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OMNIANA.

96. Writing Tables.

It is remarkable, says Mr. Douce, that neither public nor private museums should furnish any specimens of these table-books, which seem to have been very common in Shakespeare's time; nor does any attempt appear to have been made towards ascertaining exactly the materials of which they were composed."

I happen to possess a table-book of Shakespeare's time. It is a little book, nearly square, being three inches wide and something less than four in length, bound stoutly in calf, and fastening with four strings of broad, strong, brown tape. The title as follows: "Writing Tables, with a Kalender for xxiiii yeeres, with sundrie necessarie rules. The Tables made by Robert Triple. London. Imprinted for the Company of Stationers." The tables are inserted immediately

after the almanack.

At first sight they appear like what we call asses-skin, the colour being precisely the same, but the leaves are thicker; whatever smell they may have had is lost, and there is no gloss upon them. It might be supposed that the gloss has been worn off, but this is not the case, for most of the tables have never been written on. Some of the edges being a little worn, shew that the middle of the leaf consists of paper; the composition is laid on with great nicety. A silver style was used, which is sheathed in one of the covers, and which produces an impression as distinct and as easily obliterated as a black-lead pencil. The tables are interleaved with common paper.

97. Lions of Romance.

There were

There is a distinction made in Palmerin de Oliva between Leones Coronados and Leones Pardos. The former, who may be called Lions Royal, are those who know blood-royal instinctively, and respect it, I suppose, as a family sort of tie. The others have no such instinct. Maulequi, the soldan of Babylon, had sworn to throw Palmerin into the lion's den; this oath he could not break, but, at his daughter Alchidiana's request, he gave orders that he should be put in the den and the gates shut upon him, and then instantly let out. fifteen lions in the den, twelve royal ones and three pardos; these three attacked him, for he did not chuse to retreat (c. 79). As all fifteen are called Lions, and the keeper is called Leonaro, it is evident that the leones pardos are not meant to be leopards, but that it is some imaginary distinction. For though, according to old fabulous history, this was a species of mule beast, produced by the lioness and leopard having conjunction together, or the lion and leopardess, there was an enmity between the true lion and these bastards, so that they never could have been kept in one den. The true lion is jealous of this beast, who "is a very tyrant, and advouterous in his kind;" and he knoweth, sayth Pliny, when the lyonesse hath played him false play,

and

and hath played the advoutresse with the libard, by a certain rammish smell or sweate which ariseth of them both; yet if she washeth herselfe throughly, she may deceyve him. The leoparde hath his cabbage in the yearth, with two contrary wayes undermined to enter into it, or to run out of it at his pleasure; verie widie at the coming in, but as narrow and straight about the mid cabbage: whether his enemie the lion, running sometimes after him and apace, at the first coming in thither is narrowly pent, insomuch that he cannot neyther get forward nor backwarde. That seeing the leoparde, he runneth apace out at the furder hole, and commeth to that whereas the lion first ran in, and having him hard pent and his back towards him, bighteth and scratcheth him with tooth and nayle, and so by art the leoparde getteth the victory, and not by strength.

The greene Forest, or a naturale Historie, &c. compiled by John Maplet, M of Arte and student in Cambridge, entending hereby that God might especially be glorified, and the people furdered. London,

1567.

98. Cortes.

Diego Velazquez took Cortes with him to Cuba as one of his secretaries, a situation for which he was not at that time well qualified, being too apt to jest, and too fond of conversation. Whatever the cause may have been, they soon disagreed. Judges of Appellation arrived at Hispaniola, and the malcontents in Cuba drew out secretly their complaints against the governor. There was no other means of crossing over to present them than in an open canoe, and Cortes undertook this desperate service. Just as he was about to embark he was seized, and the papers found upon him. Velazquez at first was about to hang him; but, upon intercession, contented himself with putting him in irons, and embarking him on board ship to send him to Hispaniola. He contrived to rid himself of his fetters, and, while the crew were asleep, got overboard, and trusted himself upon a log of wood, for he could not swim: it was ebb tide, and he was carried a league out from the ship; the flow drove him toward shore, but he was so exhausted that he was on the point of letting loose his hold and resigning himself to his fate. It was not yet day; he hid himself, knowing search would be made for him as soon as he was mist on board; and when the church doors were opened he took sanctuary.

