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which, after vainly endearouring to reach Metz, BEDER (Arabia). Here Mahomet gained his was retreating before the Germans under the crown first victory (over the Koreish of Mecca), 623. It prince of Prussia, was surprised, defeated, and was considered to be miraculous. driven across the Meuse at Jouzon, 30 Aug. 1870. The French loss included about 7000 prisoners,

BEDFORD, a town, N.N.W. London, remany guns, and much camp equipage. The victory nowned for its many free educational establishwas chiefly gained by the Bavarians.

ments, endowed in 1561 by sir Wm. Harpur, a BEAUNE-LA-ROLLANDE, a village in London alderman. Here John Bunyan preached,

and wrote “The Pilgrim's Progress.' the Loiret, France. Here the French army of the Loire, under general D'Aurelle de Paladines, was BEDFORD LEVEL, a portion of the great defeated by the Germans, under prince Frederick fen districts in the eastern counties, drained in the Charles, in an attempt to march in the direction of early part of the 17th century by the earl of BedFontainebleau to relieve Paris, 28 Nov. 1870. The ford, aided by the celebrated Dutch engineer, sir French loss was reported by the Germans to be Cornelius Vermuyden, amid great opposition ; see 1000 dead, 4000 wounded; above 1700 prisoners. Levels. Their own loss was heavy.

BEDLAM, see Bethlehem. BEAUVAIS (N. France) the ancient BelloFaci, formerly capital of Picardy. When besieged BEDOUINS, wandering tribes of Arabs, living by Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, with on the plunder of travellers, &c. They profess a 80.000 men, the women under Jeanne Fourquet or form of Mahomedanisin, and are governed by Lainé, also de la Hachette, from her using that sheikhs. They are said to be descendants of Ishweapon, particularly distinguished themselves, and mael, and appear to fulfil the prophecy respecting the 'duke raised the siege, 10 July, 1472. In him, Gen. xvi. 12, 1911 B.C. memory of this the women of Beauvais walk first in the procession on the anniversary of their

BEEF-EATERS, see Battle-axe. deliverance.

“ BEEF STEAKS, the Sublime Society of,” BECKET'S MURDER.* Thomas Becket,

was established in 1735 by Rich, an actor at Covent archishop of Canterbury, was murdered at the Garden Theatre, in the painting-room of which the

The society altar, 29 Dec. 1170. The king was absolved" of members dined upon beef-steaks. guilty knowledge of the crime in 1172, and did became fashionable, and long included among its penance at the tomb in 1174. The bones of Becket members, the prince of Wales, royal dukes, and were enshrined in gold and jewels in 1220; but other eminent persons, who submitted to its somewere burned in the reign of Henry VIII. 1539; 1867, its last place of meeting being a room in the

what ludicrous regulations. It became extinct in The Merchant Adventurers were at one time termed * the Brotherhood of St. Thomas à Becket.”

Lyceum theatre. Its history was published by

Brother Arnold in 1871. BED. The ancients slept on skins. Beds were afterwards made of loose rushes, heather, or straw.

BEER, see Ale, Porter, Victuallers. The Romans are said to have first used feathers.

BEER-HOUSES. Law respecting (11 Geo. An air-cushion is said to have been used by Helio- IV. and i Will. IV., c. 64, 1830), &c., amended in gabalus, 218-222; air-beds were in use in the 16th 1869. tentury. Feather-beds were in use in England in the reign of Uenry VIII. The bedsteads of the BEES. Mount Hybla, on account of its odoriEgyptians and later Greeks, like modern couches, ferous flowers, thyme, and abundance of honey, has became common among the Roman upper classes. been poetically called the “empire of bees.” Hy

mettus, in Attica, was also famous for its bees and The ancient great bed at Ware, Herts, capable of bold honey. The economy of bees was admired in the

ing twelve persons, was sold, it is said, to Charles | earliest ages; and Eumelus, of Corinth, wrote a

Dickens, 6 Sept. 1864.
A bedstead of gold was presented to the queen on 2 Nov.

poem on bees, 741 B.C. Bees were introduced 1859, by the Maharajah of Cashmere.

into Boston, New England, in 1670, and have Air-beds and water-beds have been made since the manu- since spread over the continent. Mandeville's

future of india-rubber cloth by Clark in 1813 ; and by satirical “ Fable of the Bees " appeared in 1723. Macintosh in 1823.

