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1857

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Violent riots through the lectures of Murphy, an The bishop of Norwich resigned

anti-popery orator, at a tabernacle 17, 18 June, 1867 The Bishops' Resignation (for Intirmity) act, (authorAn alilitional M.P. given to Birmingham by ising the appointment of bishop coadjutors), Reform Act

15 Aug.
passed

11 Aug. 1869 Meeting of Nat. Social Science Association,” z Oct. 1868 First club house here opened

3 May, 1869

ENOLISH BISHOPRICS.
Erdington orphan houses, endowed by Josiak

Secs,
Founded. Sees.

Founded. Mason, a manufacturer of steel-pens; begun 1858; London (abpc.)

(?) 179 Hereford

676 finished

July, York (abpe.)
4th cent. Worcester

680 National Education Leagie meet.

Sodor and Man 4th cent. Lindisse (afterwards Explosion at Kynoch's cartridge-factory, Witton, Llandaft

5th cent.

Lincoln, 1067). many deaths and injuries .

17 Nov. 1870 St. David's 5th cent. Sherborne (afterwards Explosions at Messrs. Ludlow's cartridge-factory at Bangor*

about 516 Salisbury, 1042). 705 Witton, 17 killed and 53 injured, several dying St. Asaph about 560 Cornwall (afterwards soon after: noon, 9 Dec. ; 33 dead up to 13 Dec.; Canterbury

598 Devonshire, after51 up to 26 Dec.

London (see above). ; 609 wards Exeter, 1050) 909 Prince Arthur opens Royal Horticultural Exhibi

Rochester

604 Wells . tion 25 June, 1872 East Anglia (afterwards

Bath

1088 Mr. Josiah Mason endows a college for the study of Norwich, 1091)

630 Ely

1108 practical science 1873 | Lindisfarne, or Holy Carlisle

II32 BIRTHS. The births of children were taxed Island (afterwards Peterborough

• 1541

Durham, 995): in England, viz. : birth of a duke, 30l.; of a common

634 Gloucester West Saxons, (after- Bristolt

1542 person, 28., 7 Will. III. 1695. Taxed again, 1783.

wards Winchester, Chester The instances of four children at a birth are

705)

635 Oxford numerous; but it is recorded that a woman of Mercia (afterwards Ripon

1836 Konigsberg (3 Sept. 1784), and the wife of Nelson, a Lichfield, 669) 656 | Manchester

1847 tailor, of Oxford-market, London (Oct. 1800), had five children at a birth. The queen usually pre

BISHOPS IN IRELAND are said to have been sents a small sum of money to a poor woman giving consecrated in the 2nd century; see Church of Irebirth to three or more children at one time. See land. Bills of Mortality and Registers.

Prelacies were constituterl, and divisions of the BISHOP (Greek episcopos, overseer), a name

bishoprics in Ireland maile, by cardinal Paparo,

legate from pope Eugene III. given by the Athenians to those who had the in

IISI Several prelates ileprived by queen Mary

• 1554 spection of the city. The Jews and Romans had

Bp. Atherton suffered death ignominiously alzo like officers. St. Peter, styled the first bishop Two bishops deprived for not taking the oaths to

1640 of Rome, was martyred 65. The presbyter was the William and Mary

1691 same as a bishop. Jerome. The episcopate became Church Temporalities Act, for relucing the number an object of contention about 144. The title of of bishops in Ireland, 3 & 4 Will, IV., C. 37, passed

14 Aug. 1833 pope was anciently assumed by all bishops, and

[By this statute, of the four archbishoprics of Armagli. was exclusively claimed by Gregory VII. (1073-85).

Dublin, Tuam, and Cashel, the last two were to be

abolished on the decease of the then archprelates BISHOPS IN ENGLAND* were coeval with

which has since occurred : and it was enacted that the introduction of Christianity. The see of London eight of the then eighteen bishoprics should, as they is mythically said to have been founded by Lucius, became void, be henceforth united to other sees, which king of Britain, 179.

was accomplished in 1850; so that the Irish church at

present consists of two archbishops and ten bishops. ) Bishops made barons

1072 The congé d' Elire of the king to choose a bishop

Ossory founded

402
Ferne.

about 598 originated in an arrangement by king John.