Near this church there dwelt one Juan Xuarez, who had a handsome sister of excellent character. Cortes liked her, and found means to let her know it. Whoever has seen Vertue's print of Cortes, from Titian's picture, will know that of all men he must have been one of the most beautiful. One day he was slipping out of the church to visit her, an Alguazil watched him, slipt in at another door, came out behind him, caught him behind, and carried him to prison.

Velazquez

* It is curious to see how this M. of Arte has debased the expressions of Pliny-Odore pardi coitum sentit in adulterâ lea, totâque vi consurgit in pœnam. Idcirco eâ culpà flumine abluitur, aut longius comitatur.

L. 8. $17.

1

Velazquez was about to proceed against him with extreme rigour, but the governor was of a generous nature and was persuaded to forgive him. Cortes married the girl, and said he was as well contented with her as if she had been the daughter of a dutchess. The Alguazil, Juan Escudero, who had entrapped him, was one of the conspirators whom he afterwards hung in New Spain.

Of these singular facts in the history of so extraordinary a man, no mention is made by Robertson. What that author has said of Antonio de Solis may be applied to himself: "I know no author in any language whose literary fame has risen so far beyond his real merit."

CLASSICAL DISQUISITIONS.

THE PERIPLUS OF SCYLAX OF CARYANDA.

The Periplus of Scylax of Caryanda, if genuine, will from its antiquity justly claim regard as one of the most venerable documents of geographical science now extant. The earliest notice which we possess of this navigator is that of Herodotus, who gives the following account of an enterprize in which he is said to have been employed: "A great part of Asia was discovered by Darius, who, wishing to ascertain the place where the river Indus (the only river, after a single exception, which produces crocodiles) falls into the sea, dispatched various persons, in whom he could place confidence, and among them Scylax of Caryanda. Proceeding from the city of Caspatyrus, and the Pactyian territory, they sailed down the river in an easterly direction to the sea, and then continuing their voyage on the sea towards the west, in the thirtieth month they arrived at the place from which the Egyptian king dispatched the Phoenicians, whom I before mentioned, to circumnavigate Libya. After their voyage, Darius subdued the Indians, and opened the navigation of this sea.

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Suidas gives a very brief account of Scylax, in which he has evidently confounded different persons of the same name. "Scylax of Caryanda (a city of Caria, near Halicarnassus) a mathematician and musician, wrote a periplus of the coasts beyond the pillars of Hercules, a book respecting Heraclides, king of the Mylassians, a description of the circuit of the earth, and an answer to the history of Polybius."

The Periplus which still remains, bearing the name of Scylax, is a brief survey of the countries along the shores of the Mediterranean and Euxine seas, together with part of the western coast of Africa, surveyed by Hanno. It commences at the straits of Gibraltar, and proceeding along the coasts of Spain and Gaul round the Mediterranean, returns to the same point, and then briefly describes the coasts

IV. 44.

of

of Africa along the Atlantic as far as the island of Cerne. It is in general little more than an enumeration of nations, towns, and distances, though intermixed with some occasional notices of natural productions, and in a few instances detailing the common fables of the age. It concludes with an account of the Diaphragmata, or passages across the sea from Greece into Asia, &c. and an enumeration of twenty important islands in the order of their magnitudes.

It has, however, been doubted by various writers, and especially by the Vossii and Dodwell, whether the Periplus now extant be the work of the ancient Scylax; and they point out various circumstances tending, in their opinion, to refer it to a lower period. By others, as Gronovius, Fabricius, Sainte-Croix, and Larcher, its genuineness is strenuously maintained. It seems by all the controversialists to be admitted as the work of some Scylax of Caryanda, but Vossius supposes a Scylax contemporary with Darius Nothus'; and Dodwell, with Polybius, to suit their respective hypotheses. It is, however, to be observed, that these suppositions rest on no better support than that of conjecture, with the exception of the testimony of Suidas, the authority of which is destroyed by its own confusion. Perhaps, as Fabricius conjectures, the author of the answer to Polybius was Scylax of Halicarnassus, mentioned by Cicero as the friend of Panatius, and a distinguished astronomer.

