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democratic (opposition) candidates in New York and several other states

4 Nov. 1862 McClellan, while avancing towards Richmond,

is superseded by gen. Burnside, 5 Nov., who advances towards Richmond President Davis threatens reprisels is general

McNeil is not surrendered (see 18 Oct.) Burnside summons Fredericksburg to surrender; confederate gen. Lee with about 80,000 men near

22 Nov. 100,000 federal soldiers on the sick list Nov. Great honour shown to McClellan; he is proposed as the next president

Nov. The federal governinent orders release of disaffected

persons in prisons Annual session of U.S. congress; the president

recommends compensated emancipation of all slaves in the loyal states before the year 1900

1 Dec. Battle of Fredericksburg (which ser); Burnside

crosses the Rappahannock, 10 Dec. ; bombarils Fredericksburg, 11 Dec.; a series of desperate attacks on the confederates; Buruside totally

defeated, 13 Dec.; recrosses the river Engagements in Tennessee with varying results, Dec. Discovery of frauds on the U.S. army financial

accounts; public dissatisfaction with the government; secretaries Chase and Seward resign, but resume office

Dec. Battles near Murfreesboro,' or Stone River, between

Rosencrans and the federals and Braxton Bragg and the conferlerates : begin 29 Dec. ; severe but indecisive, 31 Dec. ; battle continued, 1 Jan. ; Bragg defeated, retreats

2 Jan. 1863 ["There have been about 2000 battles and skirmishes

since the commencement of the war."-American

Almanack.) President Lincoln proclains the freedom of slaves in the rell states, except in parts held by the

2 Jan. Burnside superseded by Joseph Hooker in command of army of the Potomac

26 Jan. The French government's offer of mediation, 9 Jan. declined

6 Feb. The George Griswola, a vessel containing provisions and other relief for the distressed cotton workers

in Lancashire, arrives A conscription bill (for men between 18 and 45)

passert The congress authorises the suspension of the

habeas corpus act, 3 March; and establishes a National Academy of Sciences at Washington

4 March, Confederate loan for 3,000,000l. well taken up in Europe

March, Charleston, South Carolina, attacked by monitors and guboats; the Keokuk, a monitor, sunk

7 April, Battle of Chancellorsville (which see); the ferterals

under Hooker cross the Rappahannock, 28 April ; defeatedl (gen. Stonewall Jackson is mortally wounded), 2-4 May; Hooker recrosses the Rappa

hannock Stonewall Jackson dies

10 May, Grant's successful campaign in Tennessee; he defeats

the confederates unler Joseph Johnstone at Jackson, 14 May; and under Pemberton at Champion Hills, 16 May; and invests Vicksbury, Mississippi, which is strongly fortified, 18 May, a dreadful assault on it repelled

22 May, Great peace meeting at Norfolk

5 June, Confederate invasion under Lee; invade Maryland and Pemnsylvania, and take various towns

14 June, et se The federal gen. Hooker superseded by George H. Meade

27 June, Mende advances against Lee; great battle of

Gettysburg, indecisive; but the confederates evacuate Pennsylvania and Maryland

1-3 July, Vicksburg bombardert,

3

July ; surrendered by Pemberton to Grant and Porter

4

July, Port Hudson, a confederate fortress on the Mississippi, surrenders

New York rioters tried and convicted, 12 Aug. ; conscription going on peaceably

21 Aug. 1863 Siege of Charleston ; defended by Beauregard

attacks with varied success, July; Fort Sumter bombar led and destroyed (and so-called Greek fire employed); attacks on the ruins repulsed

21, 22 Aug. Knoxville occupied by Burnside

10 Sept. A Russian squadron warmly received at New York

Sept. and Oct. Battles of Chickemanga, Tennessee; Rosencrans defeated by Brans

19, 20 Sept. Mason, the confederate commissioner in England,

protests against the mode of his reception, and Confederates defeated at Blue-Springs, Tennessee

22 Sept.

10 Oct. Rosencrans' command of the federal army in Tennes

see superseded by Grant, and Thomas, and

Sherman
The steam rams El Tousson and El Monissir, built

by Mr. Laird at Birkenhead, and suspected to be
for the confederates, are placed under charge of a
government vessel in the Mersey
Lincoln calls for 300,000 volunteers
British consuls dismissed from the southern states