Killala
about 434 Cloyne

before 604 Bishops were elected by the king's Congé d'Elire,

Trim

432
Cork

about 606 25 Henry VIII.

1534

Armagh, 445; Bishops to rank as barons by stat. 31 Hen. VIII.

1152 Glandalough

before 612 1540 Emly about 448 Derry

before 613 Seven were deprived for being married

1554 Elplin

450 Kilmacduach

about 620 Several suffered martyrdom under queen Mary, see

Ardagh

454 Lismore

about 631 Crunner

1555-6 | Clogher before 493 Leighlin Bishops excluded from voting in the house of peers

632 Down

about 499 Mayo on temporal concerns, 16 Charles I. 1641 Ardfert and Agha loe Raphoe

before 885 Several protest against the legality of acts of parlia

before 500 Cashel, before gor; ment passed while they are deprived of votes,

Connor
about

abpe. 28 Dec. ; committed to the tower 30 Dec. 1641

• 1152 Tuam, about 501; Killaloe, abpc.

IOIO The order of archbishops and bishops abolished by

abpc.

1152
Waterford,

1096 the parliament

9 Oct. 1646 Dromore about 510 Limerick. before 1106 Bishops regain their seats

Nov. 1661
Kildare

before

519 Kilmore Seven bishops (Canterbury, Bath, Chichester, St.

Meath.
520 Dublin, abpc..

1152 Asaph, Bristol, Ely, and Peterborough) sent to

Achonry

530 Kilfenora the tower for not reading the king's declaration

Louth

534

(For the new combinxfor liberty of conscience (intended to bring the

Clonmacnois.

tions, see the sepaRoman Catholics into ecclesiastical and civil

Clonfert

rate articles.) jwower), 8 June; tried and acquitted, 29-30June, 1688

Ross

570 The archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Sancroft) and

five bishops (Bath and Wells, Ely, Gloucester, BISHOPS IN SCOTLAND were probably Norwich, and Peterborough) suspended for refus

nominated in the fourth century. ing to take the oaths to William and Mary, 1689; leprived.

1690 The Reformers, styling themselves “the CongregaRetirement of bishops: The bishops of London and

tion of the Lord,” having taken up arms and Durham retired on annuities

1856

An order in council, Oct. 1838, directed the sees of * Bishops have the titles of Lord and Right Rev. Father Bangor and St. Asaph to be united on the next vacancy in Gal. The archbishops of Canterbury and York, taking in either, and Manchester, a new see, to be created place of all dukes, have the title of Grace. The bishops thereupon; this order, as regarded the union of the sees, of London, Durham, and Winchester have precedence of was rescinded 1846. all bishops: the others rank according to seniority of † The sees of Bristol and Gloucester were united, consecration.

1856.

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1136

before 1254

548 558

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1854

1863

defeated the queen-mother, Mary of Guise, called a functions in the United Kingdom, but have no jurisparliament, which set up a new form of church diction. polity on the Genevese model, in which bishops

1561 were replaced by “superintendents"

Nova Scotia
1787 , Wellington, N. Z.

1858 Three prelates for seottish sees consecrated at

Quebec

1793 Nelson, N. Z. Lambeth (John Spottiswood, Gawin Hamilton, Calcutta

1814 Brisbane, Queensland. 1859

Barbados and Andrew Lamb) for Glasgow, Galloway, and

1824 British Columbia Brechin 21 Oct. 1610 Jamaica

Goulbourn, N. S. W. Episcopaey abolished, the bishops in a body de Madras

1835 St. Helena . posed, and four excommunicated, by a parliament,

Australia

1836 Waiapu, N. Z.

Montreal elected by the people (covenanters), which met

Kingston, Canada 1861 at Glasgow

Dec. 1638 Bombay

1837 Ontario, Canada Episcopacy restored ; an archbishop (James Sharp) Newfoundland

1839 | Nassau, Bahamas and three bishops consecrated by Sheldon, bishop

Toronto

Grafton, Australia. 1863 of London

15 Dec. 1661 Gibraltar.

1841 Dunedin, New Zealand 1866 The Scottish convention expelled the bishops ; New Zealand

Maritzburg, S. Africa. 1869 abolished episcopacy: declared the throne vacant; Antigua

1842 Auckland, New Zeadrew up a claim of right; and proclaimed William Guiana, S. America

land and Mary 11 April, 1689 Huron, Canada

Rockhampton, Episcopacy formally abolished, and the bishops Tasmania

Queensland

1870 revenues sequestrated .

