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Wheeler, sir Hugh; Cawnpore, 1857.
Whiston, W., theol., d. 1752
Whitbread, Samuel; suicide, 1815
White, H. K., poet, 1785-1806
White, Thos., Sion College, 1623
Whitefield, G., 1714-70; Whitefield-
ites, Wesleyans, 1741

Whitehead, W. d. 1785; poet laureate
Whitelock, gen.; Buenos Ayres, 1807
Whitgift, abp.; Canterbury, 1583
Whitney, Eli; cotton, 1793
Whittington; lord mayor, 1405:

Whittlesey, archbp.; Canterbury, 1268

Whitworth, Mr.; cannon, Shoebury-
ness, 1861; Whitworth
Whitworth, earl; Ireland, 1813
Whyte, maj.-gen.; Demerara, 1796
Wickham, William of, 1324-1405;
education, Oxford, Winchester
Wickliffe (Wycliffe), John, 1324-87;
Wickliffites, Bible

Wicklow peerage, trials, 1870 Wieland, C.; Germ. miscel., 17331813

Wigram, bp.; Rochester, 1860 Wilberforce, bp.; Oxford, 1846 Wilberforce, W., 1759-1833; slave

trade; S. Winchester, bp. Wild, Jonathan; executed, 1725 Wilde, sir James, b. 1816; probate court, 1863

Wilfride, bp.; Chichester, 673 Wilkes, capt. ; circumnavigation,

1838; United States, 1861

Wilkes, John; North Briton, obelisk, warrants; duel, 1763; trials, 1764

Wilkie, sir D., painter, 1785-1841 Wilkins, Dr.; Wadham, 1613 Wilkinson, Catherine; baths, 1832 William I., England, 1066; Battleabbey, conquest, Domesday, cas


William II.; England, 1087 William III.; England, 1689, revolution. Boyne, Enghien, Je maintiendrai, New Forest William IV.; England, kings, 1830; adiniral

William I.; emperor, Germany, 1870-3
William; Holland, Scotland
Williams, Ann; trials, 1753
Williams, David, d. 1816; literary

Williams, John, dean; adminis., 1621
Williams; see Burking
Williams, Roger; America, 1635
Williams, gen. W. F.; Kars, 1855
Williamson, sir Joseph; administra-
tions, 1629
Willoughby, sir Hugh; north-west

passage, 1553 Willoughby de Eresby, lord; chamberlain, lord great, 1626 Willoughby, lieut.; Delhi, 1857 Wills, gen.; Preston, 1715 Wilmington, earl of

Wilmington adm., 1742 Wilson, capt.; Pelew Islands, 1783 Wilson, sir A.; Delhi, 1857 Wilson, H. H.; Sanskrit professor, 1832

Wilson, sir Robert; Lavalette, 1815
Wilson, prof. John, 1785-1854
Wilson, sir John M., Hampstead
Wilson, Mrs. C.; poisoning, trials,

Wilson, capt. W.; United States, 1862, note

Wilson, Dr.; sun

Wilton, earl of; trials, 1859
Winchelsea, abp.; Canterbury, 1293
Winchester, gen.; Frenchtown, 1813
Winchester, Henry; mayor, lord,
Winchester, W., marquis of; adminis-
trations, 1554

Winchilsea, earl of; duel, 1829
Winchilsea, earl of; Wilmington
adm., 1742; Bath adm., 1746
Windebank, sir Francis; administra-
tions, 1635
Windham, general; India, 1857
Windham, W. F.; trials, 1861-2
Windham, Wm.; Grenville adm., 1806
Windischgratz, prince; Vienna, 1848
Winsor, Charlotte; trials, 1865
Winstanley; Eddystone, 1696
Winter, T.; boxing
Winwood, sir Ralph; administra-
tions, 1612

Winzengerode, gen.; Kalisch, 1813 Wiseman, cardinal Nicholas, 1802-65; ecclesiastical titles, papal aggression, Rome, Ireland, 1858 Withers, Dr. ; libel, 1789 Witherings, Thomas; post-office, 1631 Witherington, W., painter, 1786-1865 Withing, Richard; Glastonbury, 1539 Witikind (Saxon chief), d, after 793. Wittgenstein, gen.; Polotsk, Witepsk, 1812

Witts, De; massacred, 1672 Wodehouse, lord; Ireland (lord

lieut.), 1864 Wodehouse, sir P.; Bombay, 1872 Woden; Wednesday

Wöhler, F.; aluminium, 1827
Wolcot, Dr., alias Peter Pindar;
trials, 1807

Wolf, F. A.; Homer
Wolfe, gen.; Quebec, 1759
Wolfius; anemometer, 1709
Wollaston, Wm.; 1766-1828; cryo-
phorus, camera, blow pipe, pal-
ladium, rhodium, hypsometer
Wolseley, sir Charles; trials, 1820
Wolsey, cardinal, 1471-1530; adms.,

