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So we dr. Pet opekben. Toe will fod that we onsume a pocod of mal zure nther than less, to every pond of food materal that we soller to its mall nant influence in a cret-beated inc store in mente, in the range, processes which are now moscaled corking. It is a true that it was the Lord who went the food and the devil who sent the cock;" it is the Lord who sent the food and the devil who sent you the stove. Is it mit sc? What more infernal place of dwelling an you fod than a small kitchen containing a big stove working away under a strong draft in midsummer? I won't use any swear words, but I think they might be well applied to such a place.

Now I can cook fifty pounds of bres 1, meat and vegetables in the most perfect and nutritious manner with two pints or two pounds, or a little less, of kerosene oil, burned in the ordinary Rochester lamp under my Aladdin oven of the standard size.

One of my customers, a leading patent lawyer in Pittsburg, does substantially all the cooking for a family of five persons in one of these ovens, under which he burns the natural gas. He pays fifteen cents per thousand feet for the natural gas, and he burns one-third of a thousand feet per month. He estimates the cost of fuel for cooking for his family of five at sixty cents a year. The next thing on the cards will be fuel gas distributed among our dwellings, per haps not at fifteen cents a thousand, but suppose it is fifty, then what? At fifty cents a thousand, one-third of a thou

sand per month for five persons would make the cost of fuel for cooking just two dollars a year.

Now see what a waste of energy there is in burning even two pounds or two pints of oil to fifty pounds of food. I only catch that part of the heat which comes out of the top of the chimney. I shut that up in a paper box and make it do some work, but I lose all the rest. But compare even what I have accomplished, one pound of oil to twentyfive pounds of food, with the consumption of coal in your stoves at the rate of a pound of coal or more to every pound of food.

Now, gentlemen, if you require light, air, ventilation, uniform humidity, regular and continuous speed, and the most perfect conditions in all the mechanism of your factories, do you not also require health, strength, clear heads, ready wits and prompt work in the men and women who operate the machines? Can you expect such qualities from cold victuals and pale pie bolted hastily in the noon hour, as I have seen it when I have passed through some of your works? Do not these several factors of health, aptitude and ready observation, which are necessary to the production of first-class fabrics from the sale of which both the wages of the workmen and the profit of the owner are alike derived, depend wholly upon the suitable shelter, the adequate nutrition and the wholesome conditions of living on the part of those who tend the machinery?

The first lesson in the insurance business which must be learned by those who inspect factories is to hold their tongues on everything that does not concern the safety of the factory, but we keep our eyes open. I have more than once been puzzled by the varying results of different factories, which were apparently fitted with the same kinds of machinery and which were operated in the same way. Not until I had made an inspection in my insurance work could I explain the profit of one and the loss of another. In some cases which I might name, I am very sure that I discovered the open secret of non-success. It was in the poor quality,

the bad position and the bad condition of the dwellinghouses which were occupied by the operatives.

You are all familiar with the rule that the highest rates of wages that can be derived from the market price of any given product are secured by those who make that kind of goods at the lowest cost per pound or per yard of cloth for the labor, other things being equal. The most skilful workmen, the weavers who have the greatest aptitude for their work, and others in corresponding departments, gravitate almost in spite of themselves to the best equipped factories, because in such factories they can turn off the greatest quantity of work by the piece with the least amount of effort. They earn the highest wages for themselves, while the cost of labor is diminished through their skill and aptitude. Now, will capable men and women who have a clear conception of the merit of the factory in which they desire to work be willing to live in badly situated, badly constructed and very crowded dwelling-houses? Surely not.

If ever the conditions of shelter may thus affect the profit and loss account of the factory, how much more may the conditions of the food supply, the fuel of the human boiler, affect the capacity of man or woman to do the best work. The great contractor, Brassey, long since found out and published the fact that the well-fed and highly paid British navvy was a less costly man to employ in building railroads on the continent of Europe or anywhere else than the under-fed working people of the country through which the railroad passed.

Professor Atwater has lately given great attention to the science of nutrition. I shall presently refer to his work. In dealing with the dietaries of different classes of people he struck two bodies of workmen who appeared to be consuming about double the standard ration of a German soldier when on a forced march. He thought there must have been an error; but in each case he traced that dietary to a brick yard, one in Massachusetts and one in Connecticut, of which the owners had found out that the right way to make

the biggest tale of bricks was to stuff the workmen with all the beef they could eat of the best kind, and they converted double the ration of a German soldier on a forced march into bricks.

It was the scientific nutrition of the German army that gave the great strategist, Von Moltke, the power to move his troops with the precision of a great machine. It was the potential energy in the German sausage, made of condensed meat, peas and other muscle-producing food, readily converted into nutritious soup whenever the troops encamped, that proved more than a match for the French rifles, even though the Frenchmen know something about food and feeding.

I said in the beginning that if I were to put the question to you, What is food? very few of you would make a reply that would possess any close approach to accuracy. A complete food must contain definite proportions of proteine, or nitrogenous material, which is assumed to be assimilated in the process of making muscular fibre; of starch, or carbohydrate, and of fat: the latter is assumed to be mainly consumed in keeping up the heat of the body. Food may be abundant, but if it does not contain these ingredients in the right proportion men may be starved even on an abundant food supply. I do not name the mineral salts, because they are found in due proportion in almost every dietary that man may purchase.

These blocks which I present to you indicate by their size the relative proportions of the different elements neces-. sary to the nutrition of the human body. But these chemical elements must be developed or converted from their crude form by the application of heat into a condition in which they can be assimilated by the human body. If they are not treated or converted in the right way, they may not. be assimilated; they may promote dyspepsia and disease without imparting sufficient nutrition even if abundant.

Professor Atwater has converted the chemical elements of food into mechanical units of heat, named in science

Calories. We may take a Calorie as the unit of nutrition, and a very convenient one it will be found, as I will presently attempt to show you. A working man occupied in moderate work must have four thousand Calories a day, of which he must assimilate about nine-tenths. These Calories must be derived from food which will yield starch in the proportion of three, nitrogen in the proportion of one, and fat in the proportion of one; say twenty-four hundred Calories derived from starchy material, eight hundred derived from nitrogenous material, eight hundred derived from fat.

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These elements being established, it becomes a perfectly simple matter to compile a table of one hundred pounds of food, meat, grain and vegetables, to sort it chemically in the right proportions, in such a way that each pound will yield twelve hundred Calories. It follows that if a man buys three and one-half pounds of such food in due proportion every day, and cooks it in a proper manner, he will be fully nourished, and will waste very little.

I am engaged in compiling these tables. I have employed different people to get the prices at retail of grains, oatmeal, corn meal, etc.,― of bread, vegetables, roots, sugar, fish and meats, in different parts of Boston. I shall presently have these tables in form so that any one can make use of them. The man who can afford to buy the cheapest kinds of meat to be eaten with the best kinds of bread, grain and vegetables will be able to buy at the rate of one hundred pounds of food per month at three and one-half cents a pound, each pound yielding twelve hundred Calories. That comes to fourteen cents a day, ninety-eight cents a week. He will be fully and adequately nourished if that food is properly cooked. It can be properly cooked in the square oven, of which an example is before you. It can be properly cooked in these cooking pails of different kinds, from which I shall presently give you a taste of what I call "the glorified hash," made of the cheapest and toughest parts of meat.

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