Oct. Meade captures a part of Lee's army on the N. side of the Rappahannock

7 Nov. The chief justices Lowrie, Woodward, and Thomp

son declare that the Conscription act is unconstitutional

12 Nov. Longstreet defeats Burnside, and compels him to retire into Knoxville

14-17 Nov. Sherman and Thomas defeat Bragg at Chattanooga

23, 24 Nov. Longstreets attack on Knoxville, defended by Burnside, fails, and he retreats into Virginia

29 Nov, and 1 Dec. The confederate general Braga superseded by Hardee

2 Dec. Lincolu's message to congress warlike ; he proffers

amnesty to all except hearts of governments &c., 4 Dec.:

Davis's message, firm, but acknowledging reverses Gen. Joseph Johnston takes command of the con

federate army in Georgia President Lincoln orders a draft of 500,000 men in 3 years

1 Feb. 1864 Federal expedition into Florida; defeated at Olustee

20 Feb. Failure of attack of Kilpatrick and Dahlgren on Ulysses Grant made commander-in-Chief, succeeding Halleek

12 March, Confederate raids into the Western states

March, Sherman's expedition against Mobile, 2 March; defeated by Kirby-smith

5 April, James E. Stuart, the celebrated confederate cavalry officer, killed

11 May, Campaign in Virginia; the army of the Potomac

crosses the Rapidan ; advance of Lee (now supported by Longstreet), 2 May; severe battle in the * Wilderness" (near Chancellorsville), indecisive, 5, 6 May: battle of Spottsylvania ; the feilerals

remain on the field; much carnage 10-12 May, Sherman (in Georgia) beats the confederates at Resacea, 14 May, and at Dallas

28 May, Fugitive slave act repealed by the house of representatives

13 June, After a succession of attacks on both sides," Grant

compels Lee to retire gradually, and by a flank movement marches to the other side of Richmond, and faces Petersburg, 15 June; where, having taken the first intrenchments after desperate assaults, he is repulsed with considerable loss

18 June, The conferlerate steamer Alabama (capt. Semmes)

attacked and sunk by the U.S. corvette kearsage (capt. Winslow) near Cherbourg, France, 19 June, Mr. Chase, secretary to the U.S. treasury, resigns; succeeded by Mr. Fessenden

8 July, Fierce riots at New York against the conscription ;

many negroes murdered, and much property destroyed

13-16 July, The Sioux defeated, 3 sug; gen. Pope reports that the hudian War is enteel

Aug.

July, Part of Lee's army invades Maryland, 1 July; defeats Wallace near Monocracy river, 9 July ; threatens Baltimore and Washington, and retreats

12, 13 July, Sherman's 3 battles at Atlanta (Georgia), 20, 22 July ;

victory remains with the federals 28 July,

7 Dec.

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Confederates again invade Maryland and Pennsyl

vania, and destroy Chambersburg 30 July, 1864 Confederates again invade Maryland and Pennsyl

vania, and destroy Chambersburg Grant orders the explosion of a mine at Petersburg,

whereby 250 confederates are killed : but the assault following is repulsed with great slaughter

30 July, The Tallahassee confederate steamer(built in London)

destroys many U.S. merchantmen July, Aug. Severe conflicts in the Shenandoah valley : the

federals victors The confederate flotilla near Nobile destroyer by Farragut, 5 Aug. ; Fort Gaines taken

8 Aux McClellan nominated for the presidency by the

“Democratic" Chicago convention 1 Sept. Sherman occupies Atlanta ; the confederate general Hood retires

1 Sept. Sherman orders the depopulation of Atlanta, 7 Sept. MeClellan declares for maintaining the union; the

democratic party divided Sheridan (federal) defeats Early at Winchester, in the Shenandoah valley, but with very great loss

19 Sept. Longstreet replaces Early in the command of the confederates

Oet. Longstreet defeats the federals at Cedar Creek;

Sheridan arrives, rallies his troops, and defeats the confederates

19 Oct. St. Alban's Ruid.-Between 20 and 30 armeul men

enter St. Alban's, Vermont : rob the bank and carry off horses and stores ; fire on and kill several persons, and flee to Canada, 19 Oct. ; where 13 of them are arrested