1514; Hampton, Whitehall, York Wood, sir Charles (aft. lord Halifax); Russell adm., 1846; Palmerston adm., 1855

Wood, Matthew; mayors of London, 1815

Wood, sir W. P., justice, chancellor, 1868

Wood; Palmyra, 1751-53
Woodfall, Mr.; trials, 1786
Woodmason; ruling machines
Wooler, Mr.; trials, 1817, 1855
Woolley, Mr, trials, 1863
Worcester, marquis of; steam, tele-
graph, 1663

Worcester, Edward, earl of; adms.,


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Zephaniah prophesies abt. 630 B. C.
Zephyrinus; pope, 202

Zeuxis, f. 455-400 B.C.; painting
Zimmerman; physiognomy, 1776
Zinzendorf, 1700-60; Moravians
Ziska; Bohemia, 1417
Zoh; eastern empire, 1034
Zollicoffer, gen.; U. States, 1861
Zorilla, R.; Spain, 1872-3
Zoroaster (supposed author of "Zen-
davesta"); about 555 B.C., fire-

Zosimus; alchemy, 410
Zumalacarregui (Carlist); killed near
Bilbao, 1835

Zumpie, M.; pianoforte, 1766
Zurbano, gen.; Spain, 1844


46. ASHANTEES.-Offended at the British occupation of Elmina, these people attacked the Fantees, our allies, with varying success, in April, 1873. They were severely repulsed on 13 June, when Elmina was partially bombarded by the British for favouring them, 14 June.

54. AURICULAR CONFESSION.-In May, 1873, 483 clergymen of the Church of England, presented a petition to convocation for the education, selection, and licensing of duly qualified confessors, in accordance with the provisions of canon law. Strongly disapproved of by the bishops.

67. BANK Discount: 1873, reduced to 5 per cent. July 1o; to 4, July 17; to 4, July 24; to 34, July 31; to 3, Aug. 21.

151. CHINA-Foreign ministers for the first time received by the emperor, 29 June, 1873

155. CHURCH OF ENGLAND.-Memorial (signed by 60, 200 persons) against Romanist teaching, &c. in the church, presented at Lambeth to the archbishop by the Church association, 5 May, 1873.

The archbishops in reply admit the danger, and recognise their duty, as well as the difficulties of action, saying, "We live in an age when all opinions and beliefs are keenly criticised, and when there is less inclination than ever was before to respect authority in matters of opinion. In every state, in every religious community, almost in every family, the effect of this unsettled condition may be traced," 1 June, 1873.

Mr. Miall's motion for disestablishing the church, lost (356-61), 16 May, 1873.

483 clergymen petition convocation for the licensing of duly qualified sacramental confessors, May, 1873. 222. EARTHQUAKES. -San Salvador nearly destroyed; about 50 killed; the rest escaped through timely warning, 19 March, 1873.

North of Italy: at Feletto, near Conegliano, Venetia,
church destroyed; about 50 killed; lives lost at
Belluno, &c.; shock felt at Venice, Verona, &c., 29
June, 1873.

230. EGYPT.-The sultan, by a firman, renders the Khedive practically independent: (he must not coin money, make treaties, or build iron-clads), 8 June, 1873.

233. ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.-Death of sir Francis Ronalds, aged 85, 8 Aug. 1873.

242. ENGLAND.-Proposed marriage of the duke of Edinburgh to the duchess Marie of Russia announced by the queen, 17 July; Annuity bill for the duke passed 5 Aug. 1873.

254 EXECUTIONS.-Henry Evans, at Aylesbury; and Benjamin Hudson, at Derby, for murder of their wives, 4 Aug. 1873.

285. FRANCE.-Changes in the ministry:-Casimir Périer, interior; W. H. Waddington, of Cambridge, public instructor (in room of De Goulard and Jules Simon), 18 May, 1873.

Meeting of the national assembly, 19 May; the government introduce their constitutional bills, 21 May; the duc de Broglie leads an attack on the government, 23 May; speech of Thiers; the government defeated (362-348) at a sitting, 2 p.m., 24 May. Resignation of Thiers and his ministry accepted (368-339), 24 May; marshal McMahon (born 1808) elected president of the republic by 390 votes (the


left did not vote); he accepts the office, declaring his independence of party, 24 May; in his message to the assembly he says, "The post in which you have placed me is that of a sentinel, who has to watch over the integrity of your sovereign power," 26 May, 1873

The duc de Broglie chief of the new ministry, 26 May, 1873. General Ladmirault succeeds MacMahon in the command of the army of Versailles, 3 June, 1873. Private circular of the minister to prefects requesting them to sound newspapers of his department; censured in the assembly, 11 June, 1873.

