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1509. Hen. 8.

1504. Joanna &
1513. Jas. V. 1515. Francis I. Philip I.
Ferdinand II.

1516.Lou.II. 1521. John III. 1519. Chas. V. 1526. Jn. Za

(I. of Sp.) polski and Spain.

Ferdin. II. 1542. Mary. 1512. Ferd. V.(Cast.)II. (Arragon).

(EMPERORS–KINGS OF 1547. ED. VI. 1547. Henry II. 1516. Charles I. (V. of Germ. 1519)

HUNGARY.) 1553. Mary. 1558. Eliz. 1559. Francis II. 1556. Philip II. Holland.

1557. Sebastian. 1567. Jas. VI. 1560. Charles IX.

1558. Ferdinand.

1564. Maximilian II. 1574. Henry III.

1579. William of 1578. Henry.
Orange, stadt- 1580. Annexed to

1576. Rodolph II. holder.

Spain. 1589. Henry IV.

1598. Philip III. 1587. Maurice. 1603. Jas. I. (VI. of Scot.) 1610. LouisXIII. 1625. Charles I. 1621. Philip IV. 1625. Fred. Hen.

1612. Mathias.

1619. Ferdinand II.

Kingdon restored
1643. Louis XIV.
1647. William II. 1640. John of

1637. Ferdinand III. 1649. Commonwealth. 1660. Charles II.

1650-72. No

Braganza.

1665. Charles II. stadtholder. 1656. Alfonso VI. 1658. Leopold I. 11635. James II.

1667. Peter,

1672. Will. Hen. 1689. William and Mary.

regent.

(Will. III. OJ 1683. Peter II. 1694. William III.

1700. Philip V. England.) 1702. Anne. 1714. George I. 1715. Louis XV. 1724. (abdicated).

1702-47. No

1706. John V. sladtholder.

1705. Joseph

Prussia.

1711. Chas 6.

Louis. 11727. George II.

Philip V.
again.

1701. Fred. 1.

1713. Fred. 1746. Ferd. VI.

William 1.

1747. Will. Hen. 1750. Joseph. 1760. George III.

1742. Chas.7. 1740. Fred.2. 1759. Chas. III. 1757. Will. IV.

1745. Francis 1774. Louis XVI.

1765. Jos. 2.

1777. Maria and 11783. [United States in

Peter III. dependent.)

1786. Maria, 1788. Chas. IV.

1786. Fred.

alone. 1793. Lou. XVII. (abdicated). 1795. Annexed to 1791. John,regent 1790. Leop. 2. 1797. Fred.

William 2. Republic I.

France.

1792. Fran.2. William 3. 1802. Consulate. 1808. Ferd. VII. 1806. Louis, king. 1812. (George, Prince of 1804. Napoleon I. (dethroned). Wales, regent.) 1814. Lou. XVIII. Jos. Bonap. Netherlands. 1816. John VI.

Austria. 1814. Ferd. VII.

1826. Peter IV. 1820. George IV.

(restored). 1814. Will. Fred. Maria II. 1806. Fran. I. 1824. Charles X.

king. * 1828. Miguel

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[graphic]

1560. Eric XIV. 1568. John III.

1604. Chas. IX. 1606. Basil. 1611. Gustavus 1613. Michael

Adolphus. (Romanoff). 1633. Christina.

1645. Alexis. 1654. Chas. X. 1660. Chas. XI. 1676. Feodor.

1682. Ivan V. &

Peter I. 1597. Chas. XII. 1689. Peter I.

1704. Stan.1. 1703. Ach. 3. 1700. Clem. XI. 1719. Ulrica and 1725. Cather. I.

1709. Fredk.

Naples and Sardinia.t Frederick I. 1727. Peter II.

Augustus,

1721. Inno.XIII
1730. Anne. 1730. Christn. VI. restored. 1730. Mah. 5. 1724. Bene. XIII.

Sicily.
1733. Fredk.
1740. Ivan VI.

August. 2.

1730. Clem. XII. 1741. Fred. I. 1741. Elizabeth. 1746. Fred. V.

1713 1740. Bene. XIV.

Naples. 1751. Adolphus

1754. Osm. 3.

1720. Victor

VictorFrederick 1764. Stan.2. 1757. Mus. 3.

Amadeus. 1762. Peter III. 1766. Christ. VII.