Huber published his observations on bees in 1792. Dr. Arnott's hydrostatic bed invented in 1830.

The Apiarian Society had an establishment at AlusBED OF JUSTICE, a French court presided well Hill, near London (1860-2). The Ligurian over by the king, whose seat was termed a “ bed.” variety of the honey-bee was successfully introduced It controlled the ordinances of the parliament. into England in 1860. The last was held by Louis XVI. at Versailles, BEES', ST., Cumberland. A monastery was 19 Nov. 1787, to raise a loan.

founded here by St. Bega, 650; a grammar school

by abp. Grindall, 1583 ; a clerical training college # Thomas Becket was born in 1919. His father Gilbert by bp. Law, 1817. was a London trader, and his mother is stated to have been a convert from Mahomedanism. He was educated BEET-ROOT is of recent cultivation in Eng. at Oxford, and male archdeacon by Theobald, arclibishop land. Beta vulgaris, red beet, is used for the table of Canterbury, who introduced him to the king, Henry II.

as a salad. Margrati'first produced sugar from the He became chancellor in 1155, but on being elected archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, he resigned the chancellor

white beet-root in 1747. M. Achard produced exship, to the great offence of the king. He opposed cellent sugar from it in 1799 ; and the chemists of strenuously the constitutions of Clarendon in 1164, and France, at the instance of Bonaparte, largely exfled the country : and in 1166, excommunicated all the tracted sugar from the beet-root in 1800. 60,000 clergy who agreed to abide by them. He and the king tons of sugar, about half the consumption, are now met at Fretville, in Touraine, on 22 July, 1170, and were formally reconciled. On his return he re-commenced manufactured in France from beet. It is also his struggle with the king, which led to his tragical largely manufactured in other countries. A refinery death.

of sugar from beet-root has been erected at the

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Thames_bank, Chelsea. The cultivation of beet- of three colleges established in Ireland in 1845, one root in England and Ireland much advocated, 1871. inaugurated in Belfast (see Colleges)

Oct. 1849

Much rioting at Belfast through Mr. Hanna's openBEGGARS were tolerated in ancient times, air preaching :

July-Sept. 1857 being often musicians and ballad-singers. In “Victoria chambers' burnt down; the loss estimodern times severe laws have been passed against

mated at 100,00ol.

1 July, 1859 them. In 1572, by 14 Eliz., c. 5, sturdy beggars Exciting religious revivals


Fierce conflicts between Roman Catholics and Prowere ordered to be a grievously whipped and burnt

testants on account of the foundation of the through the right ear; " punished capitally for the

O'Connell monument at Dublin- lives lost and third offence. By the Vagrant Act (1824), 5 Geo. IV. 150 persons injured

10-27 Aug. 1864 c. 83, all public beggars are liable to a month's im- Rioting again

30 April, 1865 prisonment. About 30,000 tramps in England and Election riots

July, Wales. Judicial Statistics, 1865. See Poor Laws Visit of the lord licutenant the marquis of Abercorn and Mendicity Society. The “Beggar's OPERA,

2-4 Oct. 1867

Severe rioting; much destruction of property and by John Gay, a satire against the government of

many persons injured. Civil war raging between sir Robert Walpole, was produced at the Lincoln's Catholics and Protestants, 15-21 Aug. Peace reinn-fields theatre, 1728, and had a run of 63 nights; stored

22 Aug. 1872 see Gueux. BEGUINES, a congregation of nuns first lands, and anciently the territory of the Belgæ, who

BELGIUM, the southern portion of the Netherestablished at Liège, and afterwards at Nivelle, in 1207, some say, 1226. The “Grand Beguinage

were finally conquered by Julius Cæsar, 51 B.C. Its

size is about one-eighth of Great Britain. Its of Bruges was the most extensive. Some of these nuns imagined that they could become sinless. The founded in 1831. For previous history, see Flanders,

government is a liberal constitutional monarchy, council of Vienne condemned this error, and Netherlands, and Holland. The population ( 31 Dec.) abolished a branch of the order in 1311. They still 1862, 4,836,566; 1865, 4,984,451 ; 1866, 4,829,320 ; exist in Germany and Belgium, acting as nurses to the sick and wounded, &c.