The assembly (by a large majority) order the prosecution of Ranc, formerly a communist, now deputy for Lyons, 19 June, 1873.

Visit of the Shah, 5 July, 1873.

Grand review of the renovated army at Paris, and assembly prorogued, 10 July, 1873.

Renewal of the Anglo-French treaty of 23 Jan. 1860 (till 30 June, 1877); signed 24 July; ratified, 29 July, 1873

Evacuation of all the French territories by the Germans, except Verdun, by 2 Aug. 1873. Fusion of the Legitimists and Orleanists after an interview of the comte de Paris with the comte de Chambord the latter recognised as chief, 5 Aug. 1873

Changes in Aug. 1873-Mr. Gladstone became chancellor of the exchequer as well as first lord of the treasury; Mr. Austin Bruce (lord Aberdare), lord president of the council in room of the marquis of Ripon, resigned; Mr. Lowe, home secretary, in room of Mr. Bruce; Mr. Wm. Patrick Adam, first commissioner of works, succeeded Mr. Ayrton, who was made judge advocate-general; Mr. John Bright, chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, in room of Mr. Childers, resigned;-changes also in subordinate offices.


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333. HEAT.-Sir George Cayley invented a heated-air engine in 1807, and Mr. Stirling applied it to raising water in Ayrshire in 1818. One invented by Mr. Wenham was described in 1873. Improvements have been made by Mr. C. Wm. Siemens.

342. HOSPITAL SUNDAY.-25,511l. received from about

1200 places of worship on 15 June;-18591. since (July). The first hospital Sunday is said to have been at Birmingham, 13 Nov. 1859.

360. INTRANSIGENTES, or Irreconcilables, a party of extreme republicans in Spain, who withdraw from the Cortes and become very troublesome, 1 July, 1873

372. ITALY.-Lanza and Sella resign, 26 June; a ministry formed by Minghetti, about 10 July, 1873

384. KHIVA. After several small conflicts Khiva surrendered 10 June, 1873; and the Khan declared himself to be a vassal of the Czar, and abolished slavery.

395. LAW.- Lord Selborne's Judicature Bill, with amendments, passed 5 Aug. 1873

409. LONDON (metropolitan district, 690 square miles), contains 6612 miles of streets; 528,794 inhabited houses; population, 4,025,659, June, 1873. .Hospital Sunday, 15 June, 1873.


Visit of the Shah of Persia, 18 June, &c., 1873.

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ADMINISTRATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, SINCE 1850.-See World's Progress. On the death of President Taylor, July 9, 1850

MILLARD FILLMORE, of New York (Vice-President), became President. He appointed, soon
after, the following Cabinet, viz.:
North Carolina,
New York,

was elected President of the Senate, and became Acting Vice-President of U. &
Speakers of H. Reps

Kentucky, December, 1851.


FRANKLIN PIERCE, of New Hampshire, inaugura ed March 4, 1853, President.
Vice-President-vacant, by death of Hon. Wm. R. King, April 18, 1853-

Daniel Webster,
Thomas Corwin,
Charles M. Conrad,
William A. Graham,
A. H. H. Stephens,
Nathan K. Hall,
John J. Crittenden,
William R. King,

Howell Cobb,
Linn Boyd,

William L. Marcy,
James Guthrie,
Robert M'Clelland,
James C. Dobbin,
Jefferson Davis,
James Campbell,
Caleb Cushing,
James L. Orr,


Joseph Holt,
Horatio King,
Jon Black,

Stanton, Nathl. P. Banks, Wm. Pennington,


New York,

North Carolina,
South Carolina,

JAMES BUCHANAN, of Pennsylvania, inaugurated March 4, 1857, President.
JOHN C. BRECKINRIDGE, of Kentucky, Vice-President.


Lewis Cass,
John Black,
Isaac Toucey,
John B. Floyd,
Joseph Holt,
Howell Cobb,
Philip Thomas,
John A. Dix,
Jacob Thompson,

New York,

New Jersey,

Appointed Jan. 1861.

Appointed Dec. 1860.
Appointed Jan. 1861.

Appointed Dec. 1860. Secretary of State.

Secretary of Navy.
Secretary of War.

Secretary of Treasury.

Secretary of Interior.

Speaker of IL Reps.

Jan. 1861.
Dec. 1860.


