptey laws consolidated in 1856, and

6 Aug. 1872 total, with English private banks, about 19,000,000l.; and with the bank of England, above 39,000,000l.

NUMBER OF BANKRUPTS IN GREAT BRITAIN, Chief London Banks.

Founded. 1700

38 | 1845 England London and Westminster

1725 1834

ditto

416 | 1850 London Joint-Stock

1836
1750

ditto

432 1857 Union Bank of London

1775

520 1860 ditto 1 800

ditto Commercial Bank of London

1339 1863

8470 about 2000 1864

ditto London and County

7224 1820

ditto City Bank

1855
1358 1867

8994 Bank of London

ditto 2683 1863

9195 Joint Stock Banks, Jan. 1860:

1467 1869
ditto

10, 396 England and Wales (including London)

1840

1308

94
Scotland
Ireland

8
In 1857 there were in Scotland

453 British and foreign colonial banks with offices in

Ireland

73 London

18
United Kingdom

2014 1860

Scotland.
Ireland

I13 1871.

United Kingdom

1826 BANK HOLIDAYS.--England and Ireland: Easter Monday: Monday in Whitsun-week; first Monday in

BANNATYNE CLUB, named after George August; 26 December (if a week day). --Scotland : Bannatyne (the publisher), was established in 1823 New Year's day ; Christmas day (if either falls on Sun

by sir Walter Scott and others, for printing works day, the following Monday to be a bank holiday); Good illustrative of the history, antiquities, and literaFriday ; first Monday in May and August.

ture of Scotland, of which' about 113 volumes were BANKRUPT (signifying either bank or bench issued: dissolved, 1860. broken), a trader declared to be unable to pay his just debts. The laws on the subject (1543, 1571. et baron and knight, 'anciently conferred by the king

BANNERET, KNIGHT, a dignity between seq.) were consolidated and amended in 1825, 1849, under the royal standard on the field of battle. Its 1852, 1854, 1861, 1868, and 1869. See Debtors.

origin is of uncertain time : Edmondson dates it Lord Chancellor Thurlow refused a bankrupt his 736; but it was probably created by Edward I.

certificate, because he had lost five pounds at one John Chandos is said to have been made a banneret time in gaming

17 July, 1788 by the Black Prince and the king of Castile at NaEnacted that members of the house of commons

jara, 3 April, 1367. The dignity was conferred on becoming bankrupt, and not paying their debts in full, should vacate their seats

1812

John Smith, who rescued the royal standard at New Bankruptey Court erected by 2 Will. iv. c. 56. 1831 Edgehill fight, 23 Oct. 1642. It fell into disuse, Bills for reforming bankruptcy law were in vain but was revived by George III. for sir William brought before parliament.

1859, 1860 Erskine, in 1764. Bill by the lord chancellor Westbury (formerly sir R. Bethell), 24 & 25 Vict. c. 134, passed (1861);

BANNERS were common to all nations. The great changes made ; the court for relief of' insolvent debtors abolished, and increased powers

Jewish tribes had standards or banners-Num. ii. given to the commissioners in bankruptcy, &c. ;

(1491 B.c.) The standard of Constantine bore the inthe new orders issued

12 Oct. 1861 scription, In hoc signo vinces—“By this sign thou By the Bankruptcy Act passed , Aug. 1869, a new shalt conquer," under the figure of the cross. See bankruptcy court was established in place of the Cross. The magical banner of the Danes (said to have commissioners', which sat last time, when above

been a black raven on a red ground) was taken by 300 petitions of bankruptcy were received, 31 Dec. 1869. The new judge, the hon. James Bacon,

Alfred when he defeated Hubba, 878. St. Martin's sat

1 Jan. 1870 cap, and afterwards the celebrated auriflamma, or Justice Giffard, the judge of the Bankruptcy Appeal orifamme, were the standards of France about

Court, decided (in the case of the duke of New 1100; see Auriflamma, Standards, &c. castle) that a peer can be made a bankrupt, Nov. 1869, which decision was affirmed on appeal to BANNOCKBURN (Stirlingshire), the site of the house of lords in the following year: other

two battles : (1) between Robert Bruce of Scotland petitions against peers have been filed. It was

and Edward II. of England, decided that bankrupts cannot sit in the house

June, 1314. The 10 Feb. 1871 army of Bruce consisted of 30,000 ; that of Edward BANKRUPTCY DisqualifiCATION ACT disqualifies a of 100,000 men, of whom 52,000 were archers. The peer from sitting or voting in parliament, passed English crossed a rivulet to the attack, and Bruce

