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13 Oct.

4 May,

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Gorey or New Ross (rebels defeated). 4 June, 1798 Fuentes de Onoro (Wellington defeats Massena) Antrim (rebels de fented).

June, Arklow (rebels heaten)

3, 5 May, 1811 10 June, Albuera (Beresford defeats Soult)

16 May, Ballynallinch (Nugent defeats rebels)

13 June,
Ximena (Spaniurils defeat French)

10 Sept. Vinegar Hill (Lake riefents rebels) 21 June, Merida (Hill defents French).

28 Oct. Castlebar (French auriliaries defental).

27 Aug.
Albufera (Suchet defeats Spaniarels)

4 Jan. 1812 Ballinamuck (French and rebels defeated). 8 Sept. Ciudad Rodrigo (stormed by English)

19 Jan, Badajoz (taken by Wellington)

6 April, Nile, n. (Nelson defeats French fleet)

1 Aug.

Llerena (Cotton ile feats Soult) Pyramids (Bonaparte ilcf. Mamelukes)

11 April, 13, 21 July,

Salamanca (Wellington diests. Marmont) Ei Arisch (French defeat Turks)

22 July, 18 Feb. 1799

Mohilow (French defeat Russians) Jaffa (stormed by Donaparte).

23 Jnly, • 7-10 March,

Polotzk (French and Russians) Stokach (Austrians defeat French)

30, 31 July, 25 March,

Krasnoy, Smolensko (French defeat Russians) Verona (Austrians defeat French).

28-30 March, Magnano (K'ray defeats French).

15, 19 Aug. 5 April, Mount Thabor (Bonaparte de fents Turks) 16 April, Borodino Cassano (Suvarrou defeats Moreau).

27 April, Moscow (burnt by Russians) Adda (Suwarrmo defeat French).

15 Sept.

Queenstown (Americans de fented). Seringapatam (Tippoo hillal)

Polotzk (retaken by Russians) Acre (relieved by sir Sidney smith)

19, 20 Oct. 20 May, Malo-Jaroslawatz (French victors). Zurich (French defeater)

5 June, Witepsk (French defeated). Trebia (Suuarrow defeats French)

17-19 June,
Krasnoi (ditto)

16-18 Nov. Alessandria (taken from French)

21 July, Beresina (ditto) Aboukir (Turks defeated by Bonaparte)

25 July,

French Town (taken by Americans) 22 Jan. 1813 Novi (Suuurrow defeats French)

Kalitsch (Sarons defeated). Bergen and Alkmaer (Allies defeated).

19 Sept. Möckern (Eugène defeats Russians) 5 April,

26 Oct. Castalla (sir J. Murray defents Suchet) Zuyper Sluys (French defeatedl)

13 April,

Lutzen (Napoleon cheoks Allies) Zurich (Massena defeats Russians)

· 2 May, 25 Sept.

Bautzen (ap. and Allies; indecisive) 20 May, Heliopolis (Kleber defeats Turks)

20 Mar. 1800 Wurschen (ditto) Engen (Moreu defeats Austrians)

· 21, 22 May, Hochkirchen (French dift. Aust, and Russ.), 22 May,

3 May, Meskirch (ditto) 5 May, Vittoria (Wellington defts. king Joseph)

21 June, Biberach (ditto)

9 May, Pyrenees (Wellington defents Soult) 28 July, Montebello ( Austrians defentel)

9 June,
Katzbach (Blücher defeats Vey).

26 Aug. Marengo (Bonaparte defeats Austrians)

14 June,

Dresden (Napolcon chocks Allies) Hochstadt (Moreau defeats Austrians)

26, 27 Aug.

St. Sebastian (stormed by Graham) Hohenlinden (ditto)

Dennewitz (Ney defeated) Mincio (French defeat Austrians)

6 Sept. 25-27 Dec. Möckern (French defeated).

16 Oct. Aboukir (French defeatel), . 8 March, 1801 Leipzic (Napoleon defeated)

16-18 Oct. Alexandria ( Abercromby's victory)

21 March, Hanau (No poleon defents Bararians). Copenhagen (bombarded by Nelson)

2 April,

St. Jean de Luz (Wellington defts. Soult) 10 Nov. Ahmedmuggur (Wellesley victorious) 12 Aug. 1803 | Passage of the Nive, 9 Dec. ; several engagements Assaye (ditto, his first great victory).

23 Sept.
between the Allies and French

lo to 13 Dec. Argaum (Wellesley victor)

St. Dizier, France (French victors)

26 Jan. 1814 Furruckabail (Lake defeats Holkar). 17 Nov. 1804 Brienne (Allies defentel). Bhurtpore (taken by Lake) 2 April, 1805 La Rothiere (Napoleon defeats Allies).

i Feb. Elchingen (Ney defcats Austrians)

Bur-sur-Aube (Allies victors). Ulm surrenders (Ney lefeats Austrians)

17-20 Oct.