Am. of Sa- 1730. Charles

1758. Clem. XIII. Cather. II.

1769. Clem. XIV. 1720 Annexed

voy, Sicily. Emman, I. 1771. Gustav. III.

1774. Ach. 4. 1775. Pius VI.
1784. Prince Fred,
1789. Selm. 3.

to Germany. 1773. Victor

1738. Chas. 4. Amadeus 2. regent.

Naples. 1792. Gustav. IV. 1796. Paul I.

1795. Parti-
tion.

1759. Fred.4.1796. Charles 1803. Pius VII.

Sicily. Emman. 2. 1809. Chas. XIII. 1801. Alexand. I. 1808. Fred. VI.

(1807. Mus. 4. 1814. Norway an

1814. Norway
Greece. 1808. Mah-

1823. Leo XII.

Naples. 1802. Victornered. 1828. Nicholas.

mud 6.

Emman. 1. 1818. Chas. XIV.

1806. Joseph 1805Annexed

Bonaparte to kingdom 1829. Pius VIII.

of Italy. 1832. Otho I. 1839. Chris. VIII.

1831. Greg. XVI. 1808. Joach. 1814. Victor

Murat.

Emman. 1. 1839. Abdul

1821. Charles Medjid.

Felix. 1844. Oscar I. 1848. Fred. VII.

Naples and 1831. Charles 1846. Pius IX.

Sicily. Albert.

1849. Victor1855. Alex. II.

1815. Ferd. 1.

Emman.2. 1825. Fran, 1.

1830. Ferd.2. 1859. Chas. XV.

1859. Fran.2.
1860 Anne.ced

to Italy.
1861. Abdul
1863. Chrisn. IX. 1863. Geo. I. Aziz.

Italy. 1872. Oscar II.

1861. Victor-Emmanuel.

See Article Russia for preceding Rulers. + See Article Savoy.

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22 May, 1871.
1868.
2 Dec. 1848.
24 April, 1852.
10 March, 1864.
10 Dec. 1865.
1872.
7 April, 1831.
9 Oct. 1871.
20 April, 1831.
18 Sept. 1871.
21 Aug. 1861.
1872.
15 Nov. 1863
18 Jan, 1863
24 May, 1873.
18 Jan. 1871.
20 June, 1837.
6 June, 1863.

1830.

1872.

: Dec. 1871

Dec. 1871

Anhalt, E. Population in Dec. 1871

203,354
Frederick, duke

29 April, 1831
Argentine Confederation, R.C. 1869 1,877,490 D. F. Sarmiento, president :
Austrian Emp. R.C. (after ces-
sion 1866)
Dec. 1869 35,904,435

Francis-Joseph, emperor. 18 Aug. 1830 Baden, R.C.

Dec. 1871 818,541 Frederick, grand-duke.. 9 Sept. 1826. Bavaria, R.C. (after cessions 1866) 4,861,402 Louis II., king

25 Aug. 1845 Belgium, R.C. : : Dec. 1870 5,087,105 Leopold II., king.

9 April, 1835 Bolivia, R.C.

1858 1,987,352 A. Morales, president Brazil, R.C..

11,780,000
Pedro II., emperor

2 Dec. 1825 : Bremen, P.

Dec 1871

122,565 O.Gildemeister, burgomaster Brunswick, L..

Dec, 1871
311,715 William, duke :

25 April, 1806 Chili, R.C.

1870 1,972,438 F. Errazuriz, president Chinese Empire (estimated), B. 446,000,000 Tsung-chi, emperor

21 April, 1856 Colombia, state, R.C. . 1870 3,000,633

Murillo Toro, president
Costa Rica, RC.

1871
165,000

J. M. Guardia, president.
Denmark & colonies, i. (estm.) 1870

1,912,142

Christian IX., king. 8 April, 1818 Egypt, M.

1867 7.165,000 Ismail Pacha Equator, R.C. jestimated) 1858

1,040,371 Q. Garcia Mureno, president France alone, R.C. (estimated) 1871 36,702,921 Marshal MacMahon

13

July, 1818
Germany, R.C.L.E..

1871 41,058, 196
William I., emperor.