19 Sept.

Colombo, Ceylon 1845 | Bloemfontain, Orange The Episcopal church was thus reduced to the Fredericton, N. Bruns.

Free State condition of a Non-conformist body, at first barely Adelaide, 8. Australia 1847 Norfolk, Huron . :1831 tolerated.

Cape Town.

Zululand Bishop Rose connected the established episcopal Melbourne

Trinidad

1872 church of Scotland with that form of it which is Newcastle, N. S. W.

Ballarat. now merely tolerated, he having been bishop of Sydney (formerly AusEdinburgh from 1687 till 1720, when, on his death,

tralia), N. S. W.

MISSIONARY BISHOPS. Dr. Fullarton became the first post-revolution Rupert's Land 1849 Jerusalem, estabbishop of that see. Fife (now St. Andrews, so

Victoria, Hong Kong.

lished.

1841 called in 1844) now unites the bishopric of

Sierra Leone
1852 | Melanesia

1860 Dunkeld (re-instituted in 1727) and that of Dun Graham's-town

1853 | Honolulu

1861 blane (re-instituted in 1731). Ross (of uncer

Natal, S. Africa.

Central Africa, Orange

Mauritius tain date) was united to Moray (re-instituted in

River

Labuan 1727) in 1838. Argyll and the Isles never existed

1855 Niger Territory 1864 independently until 1847, having been conjoined

Christchurch, N. Z. 1856 Falkland Isles

1869 to Moray and Ross, or to Ross alone, previously Perth, W. Australia Madagascar

1870 to that year. Galloway has been added to the see of Glasgow.

BISHOPS, SUFFRAGAN, to assist metropoli

tans, existed in the early church. Twenty-six, Orkney, founded.

Edinburgh

1633 appointed by Henry VIII. 1534, were abolished by Uncertain.

Mary, 1553, and restored by Elizabeth, 1558. The Isles

POST-REVOLUTION Galloway before

last appointed is said to have been Sterne, bishop of 500

BISHOPS. St. Andrews, 800 ; Elinburgh.

Colchester, 1606. The appointment of suffragan

1720 abpc.

1470 Aberdeen

and the bishops was revived in 1869, and archdeacon Henry Glasgow, about 560; Isles

1721 Mackenzie, suffragan bishop of Nottingham (diocese alpc.

1488 Moray (and' Ross), Caithness about 1066

of Lincoln) was consecrated 2 Feb. 1870, and archprimus

1727

deacon Edward Parry, suffragan bishop of Dover Brechin

Brechin.

1731 Moray 1115 Glasgow (and Gallo

(diocese of Canterbury), 23 March, 1870. Ross

I124 way) Aberdeen

Andrews (Dun BISMUTH was recognised as a distinct metal Dunkeld

1130

keld, Dunblane, &c.) 1733 by Agricola, in 1529. It is very fusible and brittle, Dunblane before 1153 Argyll and the Isles ? 1647 and of a yellowish white colour. Argyll.

BISSEXTILE, see Calendar and Leap Year. BISHOPS, AMERICAN. The first was Samuel Seabury, consecrated bishop of Connecticut by four BITHYNIA, a province in Asia Minor, prenonjuring prelates, at Aberdeen, in Scotland, 14 yiously called Bebricia, is said to have been invaded Nov. 1784. The bishops of New York and Penn- by the Thracians under Bithynus, son of Jupiter, sylvania were consecrated in London, by the arch- who gave it the name of Bitliynia. It was subject bishop of Canterbury, 4 Feb. 1787, and the bishop successively to the Assyrians, Lydians, Persians, of Virginia in 1790. Several American bishops and Macedonians. Most of the cities were rebuilt formed part of the Pan-Anglican synod, at Lambeth, by Grecian colonists. 24-27 Sept. 1867. The first Roman Catholic bishop Dydalsus revolted and reigned, about of the United States was Dr. Carroll, of Maryland, Botyras, his son, succeeds

B.C. 430-440

378 in 1780.