Mincio (pr. Eugene defeats Austrians) 8 Feb. Trafalgar (Nelson destroys Fren. fleet; killer) 21 Oct. Champ Aubert (French defeat Allies)

10-12 Feb. Austerlitz(Napoleon defeats Austrians & Russ.) 2 Dec. Montmirail (ditto)

11 Feb. Vauchamp (ditto)

Fontainebleau (ditto).
Buenos Ayres (takon by Popham)

27 June, 1800
Montereau (iitto)

18 Feh, Maida (Stuart (lefeats French)

Orthez (Wellington defects Soult) Saalfeld (French defeat Prussians)

27 Feb. 10 Oct.

Craonne (French victors) Auerstadt

7 March, } (French defeat Prussians)

Bergen-op-Zoom (Graham defeated) . 8 March, Jena

Laon (French defeater) Halle stormed by French

9-10 March,

Rheims (Napoleon defeats st. Priest) . Pultusk (French and Allies, indecisive)

13 March, 26 Dec,

Tarbes (Wellington ilcfeats Soull) Mohrungen (French def. Russ. d Pruss.).

20 March, 25 Jan. 1807 Fère Champenoise (French defeatel). Montevideo (taken)

25 March,

$t. Dizier (French victors) Eylau (indecisive)

28 March, 7, 8 Feb.

Paris, Montmartre, Romainville (ditto) Ostrolenka (French defeat Prussians). 16 Feb.

Battle of the Barriers, 30 March ; Murmont emcuates Friedland (French defcat Russians)

14 June,

Paris, and the Allies enter it) Buenos Ayres (IV hitelock defeated)

31 March, 5 July,

Toulouse (Wellington defents Soult) Copenhagen (bombardel by Cathcart)

10 April, 2-5 Sept.

Tolentino (Murat defcateul). Medina de Rio Seco (French defeat Spriniaris)

3 May, 1815 Ligny (Blücher repulsed).

16 June, 15 July, 1808 Quatre Bras (Ney repulseul).

16 June, Baylen (Spaniards defeat French) · 20 July, Waterloo (Napolcon finally beaten). 18 June,

PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN BEGINS. Vimiera (IV ellesley defeats Junot)

21 Aug. 1808 Fort George (taken by Americans) Tudela or Ebro (French defont spaniards)

27 May, 1813

Burlington Heights (Americans routed). 6 June, Corunna (Moore defeats French) 16 Jan. 1809 Chrystler's Point, Canada .

11 Nov. Abenberg (Austrians defeated)

· 20 April, Black-rock, America indshut (ilitto)

28 Dec. 21 April, Eckmühl (Davoust il fents Austrians)

Longwood (English defeated)

4 May, 1814 · 22 April, Ebersberg (French defal Austrians),

Chippawa {Pritish defcalon)

5 July,

(Americans delcatel) Oporto (tuken). 29 March, 12 May, Fort Erie (British repulsed)

25 July, Aspern

} (Napoleon do feateur). Essling

Bludensburg (Americans defeated) 21, 22 May,

Bellair (British repulsel) Wagram (Austrinns defented)

5, 6 July, Baltimore (British victors). Talavera (ll'ellesley defeats Victor)

12 Sept. 27, 28 July,

New Orleans (British repulsed) Silistria (Turks defeat Russians)

13 26 Sept. Ocana (Mortier le fonts Spaniards)

Algiers (hombarded by Ermouth). Busaco (Wellington repulsus Masse no).

29 Nov.

29 Jan.

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27 Aug. 1816 27 Sept. 1810 Chacabuco (Chilians defcat Spaniards). Barrosa (Graham deforuds Victor)

12 Feb. 1817 5 March, 1811 Kirklee (Blastings clefents Pindarrees). Badajoz (taken by the French) 11 March, | Mehadpore (Hislop defeats Holkar).

21 Dec.

19 Nov.

5 Noy.

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27 May,

5 Oct.

30 Nov,

9 Dec.

25 Oct.

24 Aug.

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25 Feb.

PERSIAN WAR.

23 Dec.

24 Dec.

17 May,

24 Aug.

14 Dec.

4 Feb.

17 Nov,

99

Dragaschan (Ipsilanti defeatel).

19 June, 1821

RUSSO-TURKISH WAR. Valtezza (Turks defeated).

Oltenitza (Turks repulse Russians) Tripolitza (stormeil by Greeks)

4 Nov. 1853

Sinope, 1. (Turkish feet destroyed) , Thermopylæ (Greeks defeat Turks). 13 July, 1822

Citate (Turks defeat Russians)

6 Jan. 1854 Corinth (taken)

16 Sept. Silistria (ditto). Acera (Ashantees defeat sir C. Macarthy) 21 Jan. 1824

13-15 June,

Giurgevo (ditto) Ayacucho (Peruvians defeat Spaniards)

7 July,

Bayazid (Russians defeat Turks) Bhurtpore (taken by Combermere) 18 Jan, 1826

29, 30 July,

Kuruk-Derek (ditto) Ashantees (defeated)

5 Aug. 27 Aug.

Alma (English and French defeat Russions) 20 Sept. Athens (token)

17 May, 1827 Balaklava (ilitto) Navarino (Allies destroy Turkish feet)

. 20 Oct.

