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Dew-Point and Absolute Humidity, in Grains.

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80 10.936 11.278 11.628 11.988 12.358 12.737 13.127 | 13.529 | 13.941 14.362

90 14.794 | 15.238 15.693 16.160 16.637 | 17.128 17.631

18.146 18.674 | 19.216

100 19.771 20.340 20.922 21.518 22.129 22.756 23.397 24.053 24.725 25.413

Atmospheric changes in the mills are frequently of great
injury to the work; especially is this the case in the carding
department. Let me give one illustration, as an evidence of
the truth of the statement made. On June 18, 2 P.M., the
temperature was 88 dry, 76 wet, 71 dew-point, 58 relative
humidity, with 8,241 grains of water vapor in a cubic foot of
air ; atmosphere very close and sticky. The weight of work
at railway heads run 2.2 per cent. on heavy side. Weight of
sample near the hygrodeik, 1.4 per cent. on heavy side. Wind,
south-west, clear. On June 19, 8 A.M., the temperature was
84 dry, 72 wet, 67 dew-point, 56 relative humidity, with 7,243
grains of water vapor in a cubic foot of air, with a bracing
north-west wind. The weight of work at railway heads

per cent.

dropped in weight from 2.2 on the heavy side down to 3.7 per cent. on the light side, with a loss in weight of sample of 1.4

We find, from this slight change of only 3° of dewpoint, that the weight of the work at the railways has varied 5.9 per cent. ; while the loss of moisture in sample was 1.4 per cent., and a loss in absolute humidity of .998 grains. Again, on July 8, 6 P.M., wind south-west, fair temperature, 95 dry, 80 wet, 75 dew-point, 52 relative humidity, with 9.358 grains water vapor in cubic foot of air, weight of sample, 135.5 grains. On July 9, 6 P.M., wind north-west, clear temperature, 84 dry, 66 wet, 53 dew-point, 34 relative humidity, with 4.527 grains of water vapor in cubic foot of air, weight of sample, 133.5 grains. Loss in water vapor, 51 per cent. ; loss in sample, 1.4 per cent., and variation at railway heads of 8

per cent.

In presenting the result of these atmospheric changes, it is for the purpose of showing how essential it is for the welfare of the spinning and weaving that the carders keep a firm hold upon their work, so far as keeping numbers is concerned. There are two influences brought to bear upon cotton fibres during their processes of manufacturing through the card room. One is a damp atmosphere, and another is a dry atmosphere. These have to be guarded against by the carders, in order that the spinners and weavers may not feel the effects of them. When a damp spell of weather comes on, the tendency is to let the yarn become too heavy, not because there is moisture sufficient to make it heavy, but by reason of more cotton fibres per inch of yarn spun. On the other hand, when the atmosphere becomes divested of moisture, the work at the railway heads will shade light unless watched pretty closely, and the result will be light yarn, by reason of loss of cotton fibres. Now, as a result of this there is a loss to the manufacturer in two ways. First, if the yarn is spun and warped heavy, the cloth will grade on the heavy side of standard. This entails a loss to the manufacturer, from the fact that more cotton is in the yarn than ought to be. Second, if the yarn is spun and dressed light, the weaving will also be light. There is a los

[graphic]

in the product from this state of things, as well as an increased per cent. of low-grade cloth.

I find quite a general feeling among mill men pointing in one direction, and that is this.

They convey the idea in their remarks that the variations of loss and gain in yarns are due to the changes of weather in that the damp air goes in and comes out, thus leaving the yarn first heavy, then light. This theory in the abstract is correct, but not as a whole. I find in my daily weighings for some four or five years that the loss and gain in samples of cotton would not exceed four per cent., and in very much of the time the variations would not exceed two per cent. I find from this condition of things that it won't do to run our work as close as this during atmospheric changes. We must make allowance for the extra loss and gain that comes with these atmospheric changes.

In closing this paper, I wish to say that I am of the opinion that very much of the uneven yarn that is spun in our mills is caused by too much indifference in the carding departments in regard to the changes of weather, and the effect they have upon the work. If we expect to get uniform yarns, we must pay strict attention to our numbers in the card rooms. It is the poorest kind of policy to say the work will be all right when the weather changes. Better hy all odds see to it that the work is all right before the weather changes, and not only that, but see to it that it is all right after the weather changes. With this care in the carding rooms there will be no necessity of poor spinning or weaving. Of course the very best care may be exercised, and then poor work get in; but, as a general thing, the spinning and weaving will run well.

The PRESIDENT. Mr. SAUNDERS has suggested the evils of atmospheric changes. Mr. BOURNE of Manchester, N. H., will tell you you must go back to the picker-room to remedy those evils, and perhaps will tell you what he has done to remove them. Mr. KLABER will tell you how his theory is put in practice. I have the pleasure of presenting Mr. KLABER.

MANIPULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE IN MILLS FOR

THE PURPOSE OF CHARGING THE SAME WITH
MOISTURE, SUCH MOISTURE BEING DISCHARGED
WITH LARGE BODIES OF AIR, AND CAPABLE OF
REGULATION BOTH AS TO QUANTITY OF AIR AND
MOISTURE.

By EMILE H. KLABER, Boston, Mass.

In presenting a paper to this Association upon the subject of moistening the air in mills, I feel placed at a certain disadvantage, inasmuch as, while endeavoring to lay the facts connected with this matter before you in an unprejudiced and general manner, the fact that I am myself interested in such a system may tend to color my discussion of the subject with a prejudice which I do not desire it to possess.

In reviewing the various theories that are advanced and the conditions which are met and have to be grappled with in attempting to properly solve this problem, I may have occasion to refer to devices that have been used in respect to the subject matter of this paper. I desire emphatically to state at the outset that my criticism of any such devices is not intended to apply to the specific device in question, but to the general principles involved in the construction thereof.

I furthermore wish my opinion to go on record that moisture in certain parts, and at certain times in all parts, of a mill, is such an essential factor to successful work that I regard any device having such object for its aim as a step in the right direction. On this question I think I may assume that all rational manufacturers are agreed. I consider it would be

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