Bas, or Bias, son of Botyras, 376; repulses the

Greeks
BISHOPS, COLONIAL, &c.* By 15 and 16 Zipoetas, son of Bias, resists Lysimachus

He dies, leaving four sons, of whom the eldest, Vict. c. 52 (1852), and 16 and 17 Vict. c. 49 (1853),

Nicomedes I., succeeds (he invites the Gauls into the colonial bishops may perform all episcopal Asia)

278

He rebuilds Astacus, and names it Nicomedia * Between 1847-59, Miss (now baroness) Burdett-Coutts

Zielas, son of Nicomedes, reigns . gave 60,oool, to endow colonial bishoprics. In 1866 she Intending to massacre the chiefs of the Gauls at a petitioned parliament, on account of some of the bishops feast, Zielas is detected in his design, and is himprofessing independence of the church of England. self put to death, and his son Prusias I. made Since then, colonial bishops have been appointed with king, about

228 out intervention of the civil power. Much discussion Prusias defeats the Ganls, and takes cities took place in 1867, through the deposition of Dr. Colenso, Prusias allies with Philip of Macedon, and marries

223 bishop of Natal, by his metropolitan, Dr. Gray, bishop of Apimca, his daughter

208 Capetown, and the attempts of the latter to consecrate a He receives and employs Hannibal, then a fugitive, new bishop, in opposition to the law; see under Africa, 187; who poisons himself to escape betrayal to and Church of England.

the Romans

183

360

before 1155

1125 St.

1200

328 326

204 about 250

149
91
83

74 103 1231

Prusias II, succeeds

180 heath, popularly termed “the retreat of Cade," and Nicomedles II. kills his father Prusias and reigns of banditti in the time of Cromwell, was re-disNicomedes III., surnamed Philopator

covered in 1780. Deposed by Mithridates, king of Pontus Restored by the Romans

84 BLACK-HOLE, see Calcutta. Bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans Pliny, the younger, pro-consul.

A.D.

BLACK LEAD, see Graphite. The Oghusian Tartars settle in Bithynia The Othman Turks take Prusa, the capital (and BLACK LETTER, employed in the first

make it the seat of their empire till they possess printed books in the middle of the 15th century. Constantinople).

. • 1327 The first printing types were Gothic; but they were BITONTO (Naples). Here Montemar and the modified into the present Roman type about 1469: Spaniards defeated the Germans, 27 May, 1734, and Pliny's Natural History was then printed in the

new characters. thereby acquired the kingdom of the Two Sicilies for Don Carlos.

BLACK-MAIL, a compulsory payment for BLACK ACT, 9 Geo. I. c. 22 (1722), was

protection of cattle, &c., made in the border counties, passed to punish armed persons termed blacks, going in Scotland from the lowlanders by the highlanders,

was prohibited by Elizabeth in 1601. It was exacted about in disguise with their faces blacked, robbing till 1745. It checked agricultural improvement. warrens and fish-ponds, cutting down plantations, killing deer, &c. By this act, sending anony- BLACK MONDAY, Easter Monday, 14 April, mousletters demanding money, &c., was made

1360, "so full dark of mist and hail, and so bitter felony.

cold that many men died on their horsebacks with BLACK ASSIZE, see under Oxford.

the cold.” Stou. In Ireland, Black Monday was

the day on which a number of the English were BLACK BOOK* (Liber Niger), a book kept in slaughtered at a village near Dublin, in 1209. the exchequer, which received the orders of that court. It was published by Hearn in 1728.