21 Oct. Lincoln re-elected president; McClellan resigns his command in U.S. army

8 Nov. Sherinan destroys Atlanta and begins his march

through Georgia to Savannah Hood's attack on Thomas (federal), at Franklin,

repulsed with severe loss Lincoln's message to congress considered was

6 Dee. The St. Alban's raiders discharged by Judge

Coursol : general Dix issues an inteinperate order

for reprisals (disannulled by the president) Hood defeated by Thomas (federal) near Nashville

14-16 Dec, Sherman storms fort M'Allister, 13 Dec. ; euters Savannah

21 Dec Wilmington bombardied; the attack of general

Butler and admiral Porter repulsed The St. Alban's raiders recaptured and committed for trial

27 Dec. et ser The federal congress abolishes slavery in the United States

1 Feb. 1865 Fruitless meeting of president Lincoln and secretary

Seward with the confederate secretary Stephens, and 2 coinmissioners to treat for peace at Fort Monroe

2, 3 Feb. The Canadian governinent surrenders Burley, a

raider, to the federals Lee takes the general command of the confederate armies; he recommends enlistment of negroes

18 Feb. Wilmington captured by Schofield; Charleston

evacuated by the confederates ; retreat of Beauregard The confederate congress decree the arming of the slaves

22 Feb. Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson inaugurated as president and vice-president

4 March, A new stringent taritf comes into operation,

1 April, Three days' sanguinary conflict at Five Forks, be

gan 31 March; Sheridan turns Lee's front, and

totally defeats him, 1 April; Lee retreats, Richmond and Petersburg evacuated by the con

federates and occupied by Grant 2, 3 April, Sheridan overtakes and defeats Lee at Sailor's

Creek, 6 April; Lee surrenders with the army of Northern Virginia to Grant, at Appomatox courthouse.

9 April, Mobile evacuated by the confederates

tre, Washington, about 11 o'clock, p.m., 14 April, by Wilkes Booth, who escapes; Mr. Seward, the foreign secretary, and his son, wounded in his own house by an assassin about the same time: Lincoln dies at 7:30 am., 15 April; Anrico Johnson, vice-president, storn in as i7th president,

15 April, 1865 The convention between Sherman and Johnston

(favourable to confederates), 17 April, disavokal by the government, 21 April; Johnston surtelders on same terms as Lee

26 April, Wilkes Booth shot, and his accomplice Harrold captured, in a farmhouse

26 April, The confeilerate general Dick Taylor (near Mobile) surrenders

4 May President Jefferson Davis captured at Irwinsville, Georgia; imprisoned

10 Мау. The confederate general Kirby Smith, in Texas, surrenders; end of the war

26 May, President Johnson proclaims a conditional amnesty,

26 May. President Johnson proclaims the opening of the

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12 April, The Union flag replaced at Fort Sumter, Charleston,

14 April, President Lincoln shot in the head at Forel's Thea

southern ports, 22 May; and an amnesty with

certain exemptions Solemn fast observed for death of president Lincoln,

1 June, The armies on both sides rapidly disbanding: tiene riots at New York between whites and nerves,

June, Galveston, Texas, the last seaport held by the

south, surrendered by Kirby-smith 5 June', The British and French governments rescind their recognition of the confederates as belligerents,

2, 6 June, President Johnson, uniting with the democrats,

and acting leniently towanis the south; reorsunisation of the state governments

June, Close of the long trial of the assassination conspira

tors, 29 June; execution of Payne, Atzerott, Harrold or Herold, and Mrs. Suratt

7 July, The president declines recognition of the emperor of Mexico

18 July, All southern prisoners of war to be released on

parole on taking oath of allegiance Federal debt declared 2,757,253,275 dollars, 31 July, The confederate privateer Shenanloth (captain

Waddell) captures and destroy's many federal

vessels (about 30) Pacitie policy or president Johnson ;' he declares

himself opposed to centralisation and in favour of state rights; and is bitterly or posed by the radicals

Sept. Correspondence between earl Russell and Mr.