13 July,

having dug and covered pits, they fell into them,

and were thrown into confusion. The rout was (May, 1858) : but all were released except Cameron and complete : the English king narrowly escaped, and Esdaile, in July, 1858. In April, 1860, dividends had been paid to the amount of 158 in the pound. The at: Sauchieburn, near here, James III, was defeated

50,000 were killed or taken prisoners. (2) At torney-general brought in a bill called the Fraudulent Trustees' Act, 20 & 21 Vict. c. 54, to prevent the recur

and slain on II June, 1488, by his rebellious rence of such transactions.-On 19 April, 1860, a defi- nobles. ciency of 263,000l. was discovered in the Union Bank of Lonlon. Mr. George Pullinger, a cashier, confessed him According to a return to parliament made at the self guilty of forgery and fraud, and was sentenced to 20 close of Feb. 1826, there had become bankrupt in the years' imprisonment.-On 18 Feb. 1861, it was discovered four months preceding, 59 banking-houses, comprising 144 that John Durden, a clerk of the Commercial Bank of partners ; and 20 other banking establishments had been London, had robbed his employers of 67,0001., of which declared insolvent. Every succeeding week continued 46,000l. might be recovered. - In Dec. 1864, J. W. Terry to add from seventy to a hundred merchants, traders, and Thomas Burch, manager and secretary of the Unity and manufacturers to the bankrupt list. This was the Bank, were committed on a charge of conspiracy for period of bubble speculation, and of unprecedented comfabricating accounts ; but acquitted on their trial. mercial embarrassment and ruin.

2

tion

1861 1868

BANNS, in the feudal law, were a solemn BARBADOS, a West India Island, one of the proclamation of any kind : hence arose the present Windward isles discovered by the Portuguese about custom of asking banns, or giving notice before 1600, taken possession of by the English 1605, and marriage; said to have been introduced into the settled by sir Wm. Courteen, who founded JamesEnglish church about 1200. The proper time of town, 1625. As many royalists settled here, the publishing banns in the church was the subject of island was taken by the parliamentarians in 1652. much discussion in 1867.

A dreadful hurricane, more than 4000 inhabitants BANQUETING-HOUSE, Whitehall, Lon

perished

10 Oct. 1780

A large plantation with all its buildings destroyed, don, built by Inigo Jones, about 1619.

by the land removing from its original site to

another, and covering everything in its peregrinaBANTAM (Java). Here a British factory was

17 Oct. 1784 established by captain Lancaster, in 1603. The

An inundation, Nov. 1995; and two great' fires, English and Danes were driven from their factories

May and Dec. 1796

1824 by the Dutch in 1683. Bantam surrendered to the Bishopric established British in 1811, but was restored to the Dutch at

Awful devastation, with the loss of thousands of

lives, and of immense property, by a hurricane the peace in 1814.

10 Aug. 1831 Nearly 17,000 persons died of cholera

1854 BANTINGISM, see Corpulence.

Property to the amount of about 300,000l. destroyed by a fire at Bridgetown

14 Feb. 1860 BANTRY BAY (S. Ireland), where a French Great increase in growth of cotton, 1864-5 ;fleet, bringing succour to the adherents of James Governor, James Walker II , attacked the English under admiral Herbert,

Rawson W. Rawson i May, 1689: the latter retired to form in line and

BARBARY, in N. Africa, considered to comwere not pursued. A French squadron of seven sail of the line and two frigates, armed en flute, with their dependencies. Piratical states (nomi

prise Algeria, Morocco, Fez, Tunis, and Tripoli, and seventeen transports, anchored here for a few nally subject to Turkey) were founded on the coast days, without effect, Dec. 1796. MUTINY of the by Barbarossa, about 1518. Bantry Bay squadron under admiral Mitchell was in Dec. 1801. In Jan. 1802, twenty-two of the BARBERS lived in Greece in the 5th century, mutineers were tried on board the Gladiator, at and at Rome in the 3rd century B.C. in England, Portsmouth, when seventeen were condemned to formerly, the business of a surgeon was united to death, of whom eleven were executed; the others the barber's, and he was denominated a BARBERwere sentenced to receive each 200 lashes. The SURGEON. A London company was formed in executions took place on board the Majestic, Cen- 1308, and incorporated, 1462. This union was taur, Formidable, Téméraire, and L' Achille, 8 to partially dissolved in 1540, and wholly so in 1745. 18 Jan. 1802.

