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The gravity, flash test, fire test, cold test and viscosity were taken by Prof. L. M. Norton of the Institute of Technology. Weighings were taken, as before, by Wm. G. Nichols, assisted by H. P. Meikleham. The tests have all been made on a Fales & Jenks frame, containing 160 McMullan spindles, spinning No. 30 yarn from double roving, under the ordinary conditions of a spinning room. It was not convenient for me to test a frame with spindles only, and I do not consider that a test with spindles only is as desirable as a test made under the full conditions of spinning. The frame had a geared end, size of cylinder 716 inches, single boss top roll, 2} gauge, 14 ring, 6 inch traverse with separators. A measured quantity of oil was put in each spindle base, and the quantity to the frame accurately measured. The oil remaining after the test was also measured, so that the percentage of oil used is given as one of the factors in the table.
After each test the oil was removed from the spindle base by a pump. The bolsters were cleaned with a steam jet, and the spindles wiped. From 11 to 14 readings were made from the empty bobbin to the full bobbin, and an average of 188 weighings were taken for each oil. The average of all the readings is the average given in the table. The Emerson Power Scale was used, the oil used on the scale being the same in each test. The oil used in the spindles being too light for the other running parts, another oil was used for that purpose, being the same throughout all the tests of this series.
The tests of oils that have been made from time to time under the direction of the Cotton Manufacturers' Association have, without doubt, furnished valuable information both to the oil dealers and to the members of the Association.
It is not very long ago that the first cost of an oil was an important factor with the manufacturers. To-day I do not suppose that one member of this Association regards the first cost of an oil to the mill as being of much importance. To illustrate : There are 20,000 ring spindles in the room where these tests were made, and, taking the percentage of the oil used of the best and of the poorest oil in the April table, the difference in the first cost between the best and poorest oils therein mentioned for one year was $35, whereas the difference in the coal pile would have been $1,150 for the same oils. That is, it would have taken $1,150 worth more coal to have run that room for one year with the poorest oil than it would have with the best oil.
The tests of oils, under the direction of this Association, which were commenced some years ago, and which have been continued with more or less regularity until the present series, have been the means of providing the manufacturers with oils suited to the different uses of the mill. Spindle oil fit to use in a Rabbeth spindle is not fit to use in any other part of the mill, that I am aware of. The conditions for the use in the Rábbeth spindle render it unfit for any other use, and with the large proportion of Rabbeth spindles at present in use, and with the high speed of the present day, it is extremely necessary that the oil used for this purpose should be an oil best adapted for the same.
It gives me great satisfaction to note by this table that there are six oils presented which give good results. I should have been sorry if this series of tests had proven that any oil had been much the superior of all the others. The competition for the mill trade is very keen. The oil men are constantly striving to give us a better oil, and I find, between my first and second series of tests, oils for fast-running spindles were so improved, that, instead of three oils only giving fair results, as was the case in my first table, we have now six oils each giving better results than the best oil of the April table.
You are aware, of course, that these tests were made as near as possible from the regular grade of oils furnished by the maker to the mill, and you are also aware that the tests, as given, were made simply on the oils that were furnished to me. The tests were made with scrupulous care, and every detail attended to that would give an added value to the tests. But a test on a single frame is of slight value compared with an ideal test for oils. This, I take it, would be a spinning room so arranged that the power of the whole room could be noted, as is shown in these tables with one frame. Take a room with 160 spinning frames, for instance, containing Rabbeth spindles, and using in each for two weeks or longer each of the oils mentioned in this table, - the results would be far more valuable than the present ones.
To me these tests prove that, if a mill considers it desirable to make a yearly contract for oil, there are certain grades of oil that it is safe to contract for; and I then consider it absolutely necessary that a clause should be inserted in that contract, providing that the quality of the oil should be maintained at a certain agreed basis, and that tests should be made by the mill each month in the year, to determine if each shipment of oil is up to the standard. I know of no other way in which the mill can be sure of getting what it pays for. These tests are not difficult, they are not costly, and they are instructive. You lose no spinning. You simply pay for the services of the man making the tests, and this is so slight an amount, compared with the value of the check to the oil dealer, that it should not be taken into account.
Great care is necessary in making tests for oil on a single frame. The belt should always have an even tension, as the tare would be wrong if the belt slipped. The frame must be protected from drafts, and the sun must not be allowed to shine on the thermometers. There should be no binding of the quadrant, and an even bearing of the drawing studs. The readings should not include tests for parts of a doff. If these points are carefully attended to, and the readings taken always by the same person, the results obtained will be as good as can be obtained from a test of a single frame.
Fountain Spindle Oil, Masury, Young & Co.,
Vacuum Oil Company,
Waite, Williams & Co,
F. H. Little & Co,