Inkermann (ditto) Brahilov (Russians and Turks).

5 Nov. 18 June, 1828 Eupatoria (Turks defeat Russians). Akhalzikh (ditto)

17 Feb. 1855

Malakhoff tower (Allies and Russians ; indec. night Varna (surrenders to Russians)

II Oet.

combats) Silistria (ditto) 30 June, 1829 Capture of the Mamelon, &c.

22, 23, 24 May, Kainly (Russions dejent Turks)

7 June, 1 July, Unsuccessful attempt on Malakhoff tower, and Balkan (paissed by Russians)

26 July,
Redan (Allies and Russians)

18 June, Adrianople (Russians enter)

20 Aug. Tehernaya or Bridge of Traktir (Allies des. Russians; Algiers (optured by French) 5 July, 1830

16 Aug. Paris (Days of July)

27, 28, 29 July, Grochow (Poles defeat Russians)

Malakhoff taken by the French

8 Sept. 19, 20 Feb. 1831 Ingour (Turks defeat Russians)

6 Nov. Praga (Poles defeai Russians)

Baidar (French defeat Russians)

8 Dec. Wawz (Skrzynecki defeats Russions)

31 March, Seidlice (Poles defaut Russions)

10 April, Ostrolenka (ditto)

26 May, Wilna (Poles and Russians)

18 June,
Bushire (English defeat Persians)

10 Dec. 1856 Warsaw (taken by Russians).

Kooshab (dillo)

.8 Feb. 1857 7 Sept. Homs (Egyptians defeat Turks).

8 July, 1832
Mohammerah (ditto).

26 March, Beylau (Ibrahim defcats Turks)

29 July, Konieh (Egyptians ile feat Turks)

21 Dec.

INDIAN MUTINY. (See India.) Antwerp eitadel taken by Allies

Conflicts before Delhi. 30, 31 May; 8 June ; Hernani (Carlists defeated). 5 May, 1836

4, 9, 18, 23 July, 1857 St. Sebastian (ditto)

1 Oct.

Victories of General Havelock, near Futtehpore, Bilboa (siege raised'; British Legion).

11 July, Cawnpore, &c. 12 July to 16 Aug. Hemani (Carlists repulsed)

16 March, 1837
Pandoo Nuddee (victory of Neill)

15 Aug. Irun (British Legion defents Carlists).

Nujuffghur (dcath of Nicholson, victor)

25 Aug. Valentia (Carlists attacked)

15 July,
Assault and capture of Delhi

14-20 Sept. Herera (Don Carlos defeats Briereno)

Conflicts before Lucknow, 25, 26 Sept. ; 18, 25 Nov. Constantina (Algiers ; taken by French)

13 Oct.

Victories of Col. Greathed 27 Sept; 10 Oct. St. Eustace (Canodian rebels defeatel) ·

Cawnpore (victory of Campbell)

6 Dec. Pennecerrada (Carlists defeated)

22 June, 1838
Futteghur (ditto)

2 Jan. 1858 Prescott (Canadian rebels defeated)

Calpi (victory of Inglis) Aden (trcken)

19 Jan. 1839 Alumbagh (victories of Outram) 12 Jan. and 21 Feb. Ghiznee (taken by Keane)

23 July,
Conflicts at Lucknow (taken)

14-19 March, Sidon (taken by Napier)

27 Sept. 1840
Jhansi (Rose victorious)

4 April Beyrout (Allies defeat Égyptians) .

10 Oct.
Kooneh (ditto).

in May, Gwalior (ditto)

17 June, AFGHAN WAR. (See India.) Bajghur (Mitchell defeats Tantia Topee) .

15 Sept. Acre (stormed by Allies)

Nov.

Dhoodea Khera (Clyde defeats Beni Mahdo) 24 Nov. Kotriah (Scinde; English rictors).

I Dec.

Gen. Horsford defeats the Begum of Oude and Chuen-pe (English victors)

7 Jan. 1841
Nana Sahib

10 Feb. 1859 Canton (English take Bogue forts).

. 26 Feb. Amoy (token)

ITALIAN WAR. (See Italy.)
Chin-hae, &c. (taken)

IO, 13 Oct.
Austrians cross the Ticino

27 April, 1859 Can-lahar (Afghans defeated) . 10 March, 1842 French troops enter Piedmont

May, Ningpo (Chinese de seated)

10 March, Montebello (Allies victorious) Jellalabad (Khyber Pass forced) .

20 May, 5, 6 April, Palestro (ditto)

30, 31 May, Chill-kealig ( tên).