No person using any shaving or barbery in LonBAPAUME, N. FRANCE, the site of severe

don shall occupy any surgery, letting of blood, or indecisive engagements between the French army Hen. VIII. 1540.

other matter, except only drawing of teeth.” 32 of the north under Faidherbe, and the Germans under Manteuffel ; the French retreated, 2, 3 Jan. BARCA (N. Africa), the Greek Barce, a colony 1871.

of Cyrene. It was successively subjugated by the BAPTISM, the ordinance of admission into Persians, Egyptians, and Saracens. În 1550 the the church, practised by all Christian sects except

sultan Solyman combined Barca with the newly Quakers. John the Baptist baptized Christ, 30. conquered pashalik of Tripoli. (Matt. iii.) Infant baptism is mentioned by Ire- BARCELONA (N. E. Spain), an ancient naeus about 97. In the reign of Constantine, 319, maritime city, said to have been rebuilt by, Hamilbaptisteries were built and baptism was performed car Barca, father of the great Hannibal, about 233 by dipping the person all over. In the west sprink- B.C. It was held by the Romans, Goths, Moors, ling was adopted. Much controversy has arisen and Franks, and, with the province of which it is since 1831 (particularly in 1849 and 1850), in the the capital, was made an independent country church of England, respecting baptismal regenera- about A.D. 864, and incorporated with Aragon, tion, which the Arches Court of Canterbury 1164, the last count becoming king. The city has decided to be a doctrine of the church of England. suffered much by war. The siege by the French See Trials, 1849, and note. Demanding fees for in 1694, was relieved by the approach of the Engbaptisms was made unlawful by an act passed 18 lish fleet, commanded by admiral Russell; but the July, 1872.

city was taken by the earl of Peterborough in 1706. BAPTISTS (see Anabaptists). A sect dis- It was bombarded and taken by the duke of Bertinguished by their opinions respecting (1) the wick and the French in 1714, and was taken by proper subjects, and (2) the proper mode of baptism: Napoleon in 1808, and retained till 1814. It rethe former they affirm to be those who are able to

volted against the queen in 1841, and was bommake a profession of faith ; the latter to be total barded and taken in Dec. 1842, by Espartero. immersion. There are seven sections of Baptists

BARCLAY, CAPTAIN, see Pedestrianism. Arminian, Calvinistic (or Particular), &c. The first Baptist church formed in London was about BARDESANISTS, followers of Bardesanes, 1608. They published their confession of faith in of Mesopotamia, who embraced the errors of Valen1643; revised in 1689. In 1851 they had 130 tinus, after refuting them, and added denial of the chapels in London and 2789 (with sittings for incarnation, resurrection, &c., about 175. 752,353 persons) in England and Wales. Rhode Ísland, America, was settled by Baptists in 1635. BARDS. Demodocus is mentioned as a bard

by Homer; and we find bards, according to Strabo, BAR SUR AUBE, N. E. France. Here the among the Romans before the age of Augustus. French, under Oudinot and Macdonald, were de- The iVelsh bards formed an hereditary order, regufeated by the allies, 27 Feb. 1814.

lated, it is said, by laws, enacted about 940 and

.

1078. They lost their privileges at the conquest Raschid, about 802. His visir Giafar was a Barby Edward I. in 1284: The institution was revived mecide. The phrase Barmecide (or imaginary) by the Tudor sovereigns; and their Eisteddfodds feast originated in the story of the barber's sixth (or meetings) have been and are frequently held; brother, in the Arabian Nights' Entertainments. at Swansea, Aug. 1863; at Llandudno, Aug. 1864; in the vale of Conway, 7 Aug. 1865; at Chester, 4 BARNABITES, an order of monks, established Sept. 1866; at Carmarthen, 3 Sept. 1867; at Ruthin, in Milan about 1530, were much engaged in in5-7 Aug. 1868; at Rhyl, 8-12 Aug. 1870; at Port- structing youth, relieving the sick and aged, and madoc, Aug. 1872. The Gwyneddigion Society of converting heretics. Bards was founded in 1770. Turlogh O'Carolan.