1870, 5,087,105.

The revolution commences at Brussels 25 Aug, 1830 BEHEADING, the Decollatio of the Romans, The provisional government declares Belgium indeintroduced into England from Normandy (as a less pendent ignominious mode of putting high criminals to Antwerp taken (except the citadel). death), by William the Conqueror, 1076, when

Belgian independence acknowledged by the allied Waltheof, earl of Huntingdon, Northampton, and


26 Dec

Duke de Nemours elected king (his father, the Northumberland, was first so executed. Since then

French king, refused his consent)

3 Feb. 1833 this mode of execution became frequent, particu- Surlet de Chokier is elected regent larly in the reigns Henry VIII., Mary, and Leopold, prince of Saxe-Coburg, elected king, 12 July, Elizabeth, when even women of the noblest blood enters Brussels

19 July, thus perished.*

War with the Netherlands commences 3 Aug

France sends 50,000 troops to assist Belgium, and BEHISTUN, in Persia. At this place is a an armistice ensues

Aug. rock containing important inscriptions in three Conference of ministers of the five great powers hela languages, in cuneiform (or wedge-shaped) cha

in London: acceptance of 24 articles of pacification racters, which were deciphered and translated by Convention between England and France against sir H. Rawlinson in 1844-6, and published in the Holland

22 Oct. 1832 Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Each para- Antwerp besieged, 30 Nov.; the citadel taken by the graph commences with “I am Darius the Great French King."

The French army returns to France BEHRING’S STRAIT, discovered by captain Treaty* between Holland and Belgium signed in

Riot at Brussels (see Brussels).

6 April, 1834 Vitus Behring, a Danish navigator in the service of London

19 April, 1839 Russia. He thus proved that the continents of Queen of England visits Belgium

Aug. 1852 Asia and America are distant from each other about The king and his son visit England

Oct. thirty-nine miles, 1728. He died at Behring's

Increase of army to 100,000 men voted 10 May, 1853 island in 1741. In 1778 captain James Cook sur

Opposition to religious charities' billt June, 1857 veyed the coasts of both continents.

A new ministry under M. Charles Rogier
The chainbers dissolved ; re-assembled

Io Dec. BELFAST, capital of Ulster, N. Ireland. Its The king proclaims Belgium neutral in the Italian castle, supposed to have been built by John de

May, 1859 Courcy, was destroyed by the Scots under Edward

15 Nov.

23 Dec, 27 Dec.

9 Nov


Birth of prince Leopold Ferdinand

12 June, Death of M, Potter

· 22 July, Bruce, 1315 ; see Orange.

The king visits England .

. June, 1860 Belfast granted by James I. to sir Arthur Chichester,

Vague rumours of annexation to France produce then lord deputy, 1012; and erected into a corpo

warm loyal addresses to the king ration

The octrois abolished 1613

21 July The long bridge (21 arches, 2562 feet long) built. Successful military volunteer movement. 1682-6

Aug. The first edition of the Bible in Ireland, printed here 1704

Commercial treaty with France signed . . 1 May, 1861 The castle burnt

4 April, 1708 The bank built

1787 * This treaty arose out of the conference held in London The mechanics' institute established

1825 on the Belgian question ; by the decision of which, the The Queen's bridge (5 arches) built on site of the treaty of 15 Nov, 1831, was maintained, and the peculong bridge

1841 niary compensation of sixty millions of francs offered by

Belgium for the territories adjudged to Holland was * Lady Jane Grey was beheaded 12 Feb. 1554. The declared inadmissible. venerable countess of Salisbury was executed 27 May, + At the revolution in 1830, the Roman Catholic clergy 1541. When directed to lay her head on the block, she lost the administration of the public charities, which refused to do it: saying that she knew of no guilt, and they have struggled to recover ever since. In April, would not submit to die like a criminal. The executioner 1857, M. Decker, the head of the ministry, brought in a pursued her round the scaffold, aiming at her boary head, bill for this purpose, the principle of which was carried, and at length took it off, after mangling the neck and This led, however, to so much agitation, that the minisshoulders in a horrifying manner. She was daughter of try were compelled to withdraw the bill, and eventually George, duke of Clarence. Hume.

to resign.