Secretary of State. Secretary of Treasury. Secretary of War. Secretary of Navy. Secretary of Interior. Postmaster-General, Attorney-General.

Secretary of State. Secretary of Treasury. Secretary of Interior. Secretary of Navy. Secretary of War. Postmaster-General, Attorney-General. Speaker of H. Reps.

ABRAHAM LINCOLN, of Illinois, inaugurated March 4, 1861, President.
HANNIBAL HAMLIN, of Maine, Vice-President.
Wm. H. Seward,

New York,

Secretary of State.

Salmon P. Chase,
Wm. P. Fessenden,
Hugh McCulloch,
Simon Cameron,
Edwin M. Stanton,
Gideon Welles,
Caleb B. Smith,
John P. Usher,
Montgomery Blair,
Wm. Dennison,
Edward Bates,
James Speed,
Galusha A. Grow,
Salmon P. Chase,

Wm. H. Seward,
Hugh McCulloch,
Edwin M. Stanton,
Gideon Welles,
John P. Usher,
James Harlan,
Orville H. Browning,

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ABRAHAM LINCOLN, of Illinois, inaugurated March 4, 1865, President,
ANDREW JOHNSON, of Tennessee, Vice-President.

[President Lincoln was assassinated at Washington by Wilkes Booth, April 14, 1865.]
ANDREW JOHNSON became President, April 15, 1865.
LAFAYETTE S. FOSTER, of Connecticut, elected President of the Senate.
[Succeeded by BEN. F. WADE, of Ohio, 1867.]
New York, (continued in office),



Ohio, (continued in office),

Dec. 1865.





Appointed March, 1865.
Appointed June, 1866,


[Palmerston dies, Oct. 1865.]
Gladstone Chancellor of the Ex-
chequer; Lord Cranworth, Lord
Chancellor; Earl Granville,_ &c.

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W. Dennison,
Alex. W. Randall,
James Speed,

Wisconsin, Appointed June, 1866.

Henry Stanbery,
Schuyler Colfax,
The salary of each member of the Cabinet was raised in 1853 from $6,000 to $8,000.

Kentucky, (continued in office),
Appointed June, 1866.

Speaker H. of Reps.



Bushels of Wheat,........... 132,000,000
Bushels of Oats.............. 172,000,000
Bushels of Rye.............. 20,000.000
Tons of Hay..
Pounds of Wool............. 60,000,000
Bales of Cotton....................... 4.000,000
Bushels of Corn............. 800,000,000

ADMIRALTY. There is no separate court of admiralty in the U. S. By Statute of 1789, the District Courts have "cognizance of all civil causes of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction." They are also Prize Courts and hear all cases of trespass and civil injuries on the Sea. Capital crimes committed at sea are tried by the U. S. Circuit Courts.

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Secretary of Treasury.

Secretary of War. Secretary of Navy. Secretary of Interior Postmaster-General

Speaker H. Reps.
Chief Justice.

ADVERTISING. The rate of charge of American Dailies is from 5 to 20 cents per line; of weekly papers, up to $2.00. A few monthly and quarterly periodicals charge $2.50 per line. The price of one page for advertisements in Harper's Magazine is $250. In 1865, the advertising receipts of the N. Y. Tribune were above $359,000. By act of July, 1861, advertisements in American papers are taxed 3 per cent. on gross receipts. Papers of less than 2,000 copies circulation are exempt. The duty on advertising in England was abolished in 1853.


AGRICULTURE. Agriculture is the most important material interest of the United States. It is estimated that seven-eighths of the population are engaged in agricultural pursuits or in occupations immediately dependent thereon. In 1860 the number of acres in cultivation was 163,000,000, valued at 6,600 million dollars. In the same year the value of agricultural implements was $247,000,000.

Statistics of 1860-1862-1865:



Secretary of State.
Secretary of Treasury.
Secretary of War.
Secretary of Navy.

Secretary of Interior.

Derby, First Lord, &c.; D'Israeli,
Chancellor of Exchequer; Lord
Stanley, Sec. for Foreign Affairs,
June 19, 1866.


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1,000,000 600,000,000


In the Statistics of 1862 and 1865 the States in rebellion are not included. In 1862 the shipment of wheat from the U. S. to Great Britain alone amounted to 29,700,000 bushels. Total exports of grain 1863 were 77,300,000 bushels. The cereals of the Northern States in 1865 amounted to 1,228 million bushels, valued at $1,047,000,000. The Southern cotton crop for 1866-7 is estimated at 2,000,000 bales. "Department of Agriculture" established May 15, 1862, at Washington, D. C. Its object, to diffuse information on subjects connected with agriculture among the people of the U. S.

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