22 March, 1797 Gt. Britain & colonies, P. (estm.) 1871 203,400,000 Victoria, Tet .

24 May, 1819 Greece & Ion. Is. G.C. (estim.). 1870 1,457,894 George I., king.

24 Dec. 1845 Guatemala, R.C..

1865 1,180,000 M. Garcia Granedos, prednt. Hamburg, P.

338,974 Burgomasters and Senate Hayti (estimated)

572,000 Gen. Nissage-Saget Hesse-Darmstadt, I. (estim.): 1871

852,843 Louis III., grand-duke. 9 June, 1806: Holland and colonies, C. 186)

27,003,529 1
William III., king

19 Feb, 1817. Honduras, R.C.

1858

350,000 C. Arias, president Italy, R.C. (estimated) : Dec. 1871 26,716,809 Victor-Emmanuel, king 14 March, 1820. Japan (estimated)

35 to 40 mil. Moutz Hito, mikado Liberia, P.

880,000 J. J. Roberts, president Liechtenstein, R.C. 1867 8,320 John II., prince

s Oct, 1840 Lippe, C. III,153 Leopold, prince

i Sept. 1821 Lubeck, P.

1871

52,158

Burgomasters and Senate Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 1. Dec. 1871

557,897 Frederic Francis,granul-duke 28 Feb. 1823 Mecklenburg-Strelitz, L. 1871

96,982 Frederic William, grud-duke 17 Oct. 1819. Mexico, R.C. (estimated) 1872 9,173,052 S. Lerdo de Tejada, president Monaco, R.C.

.

19 March, 1870. 16 June, 1848, 17 March, 1849. 17 March, 1861. 1872, 12 Nov. 1858. 1 Jan. 1851. 7 March, 1842. 6 Sept. 1860. 20 June, 1856. 14 Aug. 1860. Sept. 1859. i Feb. 1871. 27 Feb. 1853. 16 June, 1846. Sept. 1862. 1848. 2 Aug. 1872. I Nov. 1861. 2 Jan. 1861. 8 Nov, 1859. 20 April, 1866. 2 March, 1855. Dec. 1872.

1807
3,127 Charles, prince:

8 Dec. 1818 Montenegro, G.C. (estim.) 1865 106,238 Nicholas I., prince

1840. Morocco, M

about

8,000,000 Sidi Mohamed, sultan Nicaragua, R.C.

400,000 Vicente Cuadra, president Oldenburg, P. (estimated) 1871 316,341 Peter, grand-duke

8 July, 1827. Papal States annexed to Italy. 1870

Pius IX., pope.

13 May, 1792 Paraguay, R.C.

1852

1,337,431 Persia, M. (estimated)" 1859 10,000,000 Nassir-ed-Deen, shah

1829 Peru, R.C.

1859

2,500,000 Portugal and col., R.C : Dec. 1868

M. Pardo, president. 8,241,261

31 Oct. 1838 Prussia, E.

Dec. 1871 24,091,203
William I., king

22 March, 1797
Reuss, L.
1871 134,126 Henry XXII., prince

28 March, 1846 Roumania (Dan. Prncip.)estm. 1862 4,003,000 Chs of Hohenzollern, hspdr. 20 April, 1839 Russia, G.C., Poland, &c. (est.) 1867 81,925,428 Alexander II., czar

29 April, 1818 Sandwich Islands (Hawai, &c.) 1861 69,800 William Lunalipo, king : San Marino, R.C.

1860

7,303 Capitani reggenti San Salvador, R.C.

1858
600,000

J. Gonzales, president:
Saxe-Altenburg, P..

141,122
Ernest, duke

16 Sept. 1826 Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, L.

1871
174,339
Ernest II., duke

21 June, 1818
Saxe-Meiningen, L.
1871 187,884 George II., duke

2 April, 1826 Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, L. 1871 286,183 Chas. Alexander, grnd.-duke 24 June, 1818 Saxony, P.

1871
2,556,244 John, king

12 Dec. 1801. Schaumburg-Lippe, L.

32,051 Adolphus, prince

i Aug. 1817. Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, L.: 1871

75,523

George, prince Schwartzburg-Sondershaus. L. 1891 67,191 Gunther, prince

24 Sept. 1801 Servia, G.C. (estimated)

1870 1,306,674 Milan IV Spain and colonies, R.C. (est.). 1867 23,160,319 Republic St. Domingo, R.C. estimated)

136,500

B. Baez, president Sweden, Norway, L. (estimtd.) 1871 5.945.778 Oscar II., king.

21 Jan. 1829. Switzerland, R.C. and P. Dec. 1870 2,009, 147 Paul Cérésole, president Turkish Empire, M. (estimtd.) 1872 42,500,000 Abdul Aziz, sultan

9 Feb. 1830 Uruguay, R.C.

1860 240,965 Th. Gomensoro, president Venezuela, R.C.