21 July,
Magenta (ditto).

4 June, Ghiznee (Afghans defeated inj Noti) 6 Sept. Malegnano (ditto)

8 June, Meeanee (Napier defeats Ameers). 17 Feb. 1843 Solferino (ditto)

24 June, Maharajpoor (Gough defents Mahrattas)

(Armistice agreed to, 6 July, 1859 Isly (French defeat Abd-el-Kader). . 14 Aug, 1844 Monker (Hardinge defeats Sikhs)

18 Dec. 1845 Ferozeshah (ditto).

Taku, at the month of the Peiho or Tien-Tsin-ho

21, 22 Dec. Aliwal (Smith defeats Sikhs)

28 Jan. 1846

(English attock on the Chinese Forts defcated) Sobraon (Gough (lefeats Sikhs) 10 Feb.

25 June, 1859 Montery (Mericans def. by Americans)

Taku forts taken (see China)

21 Aug. 1860 21-23 Sept. Palo Alto (Taylor defeats Mericans).

Chang-kia-wan, 18 Sept. ; and Pa-li-chiau (Chinese

8, 9 May, Bueno Vista ( Americans defeat Mericans) . 22 Feb. 1847

defeated)

21 Sept. St. Ubes (Portugal)

9 May, Ozontero (Americans defeat Mexicans). 19, 20 Aug. Castillejo (Spaniards defeat Moors)

I Jan. Flensborg (Danes defcat rebels)

9 April, 1848 Tetuan (ditto) Dannawerke (Prussians defeat Danes).

23 April,
Guad-el-Ras (ditto)

23 March, Curtatone (Austrions defeat Italians)

29 May, Custozza (ditto)

23 July, Velencze (Croats and Jlungarians)

Calatifmi (Garibaldi defeats Neapolitans)

29 Sept. Mooltan (Sikhs repulsed)

Melazzo (Garibaldi defeats Neapolitans) 20, 21 July,

7 Nov. Chilianwallah (Gough defeats Sikhs). 13 Jan. 1849

Castel Fidardo (Sardinians defeat Papal troops), Goojerat (ditlo)

18 Sept. Gran (Hungarians victors)

Volturno (Goribaldi defeats Neapolitans) 1 Oct. Novara (Rouletzky defents Sardinians).

Isernia (Sardinians defeat Neapolitans)

23 March, Pered (Russians defeat Hungarians)

Garigliano (Sardinians defeat Veapolitans)

21 June, Acs (Hungarians repulsed)

Sardinians defeat Neapolitan re-actionists 2 & 10 July,

22 Jan. 1861 Waitzen (laken by Russians)

Gaeta taken by the Sardinians. Sehässberg (Russians defeat Bern) Temeswar (Haynau defiats Hungarians). 10 Aug. Insurrection in New Zealand ; English repulsed, Idstedt (Danes defeat Holsteiners)

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25 July, 1850 14, 28 March ; 27 June ; 10, 19 Sept. ; 9, 12 Oct. 1860 Nankin taken by imperialists 19 July, 1853 Maohetia (Maories defeated)

6 Nov.

17 July, • 31 July,

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CIVIL WAR IN UNITED STATES-WAR IN MEXICO. Nachod, Langensalza (which see), Oswiecin, HühnerBig Bethel (Federals repulserl) 10 June, 1861

27 June, 1866 Booneville (Lyon defents Confederates) 18 June,

Münchengrätz, Soor, Trautenau, Skalitz, 28 June, Carthage (Federal victory)

· 5 July,

Gitschin, Königinhof, Jaromier, Schweinschädel, Rich Mountain (ditto)

11 July, Bull Run or Manusbas (Federal defeat and panic)

29 June, Koniggrätz or Sadowa

3 July, 21 July, Dermbach, 4 July ; Hünfeld

5 July, Springfield or Wilson's Creek (Feds. victors) 10 Aug.

Waldaschach, Hausen, Hammelburg, Friederies: Carnifex ferry (Rosencrans defcats Floyd, Confederate)

hall, Kissingen

10 July,
10 Sept.
Laufach, 13 July; Aschaffenburg

14 July, Lexington (taken by Confederates) · 20 Sept.

Tobitschau, 15 July ; Blumenau, 22 July : Hof, Pavon, South America (Mitra def. Urquiza) 17 Sept.

23 July, Turks defeat Montenegrins 19 Oct., 21 Nov.

Tauber - Bischofsheim, Werbach, Hochhausen, Ball's Bluff (Federals defeatedl) 21 Oct.

24 July, Mill Springs, Kentucky (Confederates defeated and Neubrunn, Helmstadt, Gerchsheim

25 July, their general Zollicoffer killed) 19 Jan. 1862 Roszbrunn, Wurzburg, Baireuth

28 July, Roanoke Island, N.C. (Federals victors)

7, 8 Feb. Sugar Creek, Arkansas (Confederates defeater)

Monte Rotondo (Garibaldians victors) 27 Oct. 1867 8 Feb.

Mentana (Garibaldi defeated) Fort Donnelson (taken by Federals) 16 Feb. Arogee or Fahla (Abyssinians defeated) .