Adains (U.S. minister, London) respecting the Alabama, confederate privateer; proposal of a commission to whom claims for reparation shall be referred

7 April-18 Sepit. Alex. Stephens and other southern officials par. doned

I O Great meeting of Fenians at Philadelphia; the Irish republic proclaimed

16-24 Oet Much public discussion respecting equal ntung suffrage

July-Okt. The national debt stated to be 600,000,000. General Robert Lee becomes president of Wash.

ington College, Virginia Several southern states pass ordinances annulling

secession, abolishing slavery, and renouncing confederate debt.

Sept. Oct. Nov. National thanksgiving for the peace

2 Nov. Captain Waddell arrives at Liverpool, 6 Nov.; sur

renders the Shenandoah to the British government, stating that he had not heard of the end of the war till 2 Aug. ; he and his crew paroleil, 8 Nov. ; the vessel given up to the American consul

o Nov. Capt. Wirz, after long military trial, executed for cruelty to the federal prisoners at Andersonsville,

10 Nov. A negro convention at Charleston, appeals for jus.

tice and generosity Ex-president Buchanan publishes his justification,

Nov. Habeas corpus act restored in N. states 1 Dec. Close of correspondence between the British and

U.S. governments respecting depredations of Alabama, Shenandonh, &c. The earl of Clarendon maintains that “no armed vessel departed during

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the war from a British port, to cruise against the Veto of president set aside

Jan. 1867 commerce of the United States"

2 Dec. 1865 | Supreme court decides that congress has not power Congress and government protest against the French

to appoint military tribunals

Jan. intervention in Mexico, Nov.;

6, 16 Dee. Impeachment of president by a judicial committee Opening of 39th congress; president Johnson's

agreed to

Jan. message conciliatory and firm (he requires from Division among the radicals; Stevens successfully the southern states--repeal of their act of seces

opposed by Ashley sion, abolition of slavery, and repudiation of

Debt of the United States reported 2,543,000,000 confederate debt)

Dec.

dollars The radical party, opposed to the president, and to Nebraska admitted as the 37th state, over presiclemency to the south, predominate in the con

dent's veto. gress, and move violent resolutions against resto Bill for establishing military government in the ration of southern states to the union

Dec.

southern states, divided into five districts, lisEstimated federal debt, 600,000,000l.; revenue,

cussed 80,000,0001.

Dec. Modified and passed, 20 Feb.; vetoed by the presi85 members for the southern states excluded from

dent

28 Feb, congress; the conservative party support the Mr. Peabody gives 1,000,000 dollars to promote president in his endeavours to reconstruct the

education in the south

Feb. union; the radicals violently oppose his policy, 40th congress opened

March, requiring the south to undergo previously a Supplementary reconstruction bill for the south severe probation; the president has restored

passed

20 March, state government to all the southern states ex Tenure of Office act passed

March, cept Texas and Florida

Russian America purchased for 7,000,000 dollars The radicals demand for the negroes, personal,

treaty ratitied by the senate .

9 April, civil, and political rights, equal to those of the “Protection" rife: taxation on British manufac? whites; the president proposes gradual enfran

tures 80 per cent.; much smuceling; public debt chisement, in separate states

Feb. 1866 not diminishing; many strikes amongst operatThe president vetoes the Freedmen's Bureau bill,

tives

April, 21 Feb.; and the bill for the civil rights of the

Jetferson Davis released on bail, 13 May; problacks

27 March,

ceeded to New York, and thence to Canada, The president fiercely opposed by the radicals; the

20 May, conservatives and democrats unite to support Supplementary reconstruction bill adopted over him

March,
the president's veto

15 July, He proclaims the rebellion at an endi

3 April, , Long trial of John H. Suratt, for complicity in The Civil Rights bill passed in spite of the veto,

assassination of president Lincoln; jury not 9 April,

agreed on verdict (discharged, 6 Nov. 1868), The veto on the admission of Colorado as a state,

10 Aug. 15 May; set aside

May, Insubordination of gen. Sheridan, favoured by Fenian raids in Canada

31 May-7 June,

Edw. Stanton, secretary of war, who refuses to The radical reconstruction clause termed the "con

resign at the requisition of the president, 5 Aug.; stitutional amendment" (granting negro suffrage

suspended; succeeded by gen, Grant 12 Aug. to be enforced by the different states; the whites General amnesty proclaimed by the president, and the blacks to be equal in the sight of the

9 Sept. law, &c.), passed hy the senate

13 June,

Removal of gen. Sheridan from the government of Death of general wintiel Scott, aged 80, 29 May;