1859 1.565,000 Guzman Blanco, president Würtemberg, L. 1871 1,818,541

6 March, 1823 United States of America, P.: 1870 38,877,000 Ulysses's. Grant, président : 27 April, 1822 :

• 1858

. 1871

1872, 3 Aug. 1853. 29 Jan. 1844. 20 Sept. 1866. 8 July, 1853. 9 Aug. 1854. 21 Nov. 1860.

• 1871

19 Aug. 1835.
June, 1868,

18 Sept. 1872.
1 Jan. 1873.
25 June, 1861.
March, 1872,
27 April, 1870.
25 June, 1864.
4 Mar, 1869.

PREDOMINANT RELIGIONS.-R.C., Roman Catholic; G.C., Greek Church; P., Protestant; L., Lutheran ; E.,

Evangelical Church-a combination of Calvinists and Lutherans ; C., Calvinist or Reformed; M., Mahometan; B., Buddhist.

DICTIONARY OF

DATES.

AARGAU.

ABDICATIONS.

AARGAU (Switzerland), formerly included in menced the suppression of small monasteries to raise Berne, was made an independent canton in 1803, revenues for Wolsey's colleges at Oxford and Ipsand settled as such in 1815. It was much disturbed wich, 7 June, 1525; many small monasteries were by religious dissensions in 1841; and the expulsion suppressed in 1536; and all religious houses were of the Jesuits was demanded in 1844.

suppressed throughout the realm by parliament, ABACUS, the tile on the capital of a column. 1539; viz.:-186 large monasteries (revenue 104,9191. That

on the Corinthian column is ascribed to Calli- | 138. 3d.), 374, less monasteries (revenue 33,4791. machus, about 540 B.C.- This name is also given to

138. 71d.), and 48 houses of the knights hospitallers a frame traversed by stiff wires, on which beads were

(revenue 23851. 128. 8d. ; total, houses, 608; estistrung, used for calculating by the Greeks, Romans, mated revenue, 140,7841. 198.63d.) Tanner. Many and Chinese. M. Lalanne published an ABACUS

abbeys were suppressed in France in 1790, in Spain at Paris in 1845.—The multiplication table has been in 1837 and 1868, and in Italy in 1866-73. called the Pythagorean abacus.

ABBOT (from Ab, father), the head of an abbey. ABANCAY a river in Peru, on the banks In England, mitred abbots were lords of parliament; of which the Spanish marshal Almagro defeated twenty-seven abbots and two priors thus distinand took prisoner Alvarado, a partisan of Pizarro, guished, 1329; the number reduced to twenty-five, 12 July, 1537

1396. Coke. The abbots of Reading, Glastonbury,

and St. John's, Colchester, were executed as traitors ABATTOIRS, slaughter-houses for cattle. In for denying the king's supremacy, probably for not 1810 Napoleon decreed that five should be erected surrendering their abbeys, 1539; see Glastonbury. near Paris, which were opened in 1818. One was erected at Edinburgh in 1851; and they form part republican enthusiasts in Paris, professing to re

ABC CLUB, a name adopted by certain of the new London metropolitan cattle-market, lieve the abaissés, or depressed. Their insurrection opened on 13 June, 1855. ABBASSIDES, descendants of Mahomet's These events are described by Victor Hugo in “ Les

5 June, 1832, was suppressed with bloodshed, 6 June. uncle, Abbas-Ben-Abdul-Motalleb. Merwan II., Misérables" (1862). the last of the Ommiades, was defeated and slain by Abul Abbas in 750, and became caliph. Thirty

ABDICATIONS of sovereigns, voluntary or seren Abbasside caliphs (including Haroun al Ras- compulsory, have been numerous : — chid, 586-809) reigned from 750 to 1258. They Sylla, Roman dictator settled at Bagdad, built by Al-Mansour about 762. Diocletian, „ emperor Their colour was black; that of the Fatimites being Stephen. II., of Hungary green, and that of the Ommiades white.