13 June,


13 Voy.

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Continued illness of the king, with occasional the Turks, 1690. It was besieged in May, 1716, by Collineriel treaty with Great Britain aloxited 1862 prince Eugene. In that year the Turkish army, the chamber.

22 Aug

200,000 strong, approached to relieve it, and on 5 Great distress through decay of trade Aug

Aug. a sanguinary battle was fought at PeterwaraFierce dissensions through Roman Catholics, Jau. ; dein, in which the Turks lost 20,000 men. Eugene

the ministry resigns, but resumes office, 4 Feb. ; defeated the Turks here, 16 Aug. 1717, and Beldissolution of the chambers, 17 July; the Pro- grade surrendered 18 Aug. In 1739 it was ceded to testants superior in the election.

Aug. 1864 Death of Leopold I.

the Turks, after its fine fortifications had been deThe new king and queen visit England, 5 July; and

10 Dec; 1865 molished. It was retaken in 1789, and restored at Ghent and other Belgian cities .

July, 1866 the peace of Reichenbach, in 1790. The Servian National rifle meeting (tir)

12-16 Oct. insurgents had possession of it, 1806-13. In 1815 Mr. Phillips, lord mayor of London, and 1100 English it was placed under prince Milosch, subject to

volunteers visit Belgiun under col. Loyd Lind- Turkey. The fortifications were restored in 1820. say; other foreigners attend; grand banquet given by the king at Brussels

On 19 June, 1862, the Turkish pasha was dismissed

20 Oct. Opening of the chambers, with a re-assuring speech for firing on the town during a riot. The university from the king

was established by private muniticence, 1863. The Violent rioting in mining districts (Marchienne-au- fortress was surrendered by the Turks to the Ser

Pont) on account of reduction in wages ; sup- vians, 18 April, 1867; see Serria. pressed by the military

1-2 Feb. 1867 Alwut 2400 Belgians (of the garde civique and volun

BELGRAVIA, a south-western district of the teers) visit England; arrive, 10 July ; received by metropolis, built between 1826 and 1852 upon land lori mayor, 12 July ; by prince of Wales at Wim- belonging to the marquis of Westminster, who is bledon, 13 July ; dine at Windsor, 16 July ; at a also viscount Belgrave. hill at Agricultural Hall, 18 July ; received by Miss Burdett-Coutts, 19 July ; attend the review

BELIZE, see Honduras. at Wimblerion, 20 July : leave London 22 July, New ministry (under M. Frère-Orban); liberal;

BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE : in the Romish

3 Jan. 1868 ceremony of excommunication (which see), the Serious riots in the mining districts ; put down by

bell is rung, the book is closed, and candle extinthe military ; 10 lives lost

25-29 March,

guished; the effect being to exclude the excomMonument to Charlemagne at Liège, inaugurated municated from the society of the faithful, divine

26 July, service, and the sacraments. Its origin is ascribed International congress of workmen at Brussels to the 8th century.

6-13 Nov, The crown prince Leopold Ferdinand, duke of Bra- BELL ROCK LIGHTHOUSE, nearly in bant, die

22 Jan. 1869 front of the Frith of Tay, one of the finest in Great Concession of a Luxembourg railway to a French railway company, without the assent of the state,

Britain ; it is 115 feet high, is built upon a rock prohibited by the assembly, 13 Feb. ; dispute with

that measures 427 feet in length, and 200 feet io. the French government arranged

May, 1869 breadth, and is about 12 feet under water. * It was International rifle meeting held at Liège

19 Sept.

erected in 1806-10. It is provided with two bells Resignation of the Frère-Orban ministry,

for hazy weather.

