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perfect condition. Vulcanized yellow pine ties which have laid on the main track of the Erie Railway for over eight years are as sound as though laid but yesterday.

In these cases cited the wood is as bright as when cut from the tree, and has lost none of its aromatic fragrance. Its specific gravity is apparently about the same as when first laid ; and the nature of vulcanized wood is that it does not continually grow lighter and lighter, as in the untreated lumber, but the specific gravity remains fixed, being very close to that of green lumber. In yellow pine and rich resinous woods it is increased some ten per cent. This permanence of the specific gravity is maintained for years, the fact being, as practically demonstrated, that vulcanized yellow pine, after exposure to the elements with the deteriorating influence of wind, rain, heat and cold, becomes more dense, and, as one of our large customers states, is in better condition, than when treated nine years ago, being tougher, and its strength increased in its resistance to the wearing and crushing effect of heavy traffic.

Owing to the unchanging character of the wood, its spikeholding qualities are remarkable. The spikes in the ties which have been referred to have never been drawn, and are in their original position still, holding as firmly to-day as the day they were driven.

In buildings where the floors and beams are subjected to steam and constant moisture, as in many of your dye houses and other places, the fact is apparent to you all that decay arises because the steam and heat induce the fungous growth, being the special elements in nature conducive to it. The chemical ingredients in their coagulated state, as in vulcanized lumber, are not easily soluble by moisture under heat, and the strength of the timber remains; while the contrary is the fact in timber in its natural state, which becomes weaker and weaker, until expensive repairs are necessary. We all know how important a continuance of routine is in a well-organized mill, and hence how greatly the cost is increased by a disturbance thereof, saying nothing of the cost of replacing.

Vulcanized wood, from its density and increased specific gravity and cohesiveness of fibre, makes the very best of floors; as they wear better, and will not brash up. This comes from the changed nature of the wood.

For interior finish a rich antique color can be produced by vulcanizing when desired, which is uniformly even throughout each piece, and the lumber partakes of a higher degree of finish in less time. This is owing to the cohesion of the fibre and the filling of the pores with the natural gums and resins of the wood.

In a paper of this kind, limited as to time, you cannot expect to be fully informed as to all the details either of our process or of its results ; but we trust that we have gained your attention to this wonderful discovery, and we should be pleased at any time to further personally assist you in your investigations as to its worth, at either our Boston or our New York office.

Records of Tests by Transverse Stress, Mechanical Laboratory, Department of Engineering, Stevens

Institute of Technology.

DIMENSIONS.

BREAKING LOAD.

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Distance

YELLOW PINE UNTREATED.

Laboratory
Number.

Depth.

Deflection,
Actual.

Breadth.

between Supports.

Defection:

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The above tests were made by Prof. R. H. Thurston.

Abstract from report of Alfred P. Trautwein, dated New York, Nov. 20, 1884:

“ Test by compression on the Olsen Machine of the Stevens Institute, Hoboken, upon yellow pine.

• These were made upon samples of three different lengths cut out of the plank, as shown, and 3", 1", and 5'' in length respectively; the ends were accurately squared, and the cross section of the sample was approximately one square inch."

A. Three-inch Samples.

lbs. A. Natural, crushed at 5,300 A Vulcanized, crushed at . 7,750 B. Natural, crushed at 6,500 B. Vulcanized, crushed at 7,100 C. Natural, crushed at 5,900 с Vulcanized, crushed at: 7,500

lbs.

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[Copy.]

SCHOOL OF MINES, COLUMBIA COLLEGE,

49Th St. AND 4Th Ave., New York, Feb. 25, 1890. My Dear Sir:- I have examined the sample of oak wood, preserved by your process, which you placed in my hands. I find that

it is entirely different from the original wood, of which I also ex- '
amined a sample. The treatment to which the oak has been exposed
has effected a radical chemical change in its character, and it now
contains 11.91 per cent. of materials, most of which have resulted
from the action of heat. These I have succeeded in separating
into :

Per Cent.
Neutral oils, turpines, etc.,

0.36
Phenols,

0.77 Resinous acids and other bodies,

10.78

.

11.91

A

very considerable portion of this 11.91 per cent. of material consists of antiseptic and preservative substances, which will act to protect the wood from decomposition and decay. They have also radically changed the appearance of the wood, producing what would have otherwise required a long lapse of time. The wood before treatment does not contain the above-mentioned substances, and would be liable to be attacked by microscopic fungi, and to undergo decay when exposed to air and moisture.

In conclusion, I would say that your process seems to be a remarkably simple and effective one for improving the appearance, and very greatly increasing the durability, of timber, and protecting it from the agencies which result in destroying, by decay, timber which has not been treated.

Very sincerely yours,

C. F. CHANDLER, PH.D. To Mr. SAMUEL E. HASKIN,

40 Wall Street, New York City.

The PRESIDENT. I shall be glad to hear further from the members.

Mr. John BIRKENHEAD. Mr. President, I would like to say a few words further in regard to this petroleum. I incidentally remarked that I had another piece of ground opposite my house that I fenced in. I put a wire fence around it, one of these twisted wires, and put down cedar posts in this case which were about four or five inches in diameter, with bark on them,

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