10 April, 1868 Pea Ridge, Arkansas (Federals victors) 6-8 March, Hampton roads n. (Merrimac repulsed by Monitor)

Russians defeat Bokharians and occupy Samarcand, 9 March,

25 May, Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh (favourable to Con Alcolea (Spanish royalists defeated) 27, 28 Sept. ferlerates)

6, 7 April, Villeta (Lopez defeated by Brazilians), &c. 11 Dec. Williamsburg (Federals repulsel) 5 May, Lopez defeated

12, 16, 18, 21 Aug. 1869 Puebla (Mericans defeat French)

5 May,

Aquidaban (Lopez defeated and killed) March, 1870
Richmond (successful sorties of Confederates) 14 May,
Orizaba (Meriauns defeat French)

18 May,

FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR (which see.) Winchester (Federals repulsel)

18 May, Saarbrück, taken by the French, and Prussians reNear Orizaba (French defeat Mericans)

13 June
pulsed

2 Aug. 1870 Fairoaks (before Richmond, indecisive)

31 May,
Wissembourg (French defeated)

4 Aug.
1 June,
Worth (ditto)

6 Aug. Chickahominy (severe conflicts before Richmond; Saarbrück or Forbach (ditto)

6 Aug. Confederates retreat)

25 June to i July, Courcelles or Pange (ditto). Baton Rouge (taken by Federals)

14 Aug. 5 Aug.

Strasburg (ditto) Cedar Mountain (favourable to confederaies) 9 Aug.

16 Aug. Vionville or Mars-la-Tour (ditto).

16 Aug. Severe conflicts on the Rappahannock 23-29 Aug.

Gravelotte or Rézonville (dillo)

18 Aug. Bull Run (clefeat of Federals)

29. 30 Aug

Beaumont (ditto). Aspromonte (Garibnlei and his volunteers captured Carignan (dillo)

30 Aug by Royal Italian Troops)

31 Aug. 29 Aug.

Metz (ditto):
Antietain (severe ; Confederates retreat)

31 Aug.
17 Sept.
Sedan (ditto)

31 Aug., 1 Sept. Perryville (Confederates worstai)

8, 9 Oct.

Before Paris (French defeated) Fredericksburg (Federals defeated by Lee)

30 Sept. Thoury (Germans surprised and repulsed)

5 Oct. Murfreesburgh (indecisive) 29 Dec. 1862—3 Jan. 1863 St. Rémy (French defeated)

6 Oct. Nashville (Confederates defeated)

2 Jan.

Before Metz (ditto).
Chancellorsville (Confulerutes victors).

2-4 May,
Artenay (ditto)

to Oct. Winchester (Ewell defeats Feilerals).

14 June,
Cherizy (Tiermons repulsed)

Io Oct.
Gettysburg (severe but indecisire)

1-3 July
Orleans (French defeatedl)

11 Oct. Chicamauga (Confeilerates victorious) 19-20 Sept.

Ecouis (indecisive)

14 Oct. Chattanooga (Confe lerates defeated) 23-26 Nov.

Châteaudun (French defeated)

18 Oct. Spottsylvania, &c., in the Wilderness, near Chan Coulmiers, near Orleans Germans defeated), cellorsville (indecisive).

10-12 May, 1864 Petersburg, near Richmond (indecisive, but Grani

9, 10 Nov. Near Amiens (French defeated).

Nov. advances)

15-18 June, Villiers, before Paris (French retrcat) Winchester (Confederates defeated) 19 Sept.

2 Dec. Cedar Creek (ditto)

Before Orleans (French defeated) Franklin (ditto).

Beangency (ditto)

7, 8 Dec. Nashville (Thomas, Federal, defeats Hood) 14-16 Dec. Nuits (French defented)

18 Dec, Five Forks (Lee totally defeated)

1 April, 1865 Pont à Noyelles (French claim a victory) Farmville (Lee finally defeated) 6 April, Bapaume (indecisive)

2, 3 Jan. 1872 Le Mans (inclecisive)

6 Jan. Oeversee (Danes and Allies)

6 Feb. 1864 Le Mans (Chanzy def. by pr. Fred. Chas.), 10-12 Jan. Düppel (taken by the Prussians)

18 April, Belfort (Bourbaki defeated) Alsen (ditto)

15-17 Jan. 29 June,

St. Quentin (Faidherbe defeater)
Rendsburg (ditto).
21 July, Paris (Trochu's grand sortie repulsed) 19

Jan.
SOUTH AMERICAN WAR. (See Brazil.)

(For numerous skirmishes see Franco-Prussian War, and Santayuna (Allies defeat Para jua yans; Urugu yana

for details of important engagements see separate taken)

18 Sept. 1865 articles.) Paso de la Patria (indecisive) 25 Feb. 1866 Oroquieta (Carlists defeated)

4 May, 1872 Parana (Allies victors)

16 April, Estero Velhaco (ditto)

2 May,

BAUGÉ, see Anjou. Tuyuty (Allies defeated)

16, 18 July, Curupaiti (ditto)

17, 19, 22 Sept.