BARNARD'S, SIR Johx, ACT ( Geo. II., the last of the Irish bards, died in 1737. Chambers.

c. 8), entitled, “an act to prevent the infamous BAREBONE'S PARLIAMENT. Crom- practice of stock-jobbing," was passed in 1734, and well, supreme in the three kingdoms, summoned repealed in 1860. Sir John Barnard (born 1685, 122 persons, such as he thought he could manage,

died 1764) was an eminent lord mayor of London. who, with six from Scotland, and five from Ireland, met, as a parliament, 4 July, 1653. It obtained its heath, Edward IV. gained a decisive victory over

BARNET, Hertfordshire. Here, at Gladsmore appellation from a nickname given to one of its the Lancastrians, on Easter-day, 14 April, 1471, members, a leather-seller, named “ Praise-God

when the earl of Warwick and his brother the marBarbon.” The majority evinced much sense and spirit, proposing to reform abuses, improve the ad- quis of Montacute, or Montague, and 10,000 men

were slain. A column commemorative of this battle ministration of the law, &c. The parliament was suddenly dissolved, 13 Dec. 1653, and Cromwell and Hatfield roads.

has been erected at the meeting of the St. Alban's made lord protector.

BAROMETERS. Torricelli, a Florentine, BAREILLY, province of Delhi (N. W. India); knowing that water did not rise in a pump through ceded to the East India company, by the ruler of what was supposed to be nature's abhorrence of a Oude in 1801. A mutiny at Bareilly, the capital, vacuum, imitated the action of a pump with merwas suppressed in April, 1816. On 7 May, 1858, cury, and made the first barometer, about 1643, it was taken from the cruel sepoy rebels.

Pascal's experiments (1646) enhanced the value of BARFLEUR (N. France), where William, the discovery by applying it to the measurement of duke of Normandy, equipped the fleet by which he heights. Wheel barometers were contrived in 1668; conquered England, 1066. Near it, William, duke pendent barometers in 1695; marine in 1700; and of Normandy, son of Henry 1., in his passage from many improvements have been made since. In the Normandy, was shipwrecked, 25 Nov. 1120, when aneroid barometer (from a, no, and neros, watery) the prince, his bride, and many others perished. Bar

no liquid is employed; the atmospheric pressure deur was destroyed by the English in the campaign being exerted on a metallic spring. Its invention in which they won the battle of Crecy, 1346. The (attributed to Conté, in 1798, but due to Vidi, who died French navy was destroyed near the cape by in April, 1866), excited much attention in 1848-9. admiral Russell, after the victory of La Hogue, 19 Barometers were placed at N.E. coast stations in May, 1692.

1860, by the duke of Northumberland and others. BARI (S. Italy), the Barium of Horace, was, BARON, formerly the only title in our peerage, in the 9th century, a stronghold of the Saracens, now the lowest. Its original name in England, and was captured by the emperor Louis II., a Varasour, was changed by the Saxons into Thane, descendant of Charlemagne, in 871. In the roth and by the Normans into Baron. Many of this century it became subject to the eastern empire, rank had undoubtedly assisted in, or been sumand remained so till it was taken by Robert Guis- moned to parliament (in 1205); but the first precard, the Norman, about 1060. A great ecclesiastical cept found is of no higher date than the 49 Hen. council was held here on i Oct. 1098, when the III. 1265. The first raised to this dignity by patent filioque article of the creed and the procession of the was John de Beauchamp, created baron of KidderHoly Spirit were the subjects of discussion.

minster, by Richard II., 1387. The barons took BARING ISLAND, Arctic Sea, discovered the great charter

of our liberties, and the charter of

arms against king John, and compelled him to sign by captain Penny in 1850-1, and so named by him after sir Francis Baring, first lord of the admiralty 1215. Charles II. granted a coronet to barons on

our forests, at Runnymede, near Windsor, June, in 1849.

his restoration, 1660. BARIUM (Greek, barys, heavy), a metal found

BARONETS, the first in rank among the genabundantly as carbonate and sulphate. The oxide baryta was first recognised as an earth distinct from try, and the only knighthood that is hereditary, lime by Scheele, in 1774; and the metal was first

were instituted by James I., 1611. The rebellion

in Ulster seems to have given rise to this order, it obtained by Humphry Davy, in 1808. Watts.