about 19 June, 1870 M. D'Anethan's ministry announced 3 July,

BELLAIR, North America. The town was Treaty for the neutrality of Belgium between Great

attacked by the British forces under sir Peter Britain and Prussia, signed 9 Aug. ; and France,

Parker, who, after an obstinate engagement, was signed

II Aug. killed, 30 Aug. 1814. Warm gratitude to Great Britain expressed by the king and people

8 Aug

BELLEISLE, an isle on the south coast of After the surrender of seilan many French soldiers Brittany, France, erected into a duchy for marshal enter Belgium, and are disarmed and interned, Belleisle, in 1742, in reward of his military and

I-2 Sept. diplomatic services, by Louis XV. Belleisie was Strong opposition to the ministry by M. Barra and taken by the British forces under commodore

others : riots at Brussels Resignation of D'Anethan; M. de Theux de Meylandt

Keppel and general Hodgson, after a desperate (a moderate) forms a ministry

7 Dec. 1871

resistance, 7 June, 1761, but was restored to France The comte de Chambord arrives at Antwerp, 17 Feb. ; compelled to quit Belgium through popu

BELLES-LETTRES, or POLITE LEARNlar demonstrations The French government denounce the treaty of

27 Febr 1872 ING, see Academies, and Literature. commerce with Belgiun

· 29 March,

BELLEVILLE, the red republican stronghold

of Paris, defended by seven barricades, was cap1831. Leopold,* first king of the Belgians ; born 16 Dec. tured by L’Admirault and Vinoy, 27, 28 May,

1790 : inaugurated 21 July, 1831, at Brussels ;
married, 9 Aug. 1832, Louise, eldest daughter of 1871, when the insurrection was suppressed.
Louis Philippe, king of the French (she died BELLMEN, appointed in London to proclaim
n Oct. 1850). He died 10 Dec. 1865.

the hour of the night before public clocks became 1865. Leopold II., son ; born 9 April, 1835; married archduchess Maria of Austria, 22 Aug. 1853.

general, were numerous about 1556. They were to Heir. Princess Louise, born 18 Feb. 1858.

ring a bell at night, and cry, " Take care of your

fire and candle, be charitable to the poor, and pray BELGRADE, an ancient city in Servia, on

for the dead.” the right bank of the Danube. It was taken from the Greek emperor by Solomon, king of Hungary, said to have been the inventor of them, about 569

BELLOWS. Anacharsis, the Scythian, is in 1086; gallantly defended by John Huniades against the Turks, under Mahomet II., July to

B.C.; and to him is ascribed the invention of tinder, Sept. 1456, when the latter was defeated, with the

the potter's wheel, anchors for ships, &c. Bellows Joss of 40,000 men. Belgrade was taken by sultan Upon this rock, tradition says, the abbots of the Solyman, Aug. 1521, and retaken by the Im- ancient monastery of Aberbrothock fixed a bell (the perialists in 1688, from whom it was again taken by Inchcape bell) in such a manner that it was rung by the

impulse of the sea, thus warning mariners of their inLeopold married, in May, 1816, the princess Char. pending danger. Tradition also tells us that this appalotte of Wales, daughter of the prince regent, afterwards ratus was carried away by a Dutchman, who was afterGeorge IV. of England; she died in childbed, 6 Nov. 1817. wards lost upon the rock, with his ship and crew.

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were not used in the furnaces of the Romans. The BAPTISM OF BELLS. -- They were anointed and baptized great bellows of our foundries must have been early in churches, it is said, from the 10th century. used; see Blowing Machines.

Fresnoy. The bells of the priory of Little Dunnow, in

Essex, were baptized by the names of St. Michael, St. BELLS were used among the Jews, Greeks, and John, Virgin Mary, Holy Trinity, &c., in 1501. Weeter. Romans. The responses of the Dodonaan oracle

The great bell of Notre Dame, of Paris, was baptized by

Strabo. were in part conveyed by bells.


the name of duke of Angoulême, 1816. On the continent,

in Roman Catholic states, they baptize bells as we do monument of Porsenna was decorated with pin- ships, but with religious solemnity. Ashe. nacles, each surmounted by bells. Pliny. Said to RINGING OF BELLs, in changes of regular peals, is have been introduced by Paulinus, bishop of Nola, almost peculiar to the English, who boast of having

There are societies of in Campagna, about 400; and first known in France brought the practice to an art.