BLACK MONEY, base foreign coin so termed,

1335. BLACKBURN, Lancashire, so called in Domesday-book. The manufacture of a cloth called BLACK MONKS, see Dominicans. Blackburn cheque, carried on in 1650, was superseded by Blackburn greys. In 1767, James Har

BLACK ROD has a gold lion at the top, and is greaves, of this town, invented the spinning-jenny,

carried by the usher of the order of the knights of the for which he was eventually expelled from the

garter (instituted 1349), instead of the mace. He county. About 1810 or 1812, the townspeople also keeps the door when a chapter of the order is arailed themselves of his discoveries, and engaged

sitting, and during the sessions of parliament largely in the cotton manufacture, now their staple attends the house of lords and acts as their messentrade.

to the commons.

ger BLACK DEATH, see Plagues, 1340 and 1866.

BLACK SEA, THE EUXINE (Pontus Eurinus

of the ancients), a large internal sea between the BLACK FRIARS, see Dominicans.

S. W. provinces of Russia and Asia Minor, conBLACKFRIARS BRIDGE, London. The nected with the sea of Azoff by the straits of Yenikalé, first stone of the late bridge was laid 31 Oct. 1760, and with the sea of Marmora by the channel of and it was completed by Mylne, in 1770. It was

Constantinople. frequently repaired, 1834-50, and began to sink. In

This sea was much frequented by the Greeks and 1861 it was pulled down, and a temporary bridge

Italians, till closed to all nations by the Turks erected. The foundation of a new five-arched after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. bridge, designed by Mr. Joseph Cubitt was laid by the Russians obtained admission by the treaty of lord mayor Hale, 20 July, 1867, and the bridge was

Kainarılji.

10 July, 1774 opened by the queen 6 Nov. 1869. The first railway It was partially opened to British and other traders,

(since which time the Russians gradually obtained train (London, Chatham, and Dover) entered the

the preponderance).

1779 city of London over the new railway bridge, Black- Entered by the British and French fleets, at the friars, 6 Oct. 1864.

requisition of the Porte, after the destruction of

the Turkish fleet at Sinope by the Russians, BLACK FRIDAY, 11 May, 1866, the height

30 Nov. 1853

3 Jan. 1854 of the commercial panic in London, through the A dreadful storm in this sea raged, and caused stoppage of Overend, Gurney, & Co. (limited), on 10 great loss of life and shipping, and valuable stores May. Messrs. John Henry and Edmund Gurney, for the allied armies. See Russo-Turkish War. and their partners, committed for trial for conspiracy The Black Sea was opened to the commerce of all

13 to 16 Nov. 1854 todefraud, 21 Jan. 1869, were tried and acquitted, 13

nations by the treaty of 1856. 23 Dec. 1869.

The article of the treaty of Paris, 30 March, 1856,

by which the sea was opened to the commerce of BLACKHEATH, Kent, near London. Here

all nations, and interdicted to any ships of war; Wat Tyler and his followers assembled 12 June,

and the erection of military maritime arsenals for1381 ; and here also Jack Cade and his 20,000 bidden, was repudiated by a Russian circular, Kentish men encamped, 1 June, 1450 ; see Tyler dated

31 (19) Oct. 1870 and Cade. Here the Cornish rebels were defeated After some correspondence, the meeting of a conand Flammock's insurrection quelled, 22 June,

ference on the subject, in London, was agreed to

by all the powers concerned in the treaty. 1497. The ancient caver, on the ascent to Black

The conference met in London 17 Jan, 1871, and a

treaty was signed by which the neutralization of A hook was kept in the English monasteries, wherein the sea was abrogated : but it was agreed by a details of the scandalous enormities practised in religious special protocol, that no nation shall liberate itself houses were entered for the inspection of visitors, under from the obligations of a treaty without the conHen. VIII. 1535, in order to blacken them and hasten sent of the others who sigued it 13 March, 1871 their dissolution : hence possibly the phrase, “I'll set you down in the black book."

BLACKS or Neri ; see Lianchi.

BLACKWALL (London), the site of fine published an elaborate series of experiments on this commercial docks and warehouses. See Docks. substance. In 1860 bleaching and dyeing works The Blackwall railway was opened to the public, 4 were placed under the regulations of the Factories July, 1840; the eastern terminus being at Black | Act. wall wharf, and the western in Fenchurch street.