BAUTZEN, a town in Saxony, near which Tuyuty (Allies victors)

desperate battles were fought 20, 21, and 22 May, Corumba (taken by Brazilians) . 13 June, 1867 1813, between the French, commanded by Napoleon,

and the allies under the emperor of Russia and the SEVEN WEEKS' WAR (Austria and Prussia.)

king of Prussia. The struggle commenced on the Custozza (Austrians defeat Italians) 24 June, 1866 Lissa (dilio, naval batile)

20 July,

19th, with a contest on the outposts, which cost

each army a loss of above 2000 men. On the 20th Prussian victories (as inscribed on shield exhi

(at Bautzen) the French were more successful; and bited at Berlin, 20 Sept. 1866, see Prussia).

on the 21st (at Wurschen) the allies were comLiebenau, Türnau, Podoll

26 June,

pelled to retire ; but Napoleon obtained no perma* There were many smaller conflicts, of which the nent advantage. Duroc was killed at Reichenbach accounts were very uncertain.

by a cannon-ball, on 22 May.

13 Dec.

7 Oct.

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BAVARIA (part of ancient Noricum and Vin- 1778. Charles Theodore (the elector palatine of the Rhine delicia), a kingdom in South Germany, conquered

since 1743). The French take Munich ; he treats from the Celtic Gauls (Boii) by the Franks between

with thein, 1796 ; d. 1799. 630 and 660. The country was afterwards governed 1799. Maximilian-Joseph II. ; élector; territories changed

by treaty of Luneville, 1801 : enlarged when by dukes subject to the French monarchs. Tasil

made king, by treaty of Presburg. Dec. 1805. lon II. was deposed by Charlemagne, who established margraves in 788. The margrave Leopold, 895,

KINGS OF BAVARIA. father of Arnulph the Bad, is styled the first duke. 1805. Maximilian-Joseph I. He deserted Napoleon, and

had his enlarged territories confirmed to him. Bavaria supports Austria in the contest with

Oct. 1813 ; grants a constitutional charter, 22 Prussia

June, 1866

Aug. 1818; d. 13 Oct. 1825. Took part in the war, and made peace with Prussia, 1825. Louis I., 13 Oct. ; ablicated 21 March, 1848 ;* died

22 Aug

29 Feb. 1868. Population (after cessions, 1866), 4,824,421 (see

1848. Maximilian-Joseph II. ; son; born 28 Nov. 1811 ; Munich)

Dec. 1867

died 10 March, 1864. An international exhibition in a crystal Palace 1864. Louis II. (son); born 25 Aug. 1845; heir: his opened

brother Otho, born 27 April, 1848. The chambersdissolved, as, through a party struryle,

20 July, 1869 Bavaria, a hereditary constitutional monarchy, joined no president was elected

the German empire, 15 Nov. 1870.

6 Oct. Resimation of the ministry, 25 Nov. ; only partially accepted by the king

Dec.

BAY ISLANDS (the chief, Ruatan), in the Vote of want of contilence in prince Hohenlohe, bay of Honduras, central America, belonged to

the president, 12 Feb. ; he resigns 14 Feb. 1870 Spain till 1821 ; then to Great Britain, which The king announces his intention of joining Prussia

formed them into a colony in 1852, but ceded in the war with France

about 20 July, The Bavarian contingent highly distinguishes itselt

them to Honduras, 28 Nov. 1859, see Honduras. in the war; Otho, duke of Bavaria, killed near Beglie

BAYEUX TAPESTRY, said to have been

27 Jan. 1871 See Franco-Prussian war.]

wrought by Matilda, queen of William I. It is The king, in a letter to the king of Saxony, proposes 19 inches wide, 214 feet long, and is divided into

that the king of Prussia should be made emperor compartments showing the events from the visit of Germany

about

5 Dec. of Harold to the Norman court to his death at Dr. Döllinger excommunicated for opposing papal infallibility, 18 April ; elected rector of the uni

Hastings; it is now preserved in the public libversity of Munich

29 July,

rary of Bayeux near Caen. A copy, drawn by C. Government protests against papal infallibility (see Stothard, and coloured after the original, was pubGermany)

27 Sept.

lished by the Society of Antiquaries in 1821-3. "Old Catholic church opened at Munich,

end of Sept. BAYLEN (S. Spain), where on 20 July, 1808, The king charges Von Gasser to form an Ultramon- the French, commanded by generals Dupont and tane ministry, opposed to German unity, 3 Sept.;

Wedel, were defeated by the Spaniards under Redhe fails,

Sept. 1872

ing, Coupigny, and other generals.