A sixth bell was added to the peal in 550: The army of Clothaire II., king of France, ringers in London.

of live, in the church of St. Michael, 1430. Store. Vell was frightened from the siege of Sens by the ringing Gwynne left the ringers of the bells of St. Martin's-in-theof the bells of St. Stephen's church. The second tields money for a weekly entertainment, 1687, and inany excerption of our king Egbert commands every others have done the same. priest, at the proper hours, to sound the bells of his church. Bells were used in churches by order of BELOOCHISTAN, the ancient Gedrosia pope John IX., about 900, as a defence, by ringing (S. Asia). Kelat, the capital, was taken by the them, against thunder and lightning. Bells are said British in the Afghan war, 1839; abandoned, 1870; to have been cast by Turketul, abbot of England, taken and held a short time, 1840. about 941. The celebrated “Song of the Bell,” by Schiller (died 1805), has been frequently translated.

BELVIDERE EXPLOSION, see GunThe following list is that given by Mr. E. Beckett powder (note). Denison in his discourse on bells at the Royal In

BENARES, in India, a holy city of the Ilinstitution, 6 March, 1857.

doos, abounding in temples. It was ceded by the Weight.

nabob of Oude, Asoph-ud-Dowlah, to the English

Tons Cwt. Moscow, 1736 ;* broken, 1737

in 1775. An insurrection took place here, which

? Another, 1817

had nearly proved fatal to the British interests in Three others

16 to 31

Hindostan, 1781. The rajah, Cheyt Sing, was deNovgorod

31 posed in consequence of it, in 1783. Mr. Cherry, Olmütz

capt. Conway, and others, were assassinated at Vienna, 1711

17 14 Westminster, 1856, † “ Big Ben

15 8}

Benares, by vizier Aly, 14 Jan. 1799. In June, Erfurt, 1497

1857, col. Neil succeeded in suppressing attempts

13 15 Westminster, 1858,1 “St. Stephen”.

13 107

of the native infantry to join the mutiny; see Sens


India. Paris, 1680

12 16 Montreal, 1847

BENBURB, near Armagh (N. Ireland). Here Cologne, 1448

O'Neill totally defeated the English under Monroe, Breslau, 1507

5 June, 1646. Moore says that it was “the only Görlitz.

great victory since the days of Brian Boru, achieved York, 1845

IO 15

by an Irish chieftain in the cause of Ireland.” Bruges, 1680 St. Peter's, Rome

8 0

BENCOOLEN (Sumatra). The English East Oxford, 1680 Lucerne, 1636.

India company made a settlement here which preHalberstadt, 1457

served to them the pepper trade after the Dutch had Antwerp

dispossessed them of Bantam, 1682. Anderson. York Brussels

7 15 fort was erected by the East India company, 1690. Dantzie, 1453

In 1693 a dreadful mortality raged here, occasioned Lincoln, 1834 St. Paul's, 17168

by the town being built on a pestilent morass; Ghent.

among others the governor and council perished. Boulogne, new

The French, under count D'Estaign, destroyed the Exeter, 1675

English settlement, 1700. Bencoolen was reduced Old Lincoln, 1610

to a residency under the government of Bengal, in Fourth quarter-bell, Westminster, 1857

1801, and was ceded to the Dutch, in 1824, in ex* The metal has been valued at the lowest estimate, at change for their possessions in Malacca; see India. 66,5651. Gold and silver are said to have been thrown in as votive offerings.