having been required of a baronet, on his creation, BARK, see JesuitsBark.

to pay into the exchequer as much as would mainBARLAAMITES, followers of Barlaam, a

tain "thirty soldiers three years at eightpence a learned Calabrian monk of the order of St. Basil; further required that a baronet should be a gentle

day in the province of Ulster in Ireland." It was who maintained various peculiar tenets, attacked the Greek monks, supported the Latin against the

man born, and have a clear estate of 1000!. per

annum. The first baronet was sir Nicholas Bacon Greek church in a controversy at Constantinople, (whose successor is therefore styled Primus Baronet1337, and acted as the emperor's envoy in an attempt torum Anglia), 22 May, 1611. The baronets of to reconcile the churches in 1339. He died about Ireland were created in 1619; the first being sir 1348.

Francis Blundell. -Baronets of Nova Scotia were BARMECIDES, a powerful Persian family, created. 1625; sir Robert Gordon the first baronet. celebrated for virtue and courage, were massacred -All baronets created since the Irish union in 1801 through the jealousy of the caliph Haroun-al are of the United Kingdom.

a

BARONS WAR, arose in consequence of the BARROW'S STRAITS (N. Arctic Sea), exfaithlessness of Henry III. and the oppression of his plored by Edwd. Parry,

as far as Melville island,

The strait, Montfort, earl of Leicester, and Gilbert de Clare, earl named after sir John Barrow, was entered on of Gloucester, met at Oxford in 1262, and enacted 2 Aug., 1819. The thermometer was 55° below statutes to which the king objected. In 1263 their zero of Fahrenheit. disputes were in vain referred to the decision of Louis IX. of France. War broke out, and on 14 May, BARROWISTS, name given to the 1204, the king's party was totally defeated at Lewes; Brownists, which see. and De Montfort became the virtual ruler of the kingdom. The war was renewed; and at the battle

BARROWS, circular or oblong mounds, found of Evesham, 4 Aug. 1265, De Montfort was slain, in Britain and other countries, were ancient sepuland the barons were defeated; but they did not chres. Sir Richard Hoare caused several barrows render their final submission till 1268. A history near Stonehenge to be opened; in them were found of this war was published by Mr. W. H. Blaauw, Celtic ornaments, such as beads, buckles, and in 1814; 2nd ed., 1871.

brooches, in amber, wood, and gold : Nov. 1808.

Many barrows were opened and discoveries made BAROSSA, see Barrosa.

in Yorkshire, 1866-70, under the superintendence of

the Rev. Wm. Greenwell. BARRACKS (from“ Baraque-Hutte que font les soldats en campagne pour se mettre à couvert,) BARS in music appear in the madrigals of were not numerous in these countries until about Bonini, 1607. Their common use in this country 1789. A superintendent-general was appointed in is attributed to Henry Lawes, about 1653. Eng. 1793; since when commodious barracks have been Cyc. built in the various garrison towns and central points of the empire.- A report, censuring the con BARTHOLOMEW, ST., THE APOSTLE, dition of many barracks, was presented to parlia- martyred 71. The festival (24 Aug. 0. s., 3 Sept. ment in 1858; and great improvements were N. s.) is said to have been instituted 1130. etiected under the direction of Mr. Sidney (after- Monastery of St. Bartholomew (of Austin Friars) wards lord) Herbert; see Aldershot.

founded by Rahere, a minstrel of Henry II. I102 BARRICADES, mounds formed of trees and

The hospital founded by him.

about 1123 earth, for military defence. During the wars of Refounded after the dissolution of monasteries (it

then contained 100 beds, with 1 physician and 3 the League in France, in 1588, the people made

surgeons), 1544 ; incorporated

1546 barricades by means of chains, casks, &c., and com William Harvey, the physiologist, physician' here pelled the royal troops to retire. During the war

1609-43 of the Fronde, a barricade was erected in Paris on

Earliest record of medical school 27 Aug. 1648. Barricades composed of overturned

Hospital rebuilt by sul ption
Medical college founded

1843 vehicles, &c., were erected in Paris in the insur

The hospital (since enlarged) contained 580 beds, rections of 27-30 July, 1830, and 23-26 June, 1848, and relieved about 70,000 patients when sanguinary conflicts took place.