BAYONET, the short dagger fixed at the end 1071. Guelf I., an illustrious warrior. 1101. Guelf 1. ; son ; married the countess Matilda, in France, about 1647, 1670, or 1690. It was used

of fire-arms, said to have been invented at Bayonne, 1089. 11 20. Henry the Black ; brother.

at Killiecrankie in 1689, and at Marsaglia by the 1126. Henry the Proud ; son. (He competed with Conrad French, in 1693," with great success, against the

of Hohenstaufen for the empire, failed, and was enemy unprepared for the encounter with so fordeprived of Bavaria.)

midable a novelty.” The ring-bayonet was adopted 1138. Leopold, margrave of Austria ; d. 1142.

by the British, 24 Sept. 1693. 1142. Henry of Austria ; brother ; d. 1177. 1154. Henry the Lion (son of Henry the Proud), ancestor of the Brunswick family, restored by the

BAYONNE (S. France), an ancient city. It emperor Frederick Barbarossa, but expelled by was held by the English from 1295 till it was taken him 1180 ; (see Brunsucick); d. 1195.

by Charles VII. The queens of Spain and France 1180. Otho, count of Wittelsbach, made duke ;

d. met the cruel duke of Alva here, June, 1556, it 1183.

is supposed to arrange the massacre of St. Bar1183. Louis ; son. 1231. Otho II., the Illustrious; son ; gained the palati- favour of his friend and ally

tholomew. Charles IV. of Spain abdicated here in nate; assassinated 1231.

the emperor Napo1253. Louis II., the Severe : son; d. 1294.

leon, 4 May, and his sons, Ferdinand prince of 1294. Louis III. ; son (without the palatinate) emperor ; Asturias, don Carlos, and don Antonio renounced

their rights to the Spanish throne, 6 May, 1808. 1347. Stephen I. : son ; d. 1375.

In the neighbourhood of Bayonne was much des1375. John ; brother ; d. 1397.

perate fighting between the French and British 1397. Ernest ; brother ; d. 1438. 1438. Albert I. ; son ; d. 1460.

armies, 9-13 Dec. 1813. Bayonne was invested by 1460. John II. (ed.) and Sigismund ; sons; resigned to the British, 14 Jan. 1814; on 14 April, the French 1465. Albert II. ; brother; d. 1508.

made a sally, and attacked the English with suc1508. William I. ; son ; opposed the reformation, 1522 ; cess,

but were at length driven back. The loss of

the British was considerable, and lieut.-gen. sir 1550. Albert III. ; son; d. 1573. 1579. William II. ; son ; abilicated, 1596 ; d. 1626.

John Hope was wounded and taken prisoner.-A 1596. Maximilian the Great ; son ; 'the first ELECTOR of Franco-Spanish industrial and fine arts exhibition

Bavaria, 25 Feb. 1623 ; the palatinate restored, was opened at Bayonne in July 1864.

1648 ; d. 27 Sept. 1651. 1651. Ferlinand-Mary ; d. 26 May, 1679.

* The abdication of Charles-Louis was mainly caused 1679. Maximilian Emanuel; son'; allies with France, by his attachment to an intriguing woman, known

1702 ; defeated at Blenheim, 1704; restored to throughout Europe by the assumed name of Lola Montes. his dominions, 1714: d. 26 Feb. 1726.

who, in the end, was expelled the kingdom for her inter1726. Charles Albert; son; elected emperor, 1742 ; de- ference in state atfairs, and afterwards led a wandering feated, 1744, d. 20 Jan. 1745.

life. She delivered lectures in London, in 1859: thence 1745. Maximilian-Joseph I. ; son; as elector; d. 30

Dec. proceeded to the United States ; and died at New York, 1777 ; end of younger line of Wittelsbach.

17 Jan. 1861.

DURES.

d. 1347:

d. 1550.

G

BAYREUTH (N. Germany), a margraviate, up in London, and all commodities ordered to he held formerly by a branch of the Brandenburg weighed by the city officer, called the weighfamily, was with that of Anspach abdicated by the master, who was to do justice between buyer and reigning prince in favour of the king of Prussia, seller, 'stat. 3 Edw. II. 1309. Stou. Beams and 1790. The archives were brought (in 1783) from scales, with weights and measures, were ordered to Plassenburg to the city of Bayreuth, which was be examined by the justices at quarter sessions, incorporated with Bavaria by Napoleon in 1806. 35 Geo. III. 1794 ; see Weights and Measures.

BAZAAR, or covered market, a word of Arabic BEANS, BLACK AND WHITE, were used by origin. The magnificent bazaar of Ispahan was ex the ancients in gathering the votes of the people for celled by that of Tauris, which has held 30,000 the election of magistrates. A white bean signified men in order of battle. In London the Soho-square absolution, and a black one condemnation. The bazaar was opened by Mr. Trotter in 1816 to relieve precept of Pythagoras to abstain from beans, abstine the relatives of persons killed in the war. The a fabis, has been variously interpreted. “ Beans Queen's Bazaar, “Oxford-street, a very extensive do not favour mental tranquillity” Cicero. The one, was (with the Diorama) burnt down, and the finer kinds of beans were brought here with other loss estimated at 50,000l., 27 May, 1829. It was vegetables, in Henry VIII.'s reign. rebuilt, and converted into the Princess's Theatre, opened 30 Sept. 1841. The St. James's bazaar (built