BENDER, Bessarabia, European Russia. Near + The largest bell in England (named Big Ben, after it was the asylum of Charles XII. of Sweden, after sir Benjamin Hall, the then chief commissioner of works), his defeat at Pultowa by the czar Peter the Great, cast at Houghton-le-Spring, Durham, by Messrs. Warner, 8 July, 1709. The peace of Bender was concluded under the superintendence of Mr. E. Beckett Denison, and

in 1711. Bender was taken by storm, by the Russians, the Rev. W. Taylor, at an expense of 3343l. 148. ol. The composition was 22 parts copper and 7 tin. The diameter

28 Sept. 1770; was taken by Potenkin in 1789, and was 9 ft. 5} in.; the height, 7 ft. 1of in. The clapper again in 1809. It was restored at the peace of weigled 12 cwt. Rev. W. Taylor.

Jassy, but retained at the peace of 1812. The bell “ Big Ben” having been found to be cracked on 24 Oct. 1857, it was broken up and another bell cast BENEDICTINES, an order of monks founded with the saine metal, in May, 1858, þy Messrs. Mears, by St. Benedict (lived 480-543), who introduced the Whitechapel. It is rather different in shape from its

monastic life into Western Europe, in 529, when he predecessor, “Big Ben," and about 2 tons lighter. Its diameter is 9 ft. 6 in. ; the height 7 ft. 10 in.

founded the monastery on Monte Casino in Camstruck for the first time, 18 Nov. 1858. The clapper pania, and eleven others afterwards. His Regula weighs 6 ewt. -half that of the former bell. The vote of Monachorum (rule of the monks) soon became the the bell is E natural; the quarter-bells being G, B, E, F. common rule of western monachism. No religious On 1 Oct. 185), this bell was also found to be cracked. order has been so remarkable for extent, wealth,

$ The clapper of St. Paul's bell weighs 180 lbs.; the aud men of note and learning, as the Benedictine. diameter of the hell is io foet (Mr. Walesby says 6 ft. 94 in.), and its thickness to in. The hour strikes upon

Among its branches the chief were the Cluniacs, this bell, the quarters upon two smaller ones ; see Clocks. founded in 912; the Cistercians, founded in 1098,

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and reformed by St. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, in modes of raising money. Benevolences were de16; and the Carthusians, from the Chartreux clared illegal by the bill of rights, Feb. 1689. (hence Charter-house), founded by Bruno about jošo. The Benedictine order was introduced into

BENGAL, chief presidency of British India, England by Augustin, in 596; and William I. built containing. Calcutta, the capital. Its governors an abbey for it on the plain where the battle of were appointed by the sovereigns of Delhi, till Hastings was fought, 1066; see Battle-Abbey. 1340, when it became independent. It was added William de Warrenne, earl of Warrenne, built a

to the Mogul empire by Baber, about 1529; see convent at Lewes, in Sussex, in 1077. Of this India and Calcutta. order it is reckoned that there have been 40 popes, The English first permitted to trade to Bengal. 200 cardinals, 50 patriarchs, 116 archbishops, 4600 They establish a settlement at Hooghly

about 1652 bishops, 4 emperors, 12 empresses, 46 kings, 41

Factories of the French and Danes set up

1664 Bengal made a distinct agency

1680 queens, and 3600 saints. Their founder was canonised. Baroniis. The Benedictines have taken

The English settlement removed to Fort William


Imperial grant vesting the revenues of Bengal in the little part in politics, but have produced many company, by which it gained the sovereignty of valuable literary works. The congregation of St. the country

12 Aug. 1765 Maur published the celebrated “l'Art de Vérifier les

India Bill : Bengal made chief presidency ; supreme Dates," in 1750, and edited many ancient authors. court of judicature established

16 June, 1773 Bishop of Calcutta appointed

21 July, 1813 Railway opened .

15 Aug. 1854 BENEFICE (literally a good deed or favour), Awful famine in Orissa (which see)

1865-66 or FiEF. Clerical benefices originated in the 12th Lieut.-governor, Hon. Wm. Grey

1867 century, when the priesthood began to imitate the

Geo. Campbell .

