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treaties recalled from exile a tyrant proscribed by the general voice of Europe and placed at his disposal the resources of one of the mightiest monarchies in the world. There were not wanting among ourselves individuals perverse and wicked enough to vindicate this atrocious breach of national faith, and to support with all their powers of argument and rhetoric the dæmon who came like auother Pandora to let loose all sorts of calamities upon mankind, to subject the finest portion of Europe to the miseries of war and to deluge its plains with native gore. Fortunately for the human race Providence has decreed that principles so monstrous should not prevail. The sovereigns whose united strength but lately hurled Napoleon froin the throne of France, true to their engagements to one another and to the injured house of Bourbon, armed without delay to chastise the perfidy of their old enemy and of France. Britain, the soul of that illustrious coalition, poured forth anew her warriors and her treasures, and for her was reserved the glory of striking the first blow, of sustaining almost ingly the shock of the whole force of the foe, of achieving a victory which will be the astonishment of her contemporaries aithe admiration of posterity-a victory that has shaken the power of the usurper to its base, and left him no alternative but abdication or death. Notwithstanding the painful sacrifice with which this victory was accomplished, we cannot but congratuJate our country in the opportunity thus afforded ber to crown all her foriner splendid achievements and to raise her character to the highest pinnacle of glory. It attests that she is not less capable of commanding respect by her valour than gratitude by her generosity.
Reverting from a theme which must fill every truly British bosom with exultation, we once more present our unfeigned thanks to all those who have lent us the support either of their pens or their recommendation. We assure them and our readers in general that nothing shall induce us to remit our efforts in the cause in which we are embarked, and with confidence offer the present volume as a pledge of our determination to neglect none of the means in our power to improve our work, to heighten its interest, to enlarge the sphere of its utility and to render it worthy of the distinguished encouragement which it has received.
London, June 29, 1815.
NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE.
FEBRUARY 1, 1815.
MONTHLY MAGAZINES have opened a way for every kind of inquiry and information. The intelligence and discussion contained in them are very extensive and various; and they have been the means of diffusing a general habit of reading through the nation, which in a certain degree hath enlarged the public understanding. HERE, too, are preserved a multitude of useful hints, observations, and facts, which other wise might have never appeared.Dr. Kippis.
Every Art is improved by the emulation of Competitors.--Dr. Johnson.
For the New Monthly Magazine. likewise came back to Morocco, and Ali SKETCH of the TRAVELS of Ali Bey in Bey now informed him of his approachAFRICA and ASIA.
ing departure for Mecca, The sultan ALI BEY began at an early age to ap- was extremely anxious to detain bin still ply himself to the study of those sciences longer, and made him the most brilliant which are cultivated in Europe. After offers in order to accomplish his purpose, visiting France and England, he resolved but our traveller was inflexible; he sufto proceed to Tangier, in the kingdom fered neither ambition nor pleasure to of Morocco, and to perform a pilgrimage divert him from his resolution, took leave to Mecca. He was acknowledged as the of the sultan, retarned to Fez, and soon son of Prince Othman Bey el Abbassi, afterwards set out for the Levant. A and is at present known in the East hý revolution, which had just then broken no other name.
out at Algiers, obliged him to halt in the He reached Tangier on the 23d of desert of Angad, where, though sura June, 1803. His name, as well as bis rounded by various tribes of Arabs at attainments, soon gained him the esteem war with each other, he was under the of the Mussulmans, and his manners and necessity of encamping for two whole address were so insinuating that a few months. The emperor then sent him a days after his arrival, he was seen io as. body of troops to escort him through sociate with the most distinguished peo- the desert; after which he repaired to ple of the country, and to obtain no in- Laraisch, and embarked on the 13th Oct. considerable influence over thein. As 1805, in a Tripolitan frigate for Tripoli. he had studied in Europe, and also ac- During all bis jourueys, and whilst quired a knowledge of astronomy, he resident in towns, Ali Bey made astrowas enabled, during his stay at Tangier, nomical observations with excellent into predict an eclipse of the sun, which struments executed under his own diactually happened not long before his rection by the best artists in London; departure. He had previously described he likewise collected information respectall the circumstances attending this phe- ing all the places with which be was not nomenon, and made drawings connected acquainted; so that he is able to furnish with the sabject; and, as all lis predic- a map of the kingdom of Morocco, comtions were completely verified, he was piled from nine surveys taken in his differegarded by the Mussulınans as a super- rent tours. lie made also meteorological natural being.
