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It might be well to state that the difference in the average size is due to the fact that the frames were of different make, and could not be geared exactly alike.
I have given but two reasons why I prefer the single to the double boss roll, as time will not permit me to give more, although I could give a great many; but I want to say that we derive a greater advantage, the finer numbers we spin. On our No. 60 warp we obtain about ten per cent. advantage in break; and the numbers will not vary nearly as much, as the following sizes will show :
I trust this subject will be fully discussed, as I consider it of very great importance to weaving or yarn mills on either fine or coarse work.
If any one desires to ask me any questions, I will answer them to the best of my ability and knowledge.
Mr. PARKER. Mr: President, it did not appear in Mr. KENT's paper why the yarn made on the single-boss roll was stronger than that made on the long-boss roll; neither does
; he state whether his tests have been made with a shell roll or a solid roll. I imagine that the advantage which he would claim for a single-boss roll would be that he could get a more even covering or a more level roll than it would be possible in covering the long-boss roll. I think we would all agree that Mr. Kent makes a pretty strong yarn, whether it is made upon the double-boss or not; and I should like to know why it can not be made as strong upon any roll.
Mr. William J. KENT. In reply to Mr. PARKER, I will say that I am afraid I should have exhausted your patience if I had gone into all the details; and I said, at the end of my paper, 1 would answer any questions which might be asked. advantage is the difference in covering the rolls, and also in the weighting of the rolls. The double-boss roll requires a great deal more weighting, to produce the same effect that a single-boss roll would; and consequently we find the lighter the weighting to do the work, the better the product. In regard to breaking the yarn, we cannot weave the goods we sell to Mr. Parker, unless we have that yarn. Mr. Parker. There is one question I intended to ask,
PARKER whether the record, which I suppose you keep at the mills, uniformly shows the results which you have just read; or whether these were special tests.
Mr. WILLIAM J. KENT. No, sir ; this is the record kept right in the mill.
Mr. KILBURN suggested that Mr. Keyt derived an advantage from specially selecting his cotton, to make the goods he referred to.
Mr. KENT said that he considered a careful selection of cotton as of very great importance; that, while some claimed they could not afford to make the best selection, at his mill they could
not afford not to. Mr. KENT further stated, in reply to a question by Mr. REDFORD, that he got his cotton from Helena, Ark.
Mr. ROBERT REDFORD'stated that, for making nice combed yarn, he thought it was better to have a single-boss roll; and have
; that as wide as possible; that they could get along with about 4} pounds weight, and could make a very nice, even yarn. He said, There is no doubt at all, in my mind, about being able to make a better yarn with a short roll than you can with a long roll, because by that means you get over the inequalities in the covering
QUESTION. With a short roll?
Mr. REDFORD. I should use the shell roll if running two ends to a boss; but with a short roll, and one end to a boss, a shell would not be necessary. ' The advantages of using single end boss-rolls are readily seen in making fine combed yarns, say from 40s upwards, on account of less surface contact with the bottom roll, but I would not recommend this roll for coarse carded yarns, on account of the difficulty in cleaning the rolls while the mule is in motion. In Oldham, for coarse yarns, they use, exclusively, rolls two and three ends to a boss; while in Bolton, where the product is principally fine combed yarns, they use, exclusively, single-boss rolls.
Mr. Knight. I would like to ask the gentleman how it would spin ; which would spin the better, the short-boss or long-boss roll.
Mr. REDFORD. Well, if you were going to run short stock, I should say put all the weight you can on the front roll, and very little on the middle roll, and all the weight you can on the back roll; and let it go at that.
Mr. KNIGHT. Which would spin better, the long-boss roll or the short-boss roll?
Mr. REDFORD. I cannot give you my experience on coarse yarn, because I have not tried it, but it would spin better for fine combed yarn. You cannot make successfully any numbers, we will say, over 40, on a double-boss roll; especially hosiery. Suppose you try to make hosiery on a double-boss roll, you will have some fabric come back once in a while ; because it shows bad places in the fabric, through the yarn being cut. That defect would be reduced very materially by using a single-boss roll. It would certainly spin a great deal better.
Mr. J. K. RussELL. Mr. President, I would like to say a few words on this roll question. There are some points that have not been fully brought out, regarding the extra amount of labor expended in the care of the short-boss roll over the longboss.
It requires just double the amount of labor and time to pick and oil the same length frame of short-boss rolls that it does of long-boss; besides, in oiling, there is twice the danger of getting oil on the covering ; which we all know is injurious to the work. Again, when we wish to scour or clean our steel rolls, or any accident happens whereby we have to remove the top rolls, we have just twice as many rolls, saddles and stirrups to remove and replace; which means not only an expenditure of time and labor, but loss of production, as well. Then again, the short-boss roll, being lighter, is easier retarded in its motion by clogging; thereby injuring the work, and making waste; one of the many causes for clogging being the greater liability of the roving running out to one side, on the short-boss roll.
Speaking from an overseer’s stand-point, I should say that the short-boss roll would require, on the part of the frame tender, from four to six times the amount of labor to keep that part of the frame up to the same standard of cleanliness, that the long-boss would. I would further say that I have been entirely successful in spinning all warp yarns below 30s on the long-boss roll, and still prefer it for those numbers.
The PRESIDENT. If there is no objection, we will now proceed to the sixth topic, “ Tests of spindle oils.” Mr. A. M. GOODALE of Waltham, Mass., will open the discussion.
Mr. A. M. GOODALE. Mr. President and gentlemen, it was not possible, between the time this topic was assigned to me and this meeting, for me to make thorough tests of spindle oils, either in the number of oils that I wanted to test or in the length of time to be given to each oil, and I can give you to-day simply the first of my tests. I had commenced a little while before this topic was assigned to me to make some tests, and those tests were used as a check on the tests that I have made since; but, in order to get in the number of oils that I wanted, it was not possible for me to run over four days with any one oil, and that is not a fair test for an oil. There is no question about that. Each oil should have at least six days’ test, and two weeks would be much better, and have from ten to fourteen readings between doffs. In that way, taking either one week or two weeks, we could arrive at a proper result. The oil changes from the first day through the test. start out well and come out at the end poor; or the reverse may be the case, and the oil improve with time. I have taken seven oils, which I have marked 1 to 7.
(Mr. GOODALE then referred to the blackboard, upon which he had tabulated a portion of the results of his tests, as shown in the following tables.)
The tests have all been made on a Fales & Jenks frame, containing 160 McMullan spindles, spinning No. 30 yarn from double roving, under the ordinary conditions of a spinning
I could not spare a frame to test the spindles only, and should not, had I been able to do so, as I consider that tests made under the ordinary conditions of spinning are preferable.
The frame had a geared end, size of cylinder 7to inches, single-boss top roll, 2} gauge, 14 ring, 6 traverse with separators. A measured quantity of oil was put in each spindle base, and a measured quantity to the frame. The oil remaining after the test was also measured, so that the percentage of oil used is given, as one of the factors in the table. After the test the oil was removed from the spindle base by a pump; the bolsters were cleaned with steam jet, and the