1871 feudal lay system of holding lands for performing certain duties : till then the priests were supported

BENZOLE, or BENZINE, a compound of by alms and oblations at mass. Vicarages, rectories, hydrogen and carbon, discovered by Faraday in oils perpetual curacies, and chaplaincies, are termed (1825), and by C. B. Mansfield in coal tar (1849) benetices, in contradistinction to dignities, such as

the latter of whom unfortunately died in conbishopries, &c. A rector is entitled to all the tithes; sequence of being severely burnt while experia vicar, to a small part or to none.-All benefices that menting on it (25 Feb. 1855). Benzole has become should become vacant in the space of six months, useful in the arts. Chemical research has prowere given by pope Clement VII. to his nephew, in duced from it aniline (which see), the source of the 1534. Notitia Monastica. An act for the aug

celebrated modern dyes, mauve, magenta, &c., and mentation of poor benefices by the sale of some of others; see Alizarine. those in the presentation of the lord chancellor, was

BEOWULF, an ancient Anglo-Saxon epic passed in 1803, and an act respecting the seques- poem, describing events which probably occurred tration of benefices and their union was passed,

in the middle of the 5th century, supposed to have 1871.

been written subsequent to 597. An edition by BENEFIT OF CLERGY, see Clergy.

Kemble was published in 1833. It has been trans

lated by Kemble, Thorpe, and Wackerbarth. BENEFIT SOCIETIES, see Friendly Societics.

BERBICE (S. America), settled by the Dutch,

1626, who surrendered it to the British, 23 April, BENEVENTUM (now Benevento), an ancient 1796, and 22 Sept. 1803; and finally in 1814. It city in South Italy, said to have been founded by was united to Demerara and named British Guiana, Diomedes the Greek, after the fall of Troy. Pyr- 1831. rhus of Macedon, during his invasion of Italy, was totally defeated near Beneventum, 275 B.c. Near archdeacon of Angers, who about 1049, opposed the

BERENGARIANS, followers of Berengarius, it was erected the triumphal arch of Trajan, A.D.

Romish doctrine of transubstantiation, or the real 114. Benevento was formed into a duchy by the Lombards, 571. At a battle fought here, 26 Feb. presence in the Lord's supper. Several councils

of the church condemned doctrine, 1050-79; 1266, Manfred, king of Sicily, was defeated and slain by Charles of Anjou, whothus became virtually master died grieved and wearied in 6 Jan. 1088.

After much controversy he recanted about 1079, and of Italy. The castle was built 1323; the town was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, 1688, when the BERESINA, a river in Russia, crossed by the archbishop, afterwards pope Benedict XIII., was French main army after its defeat by the Russians, dug out of the ruins alive, and contributed to its sub- 25-29 Nov. 1812. The French löst upwards of sequent rebuilding, 1703. It was seized by the 20,000 men, and their retreat was attended by king of Naples, but restored to the pope on the great calamity and suffering. suppression of the Jesuits, 1773. Talleyrand de Périgord, Bonaparte's arch-chancellor, was made BERG (W. Germany), on the extinction of its prince of Benevento, 1806. Benevento was taken line of counts, in 1348, was incorporated with by the French, 1798, and restored to the pope in Juliers. Napoleon I. made Murat grand-duke in 1815.

1806. The principal part is now held by Prussia. BENEVOLENCES (Aids, Free Gifts, actually

BERGAMO (N. Italy), a Lombard duchy, was Forced Loans) appear to have been claimed by our annexed to Venice, 1428; which chiefly held it till Anglo-Saxon sovereigns. Special ones were levied it revolted, and was joined to the Cisalpine republic, by Edward IV., 1473, by Richard III., 1485 (al- 1797; It was awarded to Austria in 1814, and though a statute forbidding them was enacted ceded to Sardinia, 1859. in 1484), by Henry VII., 1492; and by James

BERGEN (Norway), founded 1070; was the I., in 1613, on occasion of the marriage of the royal residence during the 12th and 13th centuries. princess Elizabeth with Frederick, the elector palatine, afterwards king of Bohemia. In 1615 BERGEN (in Germany), BATTLE OF, beOliver St. John, M.P., was fined 5000l., and chief tween the French and allies, the latter defeated, justice Coke disgraced, for severely censuring such | 13 April, 1752.-(In HOLLAND) 1. The allies under

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