BEAR-BAITING, an ancient popular English by Mr. Crockford) in 1832. The Pantheon, made a sport, prohibited by parliament in 1835. bazaar in 1834; see Pantheon. The London Crystalpalace bazaar, 1858. The most imposing sale termed beards; the Assyrians did." They have been worn

BEARDS.* The Egyptians did not wear a bazaar was opened for the benefit of the Anti

for centuries by the Jews, who were forbidden to Corn-Law League, in Covent-garden theatre, 5 May,

mar their beards, 1490 B.C. Ler. xix. 27. The 1845; .in six weeks 25,000l. were obtained, mostly Tartars waged a long war with the Persians, deby admission money. The Corinthian bazaar, claring them infidels, because they would not cut Argyll-street, Oxford-street (to replace the bazaar their beards, after the custom of Tartary. The at the Pantheon) opened 30 July, 1867; closed in Greeks wore their beards till the time of Alexander, 1868.

who ordered the Macedonians to be shaved, lest BAZEILLES, a village in the Ardennes, N.E. the beard should give a handle to their enemies, France. During the dreadful battle of Sedan, 330 B.C. Beards were worn by the Romans, 390 B.C. 1 Sept. 1870, Bazeilles was burnt by the Bavarians, The emperor Julian wrote a diatribe entitled and atrocious outrages are said to have been com Misopogon) against wearing beards, A.D. 362.mitted. Of nearly 2000 inhabitants scarcely fifty In England, they were not fashionable after the remained alive, and these indignantly denied having conquest, 1066, until the 13th century, and were given provocation. Much controversy ensued, and discontinued at the Restoration. Peter the Great in July, 1871, gen. Von der Tann asserted that the enjoined the Russians, even of rank, to shave, but number of deaths had been exaggerated, that there

was obliged to keep officers on foot to cut off the had been much provocation, and denied the alleged beard by force. Since 1831 the custom of wearing cruelties.

the beard gradually increased in Great Britain. BAZOCHE-DES-HAUTES, near Orleans,

BEARN, S. France, the ancient Benecharnum, central France. Here a part of the army of the

was held successively by the Romans, Franks, Goths, Loire, under gen. D'Aurelle de Paladines, were

and Gascons, and became a hereditary viscounty in defeated after a severe action, by the Germans 819, under Centule I., son of Loup, duke of Gasunder the grand-duke of Mecklenburg, 2 Dec. 1870. Gabaret, 1134; of Moncade, 1170; of Foix, 1290 ;

cony. From his family it passed to the houses-of See Orleans.

and of Bourbon, 1550. Its annexation to France BEACHY HEAD, a promontory, S. E. Sussex, was decreed by Henry IV., 1594; atfirmed by Louis near which the British and Dutch fleet, commanded XIII., 1620. by the earl of Torrington, was defeated by a supe BEAUGÉ, see Anjou. rior French force under admiral Tourville, 30 June, 1690; the allies suffered very severely. The Dutch

BEAULIEU, ABBEY OF, (reformed Benelost two admirals, 500 men, and several ships- dictines) founded by king John, in the New Forest, sunk to prevent them from falling into the hands Hampshire, in 1204, and dedicated to the Blessed of the enemy; the English lost two ships and 400 Virgin, had the privilege of sanctuary. It afforded The admirals on both sides were blamed;

an asylum to Margaret, queen of Henry VI., after ours, for not fighting; the French for not pursuing the defeat of the earl of Warwick at Barnet, the victory

14 April, 1471; and also to Perkin Warbeck, Sept. BEACONS, see Lighthouses.

1497 BEADS were early used in the east for reckon

BEAUMONT, a village near Sedan, departing prayers.

St. Augustin mentions them 366. ment of Ardennes, N.E. France. Near here a part About 1090, Peter the Hermit is said to have made of the army of marshal MacMahon under De Failly, a series of 55 beads. To Dominic de Guzman is

rded woman was taken by the Russians at the ascribed the invention of the Rosary (a series of battle of Pultowa, and presented to the Czar, Peter I. 15 large and 150 small beads), in honour of the 1724 : her beard measured it yard. A woman is said to Blessed Virgin, about 1202. Beads soon after were have been seen at Paris with a bushy beard, and her in general use. The Bead-roll was a list of de whole body covered with hair. Dict. de Trevous. The

great Margaret, governess of the Netherlands, had a very ceased persons, for the repose of whose souls a

long stiff beard. In Bavaria, in the time of Wolfius, it certain number of prayers was recited. Beads have virgin had a long black beard. Malle. Bois de Chêne, been found in British barrows.

born at Geneva (it was said) in 1834, was exhibited in

London, in 1852-3, when, consequently, eighteen years BEAM AND SCALES. The apparatus for of age ; she had a profuse head of hair, a strong black weighing goods was so called, “as it weighs so beard, large whiskers, and thick hair on her arins and much at the king's beam.A public beam was set

down from her neck on her back, and masculine features.

men.

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