Louisiana, and of Sickles from N. Carolina, for and of Lewis Cass, aged 83

17 June,

insubordination to the president Aug-Sept. Continued dissension between the president and National cemetery at Antietam (which see) dedithe congress

July,

cated in presence of the president 17 Sept. The representatives of Tennessee re-admitted to Sir Fred. Bruce, British ambassador, died at Boston, the congress (10 states still excluded) July,

9 Sept. The Atlantic telegraph completed (see Electric Russian America ceded

8 Oct. Telegraph)

27 July,
Jetterson Davis's trial adjourned

26 Nov. The congress adjourns

28 July, Elections in the south give supremacy to the neGreat meeting at Philadelphia of the National groes; in the north, great majorities for the Union Convention, consisting of delegates, the

democrats

Oct. - Nov. (moderate men of all the parties, in every state, President's message, maintaining his principles on north and south, now termed the conservative

reconstruction party), whose object is to establish the national Revenue of the states fallen off; public debt about union, restore the south to its rights, and vindi

520,000,000l.

Dee. cate the president's policy

14 Aug. Proposed impeachment the president negatived Tour of the president; he visits Philadelphia, New in congress (108 to 57)

8 Dec. York, Chicago, &c.; he is very enthusiastically Treaty for purchase of Danish 'West Indies (St. received; and speaks warmly, and often injudi

Thomas and St. John), for 7,500,000 dollars, cionsly

28 Aug.-18 Sept.
signed

Dec. Elections for congress go in favour of the republic Great general storm of snow and sleet; many

Oct.

perish ; many wrecks [They demand that three-fifths of the blacks in the President Johnson censured; and gen. Sheridan south shall be entitled to vote; that where negro

thanked by house of representatives (sce lug. suffrage is not established, only whites shall

1867)

4 Jan. 1868 count; and that all persons who have taken any General Grant replaced by Stanton (by the senate), part in the rebellion shall be disqualified to vote.)

The house of representatives declare that there is Death of Martin Van Buren, ex-president

Oct.

no valid government in the south; and transfer Trial of Jefferson Davis deferred till spring Oct.

the jurisdiction from president Johnson to Grant, Elections in all the states except Delaware and

as general of the army

21 Jan. Maryland in favour of the radicals (about 2,200,000 Great comunercialdepression; Mr. Wells, the revenue to 1,800,000); two coloured deputies elected in

commissioner, recommends

peace, retrenchMassachusetts

Oct.-Nov.
ment, and reform"

Jan, Governinent policy declared to be "dead" Nov. The inland cotton tax repealed about ı Feh. Meeting of congress; president's message; he de Edward Thornton, new British ambassador, and clares that he adheres to his policy

Charles Dickens received by the president, Bills to provide territorial governments in southern states; and resriction of president's appointing Angry correspondence between the president and

28 Jan.-14 Feb The president charged with being • silent and mo President Johnson orders dismissal of Stanton, tionless;" congress absorbs all the power Dec.

and appoints pen. Thomas Secretary of war, 21 A bill admitting negroes to the suffrage in district

Feb.; derareal illegal ly the senate of Columbia passed

The impeachment of the president voted by honse

3 Dec.

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of representatives (126 to 47), 24 Feb.; reported

between lord Clarendon and Mr. Hamilton Fish at the bar of the senate by Thaddeus Stevens and

(June-Oct. 1869), published.

Dec, 1869 Bingham

25 Feb. 1868 Renewal of the reciprocity treaty with Canada reNine articles of impeachment (for issuing order for jected by congress

removal of E. M. Stanton from war-office, and U. S. corvette Oneida sunk by collision with British following proceedings) adopted by representa

P. & 0. steamer Bombay; 112 lives lost, 24 Jan. 1879 tives (127 to 47).

2 March, Darien canal scheme approved by congress, Jan ; Bill of impeachment of Johnson sent up to the treaty sigued

26 Jan. senate by the house of representatives, 4 March, Prince Arthur presented to president Grant, 24 Judicious speech of lord Stanley in the British

Jan. ; attended Mr. Peabody's funeral 8 Feb house of commons on the Alabama claims,

Virginia (15 Jan.) and Mississippi Te-admitted to 6 March,

congress . Trial of president Johnson comes before the senate, [Capt. Evre, of the Bombay, severely censured for