BLENHEIM (or Plintheim) a village in BLACK WATCH, armed companies of the Bavaria on the left bank of the Danube, near the loyal clans (Campbells, Monros, &c.) employed to

town of Hochstett, the site of a battle fought 2 Aur. watch the Highlands from about 1725 to 1739, (new style, 13), 1704, between the English and when they were formed into the celebrated 42nd confederates, commanded by the duke of Marlregiment, enrolled as “ The Royal Highland Black borough, and the French and Bavarians, under Watch." Their removal for foreign service probably marshal Tallard and the elector of Bavaria. The facilitated the outbreak in 1745. They wore dark latter were defeated with the loss of about 12,000 tartans, and hence were called Black Watch, killed, and 13,000 prisoners (including Tallard).

Bavaria became the prize of the conquerors. The BLACKWATER, BATTLE OF, in Ireland, British parliament gave Marlborough the honour of 14 Aug. 1598, when the Irish chief O'Neil defeated Woodstock and hundred of Wotton, and erected for the English under sir Henry Bagnall. Pope him the house of Blenheim.* Clement VIII. sent O'Neil a consecrated plume, and granted to his followers the same indulgence as BLIND. The first public school for the blind to crusaders.

was established by Valentine Haüy, at Paris in BLACKWOOD'S Edinburgh Magazine estab- 1784. The first in England was at Liverpool, in lished, 1817.

1791; in Scotland, at Edinburgh, in 1792 ; and the

first in London in 1799. Printing in raised or BLADENSBURG, see Washington, 1814.

embossed characters for the use of the blind was

begun at Paris by Haüy in 1786. The whole Bible BLANDFORD'S ACT, 19 and 20 Vict. c. 104, was printed at Glasgow in raised Roman characters for augmentation of benefices, &c. passed, 1856. about 1848. A sixpenny magazine for the blind,

edited by the late rev. W. Taylor, F.R.S., so BLANK VERSE, see Verse.

eminent for his forty years' exertions on behalf of BLANKETEERS. A number of operatives these sufferers, was published in 1855-6. He aided who on 10 March, 1817, met in St. Peter's field, the establishment of a college for the blind of the near Manchester, many of them having blankets, upper classes at Worcester, in 1866. There is rugs, or great coats rolled up and fastened to their hardly any department of human knowledge in backs. This was termed the Blanket meeting. which blind persons have not obtained distinction.t They proceeded to march towards London, but were Laura Bridgman, born in 1829, became dumb and dispersed by the magistracy. It is stated that their blind two years after; she was so well taught by object was to commence a general insurrection. Dr. Howe, of Boston, U.S., as to become an able See Derby. Eventually the ringleaders had an

instructor of blind and dumb persons. By the interview with the cabinet ministers, and a better census of 1851, there were in Great Britain, 21,487 understanding between the working classes and the blind persons; 11,273 males, 10,214 females ; about government ensued.

one in 975 blind. BLANKETS are said to have been first made BLINDING by consuming the eyeballs with at Bristol by Thos. Blanket, in the 14th century. lime or scalding vinegar, was a punishment inflicted

anciently on adulterers, perjurers, and thieves. In BLASPHEMY was punished with death by the middle ages the penalty was frequently changed the law of Moses (Lev. xxiv.) 1491 B.C.; and by the from total blindness to a diminution of sight. A code of Justinian, A. D. 529. It is punishable by whole army of Bulgarians was deprived of sight by the civil and canon law of England, regulated by co the emperor Basil, 104. Several of the eastern Geo. III. c. 8 (1819). Daniel Isaac Eaton was emperors had their eyes torn from their heads. tried and convicted in London of blasphemy, 6 March, 1812. Robert Taylor, a protestant clergyman,

BLISTERS, used by Hippocrates (460-357 was tried twice for the same crime. He was sen- B.c.), made, it is said, of cantharides, (which see). tenced to two years' imprisonment, and largely

BLOCKADE is the closing an enemy's ports fined, July, 1831. In Dec. 1840, two publishers of blasphemous writings were convicted.

