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in the April table, the difference in the first cost between the best and poorest oils therein mentioned for one year was $35, whereas the difference in the coal pile would have been $1,150 for the same oils. That is, it would have taken $1,150 worth more coal to have run that room for one year with the poorest oil than it would have with the best oil.
The tests of oils, under the direction of this Association, which were commenced some years ago, and which have been continued with more or less regularity until the present series, have been the means of providing the manufacturers with oils suited to the different uses of the mill. Spindle oil fit to use in a Rabbeth spindle is not fit to use in any other part of the mill, that I am aware of. The conditions for the use in the Rabbeth spindle render it unfit for any other use, and with the large proportion of Rabbeth spindles at present in use, and with the high speed of the present day, it is extremely necessary that the oil used for this purpose should be an oil best adapted for the same.
It gives me great satisfaction to note by this table that there are six oils presented which give good results. I should have been sorry if this series of tests had proven that any oil had been much the superior of all the others. The competition for the mill trade is very keen. The oil men are constantly striving to give us a better oil, and I find, between my first and second series of tests, oils for fast-running spindles were so improved, that, instead of three oils only giving fair results, as was the case in my first table, we have now six oils each giving better results than the best oil of the April table.
You are aware, of course, that these tests were made as near as possible from the regular grade of oils furnished by the maker to the mill, and you are also aware that the tests, as given, were made simply on the oils that were furnished to me. The tests were made with scrupulous care, and every detail attended to that would give an added value to the tests. But a test on a single frame is of slight value compared with an ideal test for oils. This, I take it, would be a spinning room so arranged that the power of the whole room could be noted, as is shown in these tables with one frame. Take a room with 160 spinning frames, for instance, containing Rabbeth spindles, and using in each for two weeks or longer each of the oils mentioned in this table, - the results would be far more valuable than the present ones.
To me these tests prove that, if a mill considers it desirable to make a yearly contract for oil, there are certain grades of oil that it is safe to contract for; and I then consider it absolutely necessary that a clause should be inserted in that contract, providing that the quality of the oil should be maintained at a certain agreed basis, and that tests should be made by the mill each month in the year, to determine if each shipment of oil is up to the standard. I know of no other way in which the mill can be sure of getting what it pays for. These tests are not difficult, they are not costly, and they are instructive. You lose no spinning. You simply pay for the services of the man making the tests, and this is so slight an amount, compared with the value of the check to the oil dealer, that it should not be taken into account.
Great care is necessary in making tests for oil on a single frame. The belt should always have an even tension, as the tare would be wrong if the belt slipped. The frame must be protected from drafts, and the sun must not be allowed to shine on the thermometers. There should be no binding of the quadrant, and an even bearing of the drawing studs. The readings should not include tests for parts of a doff. If these points are carefully attended to, and the readings taken always by the same person, the results obtained will be as good as can be obtained from a test of a single frame.
Fountain Spindle Oil, Masury, Young & Co.,
Vacuum Oil Company,
Waite, Williams & Co,
F. H. Little & Co,
Emerson's Power Scale, Huddleston's Thermometers, Rowe's Hygrodeik. All data taken under full operation of spinning. Note. - Spindle revolutions per minute should be 9,100 plus or minus.
The PRESIDENT. Gentlemen, the discussion of this subject is now in order, and I hope it will be taken up; as it is one of great importance.
Mr. GULLIVER. I should like to ask whether those tests were made from the time that the spindle starts, or the bobbin starts?
Mr. GOODALE. The tests were all taken on full doffs, from the time the bobbin starts. There is no part of a doff included in the table given.
Mr. KENT. I would like to have permission given to Mr. SMIDD to ask a question, if he desires to do so.
The PRESIDENT. Mr. Smids will have the privilege of ask ing a question.
Mr. SMIDD. The question I would like to ask is this: I do not see any record of the humidity of the atmosphere at the time the observations were taken. That enters largely into this matter. Was any such record taken when the tests were made ?
Mr. GOODALE. That was taken as accurately as the other details, and I regret that when that table was put on the board it was omitted. It was taken in each case.
Mr. WOODBURY. In looking over the measurements of the gravity of these samples of oil, it will be seen that all of them are lighter than 32° Beaume, and I believe that is one reason of the improvement in the ease of running. Thirteen years ago, when I was making some measurements of friction, an oil manufacturer made an oil of 32° gravity, and could not sell it, because people were afraid it would wear out the spindles; and the measurements all seem to show, here as well as elsewhere, that within a general limit there is some relation between the fluidity of the oil and its value as a lubricant, as far as its diminution of friction is concerned, although of course light oil will not adhere so firmly to the bearing surfaces as heavier oil, and a greater quantity is required. This matter of adhesion of oils to metal is a very important factor in lubrication, and is not by any means wholly inconsistent with fluidity. A very