The more ancient writers who speak of the Periplus seem uniformly to ascribe it to the Scylax of Herodotus, the contemporary of Darius, son of Hystaspes. Strabot mentions him as a citizen of Caryanda, and denominates him an ancient historian, παλαιος συγγραφευς. He likewise quotes him as fixing the commencement of the Troas from Abydus, which agrees with our present copies. Stephanus Byzantinus, in his article of Caryanda, speaks of Scylax in terms similar to those of Strabo. The anonymous Greek writer of the life prefixed to the Periplus describes Scylax as a most ancient author, and observes, "that it is a clear proof of his antiquity, that he was ignorant of Alexander the Macedonian, and of the times immediately preceding him, so that we may justly be surprised at the extent of his geographical knowledge. Ælius Dionysius, in his first book concerning Alexandria, says that Scylax addressed his treatise to Darius.' There can be little doubt, therefore, both that the ancients possessed the Periplus now, extant, and that they ascribed it to the only Scylax of Caryanda, for whose existence we have any sufficient authority, who flourished under Darius Hystaspis, and is mentioned by Herodotus.

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The following arguments, tending more or less definitely to support the antiquity of this treatise, are principally taken from Fabricius and Sainte-Croix.

The country extending from that of the Molossi to the river Peneus, and Homolium, a city of the Magnesians, is described by the name of VOL. IV.

F

Hellas,

Observations geographiques et chronologiques sur le periple de Scylax, par M. le Baron de Sainte-Croix. M. R. A. I. Tome xlii.

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Hellas, limits which we find only in the work of this geographer, and which are only applicable to the times anterior to Herodotus. The meaning of the passage appears, however, to have been mistaken. Scylax evidently intends only to observe, that from Ambracia on the west, proceeding round Peloponnesus to the mouth of the Peneus on the east, the country is wholly occupied by Greek nations and towns, in opposition to the scattered colonies which occur to the north of these boundaries. When he reaches the Magnesians, he observes, "hitherto from Ambracia Greece is uninterrupted."

The people inhabiting the country which extends from Ambracia to the Ceraunian mountains, had not yet built cities, notwithstanding the convenience of the harbours, which seemed to invite their establishment. The Chaonians and Thesprotians still lived in villages, which, it is supposed, could not be true in times later than those of our author. Afterwards several cities arose, Onchesmus, Buthrotum, Ephyra, and others.

Elis, according to Scylax, extended to the south as far as Lepreum, where Arcadia commenced, advancing from the interior to the coast. Both by Homer and the later geographers, it is well known, the Arcadians are represented as an inland tribe. Their position on the coast by Scylax is therefore a remarkable circumstance. Some traces of the fact are, however, preserved. It appears from Strabo* that the Arcadians contested the possession of the maritime district of Triphylia, and probably at some periods occupied it. Triphylian Pylos (the Pylos of Nestor) bore also the name of Arcadian.

Scylax speaks of Corinth and Carthage as flourishing cities, which, however, only proves his age to have been anterior to 146 B. C. about which time these cities were destroyed, the former by Mummius, the latter by Scipio.

No traces, as the anonymous biographer observes, are to be found of the enterprizes of Alexander. Pharus is described as a desert island, with convenient ports, but destitute of water, which must be procured from the lake Maria, the Mareotis of other authors. Scylax makes no mention of Alexandria, an omission which cannot be considered as possible if it had then existed. He speaks of Tyre as an island and a royal residence, both which it ceased to be by the conquest and works of Alexander. In his description of Cilicia he takes no notice of Issus, rendered famous by the victory of Alexander over Darius, and celebrated by succeeding writers. He mentions the walls of Thebes, destroyed by that conqueror.

In the second Phocian war the cities of the Phocians, with the exception of Delphi, Aba, and Elatea, were destroyed by order of the Amphictyous, and reduced to the state of villages, which were not permitted to contain more than fifty houses each. In Scylax we find the names of several cities as still subsisting, which were razed in virtue of this decree. The writer must therefore be placed previous to this period in the reign of Philip.

The Megareans founded successively the cities of Selymbria and

* L. viii.

Byzantium,

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