to all commerce; a practice introduced by the Dutch

about 1584. The principle recognized by the BLAZONRY. Bearing coats-of-arms was in- | European powers is that every blockade, in order to troduced and became hereditary in France and

be binding, must be effective. The Elbe was England about 1192, owing to the knights painting blockaded by Great Britain, 1803; the Baltic, by their banners with different figures, thereby to dis

Denmark. 1848-49 and 1864; the gulf of Finland tinguish them in the crusades. Dugdule.

by the Allies, 1854; and the ports of the Southern BLEACHING was known in Egypt, Syria, * On 5 Feb. 1861, a fire broke out at this place, which India, and Gaul. Pliny. An improved chemical destroyed the ** Titian Gallery" and the pictures : the system was adopted by the Dutch, who introduced latter, a present from Victor Amadeus, king of Sardinia, it into England and Scotland in 1768. There were

to John, the great duke of Marlborough.

+ James Holman, the blind traveller" (born 1786, large bleach-fields in Lancashire, Fife, Forfar, and

died 1857), visited almost every place of note in the Renfrew, and in the vale of the Leven, in Dumbar world. His travels were published in 1825. In April, ton. The application of the gas chlorine to bleaching 1858, a blind clerzyman, rev. J. Sparrow, was elected is due to Berthollet's discovery about 1785. Its chaplain to the Mercers' Company, London, and read the combination with lime (as chloride of lime) was

service, &c., from embossed books. Viscount Cranborne devised by Mr. Tennant, of Glasgow, who took out

(blind) was the author of many interesting historical

essays He died in June, 1865. a patent for the process in 1798, and by his firm it Henry Fawcett, the blind professor of political econoniy

On 13 July, 1865, is still extensively manufactured. In 1822 Dr. Ure

at Cainbridge, was elected M.P. for Brighton.

A XV.

States of North America by president Lincoln, April residence of the duke of Bedford. The marquis of 19, 1861. See Orders in Council, and Berlin. Stafford, the last survivor, died 26 Oct. 1803. BLOCK BOOKS, see Printing.

BLOREHEATH (Staffordshire),, where, 23 BLOCKS employed in the rigging of ships were Sept. 1459, the earl of Salisbury and the Yorkists much improved in their construction by Walter defeated the Lancastrians, whose leader, lord Taylor, about 1781. In 1801, Mark I. Brunel in- Audley, was slain with many Cheshire gentlemen. vented a mode of making blocks by machinery A cross commemorates this conflict. which was put into operation in 1808, and in 1815 was said to have saved the country 20,0001. a year.

BLOWING-MACHINES, the large cylin

ders, used in blowing machines, were erected by BLOIS, France, the Roman Blesum. The Mr. Smeaton at the Carron iron works, 1760. One count Guy II. sold it with his domains to Louis equal to the supply of air for forty forge fires was duke of Orleans in 1391, and eventually it accrued erected at the king's dockyard, 'Woolwich. The to the crown. The states-general were held here hot-air blast, a most important improvement, causing 136 and 1588, on account of the religious wars;

great economy of fuel, was invented by Mr. James and here Henry duke of Guise was assassinated by

B. Neilson, of Glasgow, and patented in 1828. He order of the king, Henry III., 23 Dec. 1588. The died 18 Jan. 1865. empress Maria Louisa retired here in 1814.

BLOW-PIPE. An Egyptian using one is BLOOD. The circulation of the blood through among the paintings on the tombs at Thebes. It the lungs was known to Michael Servetus, a Spanish was employed in mineralogy, by Andrew Von Swab, physician, in 1553. Caesalpinus published an ac

a Swede, about 1733, and improved by Wollaston count of the general circulation, of which he had and others. In 1802, professor Robert Hare, of some confused ideas, improved afterwards by Philadelphia, increased the action of the blow-pipe esperiments, 1569. Paul of Venice, or Father by the application of oxygen and hydrogen. By the Paslo (real name Peter Sarpi), discovered the valves agency of Newman's improved blow-pipes, in 1816, which serve for the circulation ; but the honour of Dr. E. D. Clarke fused the earths, alkalies, metals, the positive discovery of the circulation belongs to &c. The best work on the blow-pipe is by Plattner William Harvey, between 1619 and 1628. Freind. and Muspratt, 1854. EATING BLOOD was prohibited to Noah, Gen. ix., to the BLUE was the favourite colour of the Scotch