Improvements suggested

1869

Bartholomew the Great, St., near Smithfieid. The BARRIER TREATY, by which the Low

building of the church, said to have begun 1102, Countries were ceded to the emperor Charles VI., restored by subscription and reopened 29 March, 1868 was signed by the British, Imperial, and Dutch

Bartholomew Fair. The charter was granted by ministers, 15 Nov. 1715.

Henry I., 1133, and was long held in Smithfield,

which see. The shows were discontinued in 1850, BARRISTERS are said to have been first and the fair was proclaimed for the last time in appointed by Edward I., about 1291, but there is 1855. In 1858 Mr. H. Morley published his “ Hisearlier mention of professional advocates. They are of

tory of Bartholomew Fair," with inany illustra

tions. various ranks, as king's or queen's counsel, serjeants, The MASSACRE OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW commenced &c., which see. Students for the bar must keep a at Paris on the night of the festival 24 Aug. 1572 certain number of terms at the inns of court, pre- According to Sully, 70,000 Huguenots, or French viously to being called; and by the regulations of Protestants, including women and children, were 1853 must pass a public examination. Irish murdered throughout the kingdom by secret orders

from Charles IX., at the instigation of his mother, students must keep eight terms in England.

the queen dowager, Catherine de Medicis. BARROSA, or BAROSSA (S. Spain). The La Popelionėre calculates the victims at 20,000 ; British army, commanded by major-general sir

Adriani, De Serres, and De Thou say 30,000 :

Davila states them at 40,000 ; and Pérefixe makes Thomas Graham, afterwards lord Lynedoch, totally the number 100,000. Above 500 persons of rank, defeated the French under marshal Victor, 5 March, and 10,000 of inferior condition, perished in Paris 1811. The French leaving nearly 3000 dead, six alone, besides those slaughtered in the provinces. pieces of cannon, and an eagle, the first that' the Pope Gregory XIII. ordered a Te Deum to be perBritish had taken; the loss of the British was 1169

forined, with other rejoicings. men killed and wounded.

BARTHOLOMEW, ST., a West Indian BARROW ISLAND (Arctic Sea), discovered island, held by Sweden.' It was colonised by the by Captain Penny in 1850-51, and named by him French in 1648; and has been several times taken in honour of John Barrow, Esq., son of sir Jõhn. and restored by the British. It was ceded to Sweden

by France in 1785; captured by the English and BARROW-ON-FURNESS (Lancashire), in restored, 1801. 1847, was a village with a population of about 330, which, in 1867, had increased to above 17,000, in con BARTHOLOMITES, a religious order exsequence of the

large manufacture of iron from the pelled from Armenia, settled at Genoa 1307, where ore (hæmatite) found there. On 19 Sept. 1867, is preserved in the Bartholomite church the image new docks were opened in the presence of the dukes which Christ is said to have sent to king Abgarus. of Devonshire and Buccleuch, Mr. Gladstone, and The order was suppressed by pope Innocent X. others.

1650.

1662 1729

1861

BARTON AQUEDUCT (near Manchester) attacks on the British fleet, commanded by sir was constructed by James Brindley, to carry the Thomas Graves, 25, 26 Jan. 1782. Bridgwater canal over the Irwell, at a height of 39 feet above the river ; completed in 1761.

BASSORAH, BUSSORAH, or BASRAH (Asia

Minor), a Turkish city, founded by the caliph BASEL (Basle, French Bale), a rich city in Omar, about 635: It has been several times taken Switzerland. The 18th general council sat here and retaken by the Persians and Turks. from Dec. 1431 to May, 1443. Many important reforms in the church were proposed, but not BASS ROCK, an isle in the Firth of Forth carried into effect : among others the union of the (S. Scotland), was granted to the Lauders, 1316; Greek and Roman churches. The university was purchased for a state prison, 1671; taken by the founded in 1460. Treaties of peace between France, Jacobites, 1690 ; surrendered, 1694 i granted to the Spain, and Prussia were concluded bere in 1795. It Dalrymples, 1706. was made a free imperial city 1392, but joined the Swiss confederation 1501.

BASS'S STRAIT, AUSTRALIA. Mr. Bass,

şurgeon of the Reliance, in an open boat from Port BASHI-BAZOUKS, irregular Turkish troops, Jackson, in 1796, penetrated as far as Western partially employed in the Crimean war, 1854-6. Port, and affirmed that a strait existed between

New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land. LieuBASIENTELLO (S. Naples). Here the army

tenant Flinders circumnavigated Van Diemen's of Otho II., in an ambuscade, was nearly cut to Land, and named the strait after Mr. Bass, 1799. pieces by the Greeks and Saracens 13 July, 982 ; the emperor barely escaped.