observations, and at the same time exaMuley Suliman, Emperor of Morocco, mined the country with the eye of a happened just at this time to visit Tan- geologist. He has, moreover, formed gier. He conceived an attachment for very considerable collections of subjects our traveller, whom he invited to accom- in natural history; and has placed bepany him to Mequin« z and Fez. Here yond all doubt the existence of a lake, Ali Bey observed two great eclipses of similar to the Caspian Sea, in the heart the sun and inoon, The sultani then of Africa; a position confirmed five years proceeded to Morocco, where Ali Bey afterwards by Mr. Jackson, the English soon afterwards met with him again. He consul at Mogador. The Atlantis of the made the stranger considerable presents, ancients he considers as nothing more and issued orders that the great honours, than the chain of Mount Atlas, suras they are termed, should be paid to rounded with water, and proves this as him. Ali Bey next travelled to Moga- folly as such an bypothesis can be de dor, and returned to Morocco, where he moostrated. In the passage froin Lawas attacked with a severe illness. The raisch to Tripoli a singular atmospheric sultan, who bad meauwhile been tu Foz, phenomenon, which Ali Bey ascribes New MONTHLY M26, No. 13,
Travels of Ali Bey in Africa and Asia. [Feb. 1, electricity, appeared about the vessel. where he arrived on the 13th January. A few days afterwards our traveller had After he had geographically determined nearly perished in a tremendous storin. the situation of this place, and made At Tripoli he acquired the friendship of other important observations, he set out Yussuf Pacha, and there kept bis Ra. for Mecca, and reached that capital of madan. Of this country. Iso a descrip- the Mahometan faith in the night of tion will be given in his work. At Tri- Jan 22. poli he observed a great eclipse of the At Mecca he remained 38 days, moon, drew a plan and a view of the during which time he determined the great mosque, and collected a variety of geographical situation of that city by nu. subjects in natural history and medals. merous astronomical observations. He
On the 26th Jan. 1306, Ali Bey em- made a plan of it, another of the temple barked in a large Turkish vessil for there, of which he also took a view. He Alexandria, but he was compelled by likenise made a drawing, of the natural storins ti land, first at Modon, on the size, of the famous Black Stone, Khagere coast of the Morea, of which he took a el-essuad, which forms a chief object view, and afterwards in the island of of the veneration of the faithful at the Cyprus, where he resided two months. Kaaba, or House of God, and others of lle visited those classic spots, Paphos, the sacred places Safta, Meroua, and Amathos, Idalia, and Cytheræ; ascer- Mount Arafat. All these, and many tained their geographical positions; made other delineations will be accompanied various collections and observations; and with particular descriptions. During his formed a friendship with the Greek arch- residence at Mecca, Ali Bey enjoyed the bishop, Chrysanthos, Prmce of Cyprus. very intimate friendship of the Sultan Embarking again in a Greek brigantine, Scherif Ghaled, who gave him letters to he sailed for Alexandria, where he ar- the French emperor. He assisted the rived on the 21st May. Here he remained sultan to wash and fumigate the interior five months and a half, living on very of the Kaaba, which is opened only once intimate terms with Moussa Pacha and a-year for the performance of this cerethe Capitan Pacha of the Ottoman Porte. mony before the period of the arrival of During his residence in Alexandria he pilgrims. He received in consequence considerably augmented his different col. permission to assume the title of Khadlections, and made several drawings, dem-Beit-Allah-el-Haram, that is, Seramong others, a very complete general vant of the House of God, the Forbidview of Alexandria.
den. In order to obtain this title every Towards the end of October, Ali Bey new Grand Signor sends the Pacha of Dapursued his route up the Nile to Cairo, mascus, as bis proxy, to sweep and where he kept bis Ramadan, and en- cleanse the sacred temple. Before Ali joyed the particular regard of the highest Bey's departure from Mecca, Saaoud, persons in that city, and especially of Sultan of the Wehhabis, and his two Mehemed Ali Pacha. On the 15th Dec. sons, with an arıny of 45,000 men, made he set out with a numerous caravan for theinselves masters of that city. At the Suez, where he embarked on the 26th same time a still inore numerous army in an Arabian vessel for Gedda. The of those people on the frontiers of Syria, singular construction of these ships, and prevented the Pacha of Damascus from their mode of navigating the Red Sea, proceeding on his pilgrimage with a large which is studded all over with rocks, are caravan from Turkey. Of these reforminutely described by the traveller. As mers, and the customs connected with these vessels always keep very close to the pilgrimages to Mecca, Ali Bey gives the coast of Arabia, and lie-to every a circumstantial account. night, he availed himself of these op- The city of Mocca is large and handportunities to prosecute liis observations, some, but situate in a desert, and has and to enrich his collections with new not a drop of water, except what is prosubjects. In the night of the 6th Jan. cured from very deep wells, and is both 1807, the ship parted all her cables in a warın and brackish. The place owes its furious tempest, and was dashed with existence entirely to superstition; even extreme violence against a rock. Ali anterior to Mahomet it was the focus Bey, with fourteen men, jumped into a of superstition, and, through the same buat, and landed on the desert island cause, it became the mart of a prodiEl Okadi; but as the vessel meanwhile gious trade, to say nothing of the profit obtained assistance from another ship, which it derived from the gifts of the he was enabled to go on board again, devout. This portion of Ali Bey's traand to pursue his voyage to Gedda, vels inll be peculiarly interesting to Eu1815.]
Travels of Ali Bey in Africa and Asia.
ropeans, as, in consequence of an ex- coast, situated 30 lcagnes south-southpress prohibition of the prophet, no west of Mount Sinai. From that place Christian up to the present time has been Ali Bey proceeded through the desert of allowed access to these sanctuaries, and El Ssaddor to Suez; on the way he ob