23 March,

not waiting to give succour.] Impeachment opened by gen. Butler

30 March,

Bill for purchase of St. Thomas's isle rejected by Mr. Dirkens sails from New York, after most affectionate parting

: 22 April, Texas (15 Mar.) and Georgia re-admitted to constess, National republican convention at Chiengo ;-an

20 April, nounce their “platform"; approving the con By amendments of the constitution, negroes adgress reconstruction policy; severely condemning

mitted to equal rights with whites

April, president Johnson; denouncing repudintion of The tariff bill opposed by freetraders

May, the debt; declaring for protection of naturalised Non-recognition of Cuba atfirmert

June, citizens, &r., 20 May; and proposing general Lincoln state (out of New Mexico) constituted, Ulysses Grant as the next president, and Mr.

Nune, Colfax as vice-president

21 May,

Strong opposition to Chinese immigration ; citizenThe senate reject the uth article of the impeach ship refused by the senate

4 July, · 16 May, Admiral J. A. Dahlgren died Reject and anil zril articles; anii auljourn sine lie;

12 or 13 July, Session of congress closed

15 July, intense exciteinent among republicans, 26 May, J. L. Motley, minister to Great Britain, recallel, Mr. Stanton resigns, 27 May; succeeu by gen.

July, Schofield.

New tariff bill passed (new rates take effect, 1 Jan. Death of the ex-president James Buchanan, i June

1871) Chinese embassy received by the president, 5 June,

Admiral David Farragut died, aged 70 14 Ang Bill for re-almitting North and South Carolina, Strict neutrality in the Franco-Prussian war proGeorgia, Louisiana, Florida, and Alabama, to

claimed

Aug. representation in congress, passed by the Senate, Senator Oliver P. Morton accepts the embassy to

11 June,
Great Britain

23 Sept. Mr. Reverdy Johnson nominated anbassador to Great loss of life and property through floods in Great Britain

12 June, Arkansas re-admitted over the president's veto,

Virginia and Maryland, end of Sept. -2 Oct Total debt, 2,346,913,645 dollars :

Oct 20 June, Total public debt, the principal and interest, The democratic convention nominate Horatio Sey

2,346,913,652 dollars

1 Oct mour for president, and Francis P. Blair for vice Great reluction of the heavy internal taxativa president

4-7 July,
begins

1 Oct. General amnesty (with exceptions) issued

4 July,

Movement against the Mormons on account of their Wyoming territory organiseil.

22 July,
polygamy

1 Oct Act for protection of naturalised citizens abroad Meeting of the southern convention at Cincinnati passed

for political and commercial attairs Thaddeus Stevens dies 12 Aug General Robert Lee dies, aged 62

12 Oct Total debt declared, 2,641,002,572 dollars

i Nov.

President Grant issues à proclamation against General Ulysses Grund, cletel 18th presiilent 3 Nov.

Fenianism, and attacks on Cuba General Sherilan's victory over insurgent Indians ; Mr. Morton declines the embassy to Britain for a village burnt

party reasons

about 25 Oct. Any repudiation of debt renounced by the house of The republican majority in the congress greatly representatives (154 to 6)

reduced by the “fall” election (the first in which General parrion issued

all races are duly represented)

Nov. Connell university founded

Gen. Cox, secretary of interior, dismissed ; quarrel Convention respecting Alabama claims signed by between him and the president

Vov, lord Clarendon and Mr. Reverly Johnson, 14 Jan. 1869 Total debt, 2,334, 308.494 dollars

1 Dec. Prosecution of Jefferson Davis dropped; a nolle Annual message of the president: he regrets prosequi entered .

6 Fel).

failure of proposal for annexing St. Domingo; Indian war reported over

Feb.

and of the non-settlement of the Alabama claims; Alabam treaty rejected by committee of senate, and complains of Canadian aggression

18 Feb. Population : 33,581,680 whites : 4,879, 323 coloured; Suffrage bill, abolishing all distinctions of race, Indians, 25.733; Chinese, 63,190 ; Japanese, 55: colour, and property, passed