BASTARD, a child not born in lawful wedlock. BASILIANS, an order of monks, which ob- An attempt in England, in 1236, to legitimate bastained its name from St. Basil (who died 380) ; was

tard children by the subsequent marriage of the reformed by pope Gregory, in 1569.– A sect,

founded parents, failed. The barons assembled in the parby Basil, a physician of 'Bulgaria, which rejected liament of Merton

answered : Nolumus leges

Anglie the books of Moses, the eucharist, and baptism, and mutari (. We will not have the laws of England are said to have had everything in common, 1110. changed.") Women concealing their children's Basil was burnt alive in i118.

birth deened guilty of murder, 21 James I., 1624.

In Scotland bastard children could not dispose of BASILICA, a body of law, in Greek, in- their moveable estates by will until 1836. A new cluding the Institutes of Justinian, the Pandects, act, facilitating the claims of mothers, and making &c., arranged by order of the emperor Basil the several provisions for proceeding in bastardy cases, Macedonian, and his son Leo the Philosopher, was passed 1845. The Bastardy Laws Amendment 875-911. The term basilica (a palace) was applied Act was passed 10 Aug. 1872. to places of worship by the early Christian emperors.

BASTARNÆ, a warlike tribe in Podolia and

Moldavia, hired by Perseus, king of Macedon, in BASILIKON DORON (Royal Gift), pre- his wars with Rome, 168 B.C. They were driven cepts on the art of government, composed by across the Danube by M. Crassus for their encroachJames I. of England for his son Henry, and first

ments, 30. published at Edinburgh in 1599. The collected works of this monarch were published at London, BASTILLE, Paris, a castle built by Charles 1616-20, in one vol. fol.

V., king of France, in 1369, for the defence of Paris BASQUE PROVINCES, N. W. Spain (Bis- wards used as a state prison. Henry IV. and his

against the English ; completed in 1383, and aftercay, Guipuscoa, and Alava), The Basques, considered to be descendants of the ancient Iberi, were

veteran army assailed it in vain in the siege of termed Vascones by the Romans, whom they suc

Paris, during the war (1587-1594).

with the iron mask,” the most mysterious prisoner cessfully resisted. They were subdued with great difficulty by the Goths about 580, and were united known, died here, 19 Nov. 1703 ; see Iron Mask. On to Castile in the 13th and 14th centuries. Their 14-15 July, 1789, the Bastille was pulled down

by the populace; the governor and other officers language is conjectured to be of Tartar origin.

were conducted to the Place de Grève; their hands BASQUE ROADS (W. France). Four French and heads were cut off, and the heads carried on ships of the line, riding at anchor here, were pikes through the streets. attacked by lords Gambier and Cochrane (the latter commanding the fireships), and all, with a great

BATALHA, Portugal. The monastery here number of merchant and other vessels, were de

was built by John I., of Portugal, as a token of grastroyed, ii, 12 April, 1809. Cochrane accused titude for his victory over John I. of Castile, at Gambier of neglecting to support him, and thereby Aljubarrota, 14 Aug 1385, securing the indeallowing the French to escape. At a court-martial, pendence of his kingdom. The restoration of the 26 July—4 Aug., lord Gambier was acquitted.

monastery began in 1839. BASSANO (N. Italy). Here the Austrians,

BATAVIA AND BATAVIAN REPUBLIC, see under Wurmser, were defeated by the French under Holland. Massena, 8 Sept. 1796.

BATAVIA, the capital of Java, and of all the BASSETT, or BASSETTE, or Pour et Contre, Dutch settlements in the East Indies, built by that a game at cards, said to have been invented by a people about 1619. Taken from the French (who had noble Venetian, in the 15th century; introduced seized it) by sir Samuel Auchmuty, 26 Aug. 1811; into France, 1674.

restored to the Dutch in 1814. BASSETERRE-ROADS, St. Christopher's, BATH (Somerset), named “Aquee solis" by West Indies. Here the French admiral, the comté the Romans about 44 A.D., then remarkable for its de Grasse, was repulsed with loss in three desperate hot springs. Coel, a British king, is said to have

“The man

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