Albert, the Bear of Brandenburg .

Lescov V. of Poland ABBAYE, a military prison near St. Germain Uladislaus III. of Poland des Prés, Paris, where 164 prisoners were murdered

John Balliol, of Scotland

Otho (of Bavaria), of Hungary by infuriated republicans led by Maillard, 2 and

Eric IX., of Denmark, &c. 3 Sept. 1792.

Pope Felix V. ABBEVILLE, N. France. Here Henry III.

Charles V., as emperor

25 Oct. 1555 met Louis IX. of France and made peace, renounc

as king of Spain

16 Jan. 1556 Christina, of Sweden.

16 June 1634 ing his right to Normandy and other provinces, John Casimir, of Poland

1669 20 May, 1259.

James II., of England

fled 11 Dec. 1688 ABBEYS, monasteries for men or women ; see

Frederick Augustus II., of Poland Monachism and Conrents. The first abbey founded Philip

. X. of Spain (resumed) in England was at Bangor in 560; in France, at Charles, of Naples Poitiers, about 360; in Ireland in the fifth century; Stanislaus, of Poland in Scotland in the sixth century. 110 monasteries Charles Emmanuel II., of Sardinia

June, 1802 and priories were suppressed in England, 2 Henry V.

Francis II., of Germany, who became emperor of

11 Aug. 1804 1414. Salmon. The gross disorders in these estab Charles IV., of Spain, in favour of his son, 19 March ; Jishments occasioned their destruction in Britain. in favour of Bonaparte ; see Spain

1 May 1808 After visitations of enquiry, king Henry VIII.com- Joseph Bonaparte, of Naples (for Spain). 1 June, 1808

B. C. 79
A.D. 305

1131

1142 • 1 200

1206

1306

1309 1439 1449

1704 • 1724

1730 1759 1795

4

Austria

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Gustavus IV., of Sweden

1809 now a post-revolution bishopric, instituted in 1721; Louis, of Holland

1 July, 1810

see Bishops in Scotland. Jerome, of Westphalia .

20 Oct. 1813 Napoleon I., of France

5 pril, 1814 ABERDEEN ACT, introduced by the earl of Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia

13 March, 1821 Aberdeen, and passed, 1845, to enforce the obserPedro IV., of Portugal

vance of a convention made with Brazil in 1826 to Charles X., of France

2 Aug. 1830 Pedro I., of Brazil

7 April, 1831 put down the slave trade. It was repealed in April, Dom Miguel, of Portugal (by leaving it) 26 May, 1834 | 1869. William I., of Holland.

8 Oct. 1840

ABERDEEN ADMINISTRATION, called Louis-Philippe, of France

24 Feb. 1848 Louis Charles, of Bavaria

21 March, 1848

the Coalition Ministry, as including Whigs, RadiFerdinand, of Austria

2 Dec 1848 cals, and followers of 'sir R. Peel. Formed in conCharles Albert, of Sardinia

23 March, 1849 sequence of the resignation of the first Derby adLeopold II., of Tuscany

July, 1859 ministration; sworn in, 28 Dec. 1852; resigned Bernhard, of Saxe-Meiningen

20 Sept. 1866 30 Jan. 1855; succeeded by the Palmerston adIsabella II., of Spain

25 June, 1870 ministration, which see. Amadeus, of Spain

. u Feb. 1873

Earl of Aberdeen,* first lord of the treasury. ABECEDARIANS, followers of Storch, an Lord Cranworth, lord chancellor. Anabaptist in the sixteenth century, derive their Earl Granville, president of the council. name from their rejection of all worldly knowledge, Duke of Argyll, lord privy seal. even of the alphabet.

Lord John Russell, t foreign secretary.

Viscount Palmerston, home secretary. ABELARD, a celebrated teacher of theology Duke of Newcastle, I colonial and var secretary.

William Ewart Gladstone, chancellor of exchequer. and logic, in 118 fell in love with Heloise, the

Sir James Graham, first lord of the odmiralty. niece of Fulbert, a canon of Paris, became her tutor

Sir Charles Wood, president of the India board. and seduced her. After a compulsory marriage, he Edward Cardwell, president of board of trade. placed her temporarily in a convent. Having been Hon. Sidney Herbert, secretary-al-war. cruelly mutilated at the instigation of her relatives, Sir William Molesworth, chief commissioner of works. he entered the abbey of St. Denis, from which he Marquess of Lansdowne (without oflice).