21 Feb.

total, 38,549,987, General Sihenk's will, declaring that all national Mr. Motley terus his recall an outrage”

obligations shall be paid in coin, passeil 3 March, Gen. Robert Schenk appointed minister in LonAdjournment of 40th congress ; meeting of 41st don; accepts congress ; gen. Grant assunes office 4 Mareh, New tarit' in operation

i Jan. 1871 Schenk's bill for cash payments passed by senate, George Ticknor, historian, dies

26 Jan.

Statue of Abraham Lincoln in the capitol at WasliConvention respecting Alabama claim rejected by

ington, WVeiled the senate John Lothrop Motley appointed minister at London,

13 April,

42nd congress meets (senate, 47 republicans: 15 democrats)

4 March, April, Proclamation against the Ku Klux in n. Carolina, Naturalisation treaty with Great Britai n ratified by

5 March, senate

15 April, Commission to settle disputes with Great Britain Great peace jubilee held at Boston; colossal con

respecting the Alabama, &c., fishery question, and cert (10,371 voices, 1094 instruments, with anvils,

the San Juan atlair : for the British, the earl de bells, &c.) began

15 June,

Grey (since marquis of Ripon), sir Stafford NorthWm. Pitt Fessem len, financier, died 8 Sept.

cote, and others; for the Americans, secretary Steam-boat, Stonewall, burnt on the Mississippi ;

27 July.

13 Oct

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Fishi, gen. Schenk, and others : announced 10 about 200 persons perish

Feb. ; meet at Washington, 27 Feb. ; sign treaty, Free-trade agitation prevalent

Oct. Dec.

agreeing to arbitration at Geneva, &c. (see Ale. Alm. Charles Stewart, “old iron-side," aged 92, died bumo, and San Jiun), 8 May; ratitied, 26 May,

6 Nov. General Schenk warmly received at Liverpool, Correspondence respecting Alabama claims, &c.

3 June,

27 Oct.

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An American fleet, accompanied by English and wager); arrived 29 Nov.; rode through London to French and German ships, arrives at Corea to

Guildhall.

30 Nov. 1872 conclude a treaty for protection of mariners; on Gen. Grant in his message says that the results of attempting to explore the island the Europeans

the arbitration leave Great Britain and the United are assailed from masked batteries : the Corean

States without a shadow upon their friendly relaforts are then attacked and destroyed ; and nego

tions ciations renewed

June, 1871

Modoc Indians, near Oregon, defeat troops sent to Formation of the new departure" democrat party

expel them

17 Jan. 1873 advocating perfect freedom of all males irrespee Visit of professor Tyndall; he lectures in Boston, tive of race and colour; full political restoration

Philadelphia, Washington, New York, &c., of the southern states; and free traile, about July,

Sept. 1872-Feb. Chicago destroyed by fire ; great exertions to re Vice-president Colfax accused of perjury Feb.

lieve the sufferers; see Chicago; about 2000 lives Civil war in Louisiana, tìghting at New Orleans, lost by fires in N. W. forests . . 8-11 Oct.

Feb. Col. Hodge, paymaster of the regular army, con The congress opened, great Credit Mobilier scandal, fesses great lefaleations since 10 Sept. 1864; con

members accused of bribery

March, demned to long imprisonment

Nov. General Canby and others massacred (see Monlocs), European and North American railway opened at 11 April; capt. Jack and others captured; end Bangor, Maine, by lord Lisgar and gen. Grant,

of the war

I June 18 Oct. Death of chief justice Chase .

7 May, Dispute betsveen the U.S. foreign minister, Hamil Hiram Powers, sculptor of “the Greek Slave, ton Fish, and the Russian envoy Katakazy (for

died at Florence

27 June, undue interference); Katakazy dismissed Nov. Grand duke Alexis of Russia warmly received at

PRESIDENTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. New York.

18 Nov. 1789 & 1793. General George Washington, elected first Congress openedl; president in his message refers to

president. 6 April. peace abroad and prosperity at home

1797. John Adams. 4 March. Forinal meeting of the Alabama arbitration commis 1801 & 1805. Thomas Jefferson. 4 March sion at Geneva (adjourned to 15 June) 18 Dec,

1809 & 1813. James Marlison. 4 March, Gen, Halleck diel

Jan. 1872

1817 & 1821. James Monroe. 4 March. General amnesty bill passed

16 Jan. 1825. John Quincey Allams. 4 March. American case under the treaty of Washington ; 1829 & 1833. General Andrew Jackson.

