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he himself avowed, had not yet begun to examine the cause, and seemed to suppose that every body else ought to be as neglectfully ignorant of it as himself: which sentiment betrayed itself on various occasions in the sittings of the Tribunal.

VISCOUNT OF ITAJUBÁ. On the left of Count Sclopis sat the Arbitrator named by the Emperor of Brazil, the Viscount of Itajubá.

The people of the United States do not seem to be generally aware how much of high cultivation, especially [but not exclusively] in the departments of diplomacy and jurisprudence, exists in those countries of America which were colonized by Spain and Portugal. Nevertheless, on careful consideration of the sterling merits of such historical writers as the Mexican Lucas Alaman,—such authors of international jurisprudence as the Chilean Bello, the Argentine Calvo, or the Peruvian Pando,-such writers of belles-lettres, of travels, or of statistics, as the Colombians Samper and Perez,--such poets as the Brazilian Magalhaens,

-such codes of municipal law as those of the States of Cundinamarca and of Mexico or of the Argentine Confederation, and of other Republics of Spanish America,—we should be compelled to admit that literature and science are not confined to our part of the New World.

And, among all these new Powers of America, there is not one more deserving of respect,-Empire and not Republic though it be,—than Brazil, in view of

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the magnitude of its territory, the greatness of its resources, its military strength and successes, its enlightened and reforming chief ruler, the substantial liber. ality of its political institutions, and the unbroken domestic tranquillity of its independent life, so strikingly in contrast with the revolutionary agitations of most of the Spanish-American Republics.

Marcos Antonio d’Araujo belongs to that numerous body of jurists and statesmen, the natural growth of parliamentary institutions based on popular election, who do honor at the present time to Brazil. He filled in early life the chair of Professor of Jurisprudence in the University of Pernambuco. His first diplomatic appointment was that of Consul-General of Brazil in the Hanse Towns, with residence at Hamburg. After that he held successively the offices of Minister or Envoy at Hanover, at Copenhagen, at Berlin, and finally at Paris. At the time of his appointment as Arbitrator he was Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Brazil in France, by the title of Baron d'Itajubá, and he was made a Viscount during the progress of the Arbitration.,

With exception, therefore, of the judicial studies and occupations of his youth, the Viscount of Itajubá is a diplomatist, having passed nearly forty years of his life in the discharge of diplomatic functions in different countries of Europe. He possesses all the qualities of his career and station, namely, courteous and attractive manners, intelligence disciplined by long experience of men and affairs, instinctive appreciation of principles and facts, and the ready expression of

thought in apt language, but without the tendency to run into the path of debate or exposition, which appeared in the acts of some of his colleagues of the Tribunal of Arbitration.

In comparing Mr. Stæmpfli, with his deep-brown complexion, his piercing dark eyes, bis jet black hair, his quick but suppressed manner, and the Viscount of Itajubá, with his fair complexion and his air of gentleness and affability, one, having no previous knowledge of their respective origins, would certainly attribute that of the former to tropical and passionate America, and that of the latter to temperate and calm-blooded Europe.

SIR ALEXANDER COCKBURN. On the extremes of the Board, Mr. Adams to the right and Sir Alexander Cockburn to the left, sat the American and British members of the Tribunal.

Sir Alexander Cockburn represents a family of some distinction, the Cockburns of Langton. His father was British Minister in Colombia, and one of his uncles was that Admiral Sir George Cockburn, whose service in American waters during our last war with Great Britain has left some unpleasant traces or memories in the United States. His mother seems to have been a French lady, being described by Burke as “Yolande, dau. of Viscomte de Vignier of St. Domingo.” He was born in 1802, called to the bar in 1829, became distinguished as a barrister, entered Parliament, and, after passing through the routine offices of Solicitor and Attorney General, was

made Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas in 1856, and of the Queen's Bench in 1859, which place he still fills.

He presided for sixteen years in the common-law courts of England without being raised to the peerage. It is unnecessary to speculate on the reasons for this unusual, if not unprecedented fact.

His political career dates from his zealous defense of Lord Palmerston in the affair of the notorious David Pacifico. This person was an adventurer of doubtful nationality and of bad character, in whose behalf the navy of Great Britain, under Lord Palmerston's direction, seized the Piræus, captured Greek merchant-vessels, and threatened Athens. The ground. of claim was alleged destruction of property by a mob. Pacifico claimed, according to the official statement of the case by the British Government, £4916 on account of furniture and other personal effects, which he originally stated at only 5000 francs, and £26,618 16s. 8d. on account of papers. It is very doubtful whether the claim was a proper subject of international reclamation. But, after a three months' blockade, Greece submitted to pay £5000, of which £4720 was either falsehood or consequential damages; and afterward, on examination of the case in Lisbon, a commission awarded the petty sum of £150 in full satisfaction of the pretended loss of £26,618, induced perhaps by political reasons rather than by conviction of any rights of Pacifico.

The conduct of Lord Palmerston and the British Government in this affair nearly involved Great Brit

ain in a war with France and Russia. The French Embassador retired from London to Paris for the purpose of personal communication on the subject with his Government. Count Nesselrode on behalf of Russia remonstrated in a dispatch, which the Lon.. don Times characterized as reproachful, irrefutable, and just, and as profoundly affecting the peace of Europe and the dignity of Great Britain. The united voice of Europe and America has condemned the conduct of Great Britain in this affair. The House of Lords closed an historic debate by a vote of censure of the Government. In the Commons, the last words of Sir Robert Peel were raised in protest against this outrage on the rights of other nations; the morning dawned on a protracted session of the House before he recorded his vote of condemnation; in the afternoon of the same day he met with the accident which closed his honorable life. Mr. Gladstone in the same debate said that the claim was “on the very face of it an outrageous fraud and falsehood;" that “it was mere falsehood and imposture," and that“ a greater iniquity had rarely been transacted under the face of the sun."

Sir Alexander Cockburn was then without parliamentary distinction or political advancement. With the devotion of a Dalgetty, he placed his lance at the service of a chief, regardless of the merits of the

He was soon rewarded for his services by appointment to the office of Solicitor-General, from which he was promoted step by step, with unexampled celerity, to his present position.


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