Jews, Lev. xvii., &c., and to the Gentile converts by covenanters in the 17th century. Blue and orange

the apuistles at an assembly at Jerusalem, A. D. 52, or yellow, became the whig colours after the revoluBLAHD-DRINKING was anciently tried to give vigour to

tion in 1688; and were adopted on the cover of the the system. Louis XI. in his last illness, drank the whig periodical, the “Edinburgh Review," first wirm blood of infants, in the vain hope of restoring his published in 1802. The Prussian blue dye was disdrayed strength, 1483. Henault.

covered by Diesbach, at Berlin, in 1710. Fine In the 13th century an opinion prevailed that the de- blues are now obtained from coal-tar; see Aniline.

clining vigour of the aged might be repaired by TRANS BLUE-COAT Schools, so called in reference to the Psix into their veins the blood of young persons. It was countenanced in France by the physicians Newgate-street, London, was instituted by Edward

costume of the children. The Blue-coat school in about 1668, and prevailed for many years, till the most fatal effects having ensued, it was suppressed by an VI. in 1552; see Christ's Hospital. BLUE-STOCKING,

liet. " An English physician (Louver, or Lower) a term applied to literary ladies, was originally prutised in this way; he died in 1691." Freind. conferred on a society comprising both sexes (1760, was attempted again in France in 1797, and more

et seq.). Benjamin Stillingtleet, the naturalist, an Trrently there, in a few cases, with success; and in England (but the instances are rare) since 1823. Med.

active member, wore blue worsted stockings; hence Juura.

the name. The beautiful Mrs. Jerningham is said

to have worn blue stockings at the conversaziones of BLOOD'S CONSPIRACY. Blood, a dis- Mrs. Montague. carded officer of Oliver Cromwell's household, with his confederates, seized the duke of Ormond in his

BLUE-BOOKS, reports and other papers coach, intending to hang him, and had got him to printed by order of parliament, are so named on acTyburn, when he was rescued by his friends, 6 Dec.

count of their wrappers; 70 vols were printed for 1670. Blood afterwards, in the disguise of a clergy: the lords, and 76 vols for the commons in 1871. man, attempted to steal the regal crown from the Jewel-office in the Tower, 9 May, 1671; yet, not

BLUMENAU, Lower Austria; on 22 July, 1866, withstanding these and other offences, he was not

the Austrians in possession of this place were only pardoned, but had a pension of 500l. per annum Vienna, a severe contlict was interrupted by the

attacked by the Prussians on their march towards settled on him by Charles II. 1671. He died in 1681, when in prison for a libel on the duke of the same evening Austrians and Prussians bivouacked

news of the armistice agreed to at Nikolsburg; and Buckingham.

together. "BLOODY ASSIZES," held by Jeffreys in the west of England, in Aug. 1685, after the defeat GREEN-CLOTH, HEALTH, TRADE, &c., see

BOARD OF ADMIRALTY, CONTROL, of the duke of Monmouth in the battle of Sedgmoor. under Admiralty, &c. Upwards of 300 persons were executed after short trials; very many were whipped, imprisoned, and

BOATS. Flat-bottomed boats, made in England fined, and nearly 1000 were sent as slaves to the in the reign of William I.; again brought into use American plantations.

by Barker, a Dutchman, about 1690; see Life-Boat. BLOOMER COSTUME, see a note to article A mode of building boats by the help of the steamDress.

engine was invented by Mr. Nathan Thompson of

New York in 1860, and premises were erected for its BLOOMSBURY GANG, a cant term applied application at Bow, near London, in 1861. Charles to an influential political party in the reign of Clitford's valuable Boat-lowering apparatus was inGeorge III., who met at Bloomsbury-house, the vented 1836.

It

H

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