4

March. claims indirect damages by Alabama and other 1837. Martin Van Buren. March. vessels; much excitement in England

1841. General William Henry Ilarrison.

4

March. Died Despatch from the British minister sent 2 Feb. ;

4 April, succeeded by reply received (not divulged to parliament),

1841. John Tyler (formerly vice-president). 14 March,

1845. James Knox Polk. 4 March Further correspondence (see Alabamo), March, 1849. General Zachary Taylor, 4 March. Died 9 July,

April,

1850, succeeded by the vice-president, Horace Greeley, editor of the New York Tribune, 1850. Millard Fillmore. nominated president by many republicans, 4 May, 1853. General Franklin Pierce.

4 March. New taritt, reduceil duties to begin from 1 Aug ; 1857. James Buchanan. 4 March

passed General Grant nominated for re-election as president

4 June, 1861 & 1865. Abraham Lincoln. 4 March. Shot 14 April;

dieil 15 April, 1865; succeedled by vice-president, by the republicans at Pemuisylvania 6 June, 1865. Andrew Johnson. 15 April. Continued negotiations respecting the Alabama 1869 & 1873. Ulysses S. Grant. March. atlair, Mar; nothing settled ; congress and journs to December

10 June,

UNIVERSALISTS, who believe in the final Dispute with Spain respecting unjust imprison salvation of all men. This doctrine, declared in the ment of Dr. Howard, an American citizen, in Talmud, and ascribed to Origen, about 230, was Cuba since 13 Dec. 1870 ; settled ; Dr. Howard released

advocated by other early fathers, but opposed by

June. Formation of straight-out democrat party, about

St. Augustin, about 420; and condemned by the 5th June,

general council at Constantinople, May, June, 553. Great international musical peace jubilee at Boston,

It was received by the Unitarians in the 17th cen

June-4 July, tury, and avowed by numerous clergymen of the Coalition between the democrats and the liberal church of England. James Relly, who published republicans at Baltimore to support Greeley,

his “Union” in 1760, founded the sect of Univer

10 July, Trial of Edward S. Stokes for murder of James

salists in Britain; and John Murray, in America, Fisk of the Erie Ring (see New York, 1872),

about 1770. The sect barely exists in Britain, but

15 July, flourishes in America. United States squadron at Southampton, England, visited by the prince of Wales

13 Aug. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE (Plebiscitum), Judge Barnard convicted of corruption, and removed one of the six points of the charter (see Chartists), from othce and disqualified

19 Aug. The “straight-out democrats" nominate Charles

was adopted by the French in their constitution of O'Connor for president

1791 ; and used in the election of their president in Announcement of the award of the Geneva arbitra

Sept.

1851, and of their emperor in 1852; and by the tion on the Alabama, &e. (about 3,229,1661.) Sept.

Italian States in voting for annexation to Sardinia Wm. Henry Seward, statesman, died 10 Oct. in 1860, 1861, 1866, and 1870. The emperor of Germany, arbitrator in the San Juan ditficulty, awards the island to the United

UNIVERSITIES. The most ancient in States.

Europe are those of Bologna, Oxford, Cambridge, Total debt of the States, 2,276,828, 101 dollars, i Nov. Paris, and Salamanca. In old Aberdeen was a Gen. Grant re-elected president (by 300 electoral votes ; 68 for Greeley)

monastery,

which youths were instructed in Death of Horace Greeley, aged 61

theology, the canon law, and the school philosophy, Sergeant William Bates walked from Gretna Green at least 200 years before the university and King's

to London, carrying the American Hag: warmly College were founded; see Degrees. The following

received everywhere (the feat originated in a dates are generally given: Aberdeen founded . 1494 Barcelona, revived.

1841 | Bonn

1784, 1818 Abo, Finland 1640 Basle, Switzerland

1460 Bordeaux

• 1472 Andrews, St., Scotland.

1411
Berlin
1810 Bourges .

1465 Angers, chiefly law 1364 Berne. 1834 Breslau

1702 Anjou, 1349; enlarged .

Besançon, Burgundy
1676 Bruges, French Flanders

1665 Athens 1836' Bologna, Italy

1116 Brussels

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