Viscount Canning, Lord Stanley of Alderley, right hon. was compelled to depart, accused of heresy, on ac

Edward Strutt, &c. count of his censuring the dissoluteness of the monks. He then built and lectured at the oratory of the ABERDEEN PEERAGE CASE. George, Paraclete (or comforter) which eventually he made earl of Aberdeen, grandson of the premier, suca convent, with Heloise for the abbess. He died ceeded his father, 22 March, 1864. After travelling under the charge of heresy, 21 April, 1142, and was in a yacht, he became a merchant seaman, and chief buried in the Paraclete, where also Heloise was mate of the Hera; he was drowned 27 Jan., 1870. laid, 17 May, 1164. Their ashes were removed to His brother John's claim to the succession was the garden of the Muséum Français in 1800, and to allowed by the house of lords, 3 May, 1872. the cemetery of Père la Chaise in 1817.' Their epistles, &c., were published in 1616.

ABERGELE (N. Wales), see Railway Acci

dents, 20 Aug. 1868. ABENCERRAGES, a powerful Moorish tribe ABERRATION OF LIGHT; discovered by of Granada, opposed to the Zegris. From 1480 to James Bradley, through his observation of an ap1492 their quarrels deluged Granada with blood and parent motion of the fixed stars, 1727. hastened the fall of the kingdom. They were exterminated by Boabdil (Abu Abdallah), the last ABHORRERS, a name given in 1679, (reign king, who was dethroned by Ferdinand and Isabella of Charles II.) to the court-party in England, the in 1492; his dominions were annexed to Castile. opponents of the Addressers (afterwards Whigs),

so called from their address to the king praying ABENSBERG, Bavaria. The Austrians were for the immediate assembly of the parliament which here defeated by Napoleon I. 20 April, 1809. was delayed on account of its being adverse to the

court. The former (afterwards Tories) expressed ABEOKU A, see Dahomey.

their abhorrence of those who endeavoured to enABERDEEN (N. Scotland), said to have been croach on the royal prerogative, 1680. Hume. The founded in the third century after Christ, and erected

commons expelled several members for being Abinto a city, about 893. Old Aberdeen was made a

horrers, among them sir Francis Withens (whom royal burgh in 1154 ; it was burnt by the English in they sent to the Tower), and prayed his majesty 1336; and soon after New Aberdeen was built. A

to remove others from places of trust. They also statue of the prince consort was inaugurated by the resolved," that it is the undoubted right of the queen 13 Oct. 1863; and one of queen Victoria by subject to petition for the calling of a parliament, the prince of Wales, 20 Sept. 1866.

and that to traduce such petitions as tumultuous

and seditious, is to contribute to the design of The University was founded by bishop William Elphin- altering the constitution.” Oct. 1680.

stone, who had a bull from pope Alexander VI. in 1494. King's college was erected in 1500-6. Marischal college

ABINGDON LAW. In 1645, lord Essex was founded by George Keith, earl marischal of Scot and Waller held Abingdon, an ancient abbey town land, in 1593; rebuilt in 1837. In 1858 the university and colleges were united. By the reform act of 1868, * Born in 1784; engaged in foreign diplomacy, 1813; the universities of Aberdeen and Glasgow send one became foreign secretary, Jan. 1828 ; joined the party of member to parliament.

sir R. Peel, 1846; died 14 Dec. 1860.

+ Lord John Russell was succeeded as foreign secreMalcolm III. having gained a great victory over tary by the earl of Clarendon (Feb. 1853), but continued the Danes in the year 1010, resolved to found a new a member of the cabinet, without office; he afterwards Bishopric, in token of his gratitude for his success, became president of the council, in the room of earl and pitched upon Mortlach in Banffshire, where Granville, appointed to the duchy of Lancaster (June, St. Beanus was first bishop, 1015.

The see, re

I 'In June, 1854, the offices were separated ; the duke moved to Aberdeen early in the twelfth century, of Newcastle remained secretary of war, and sir George was discontinued at the revolution, 1689, and is Grey was made colonial secretary.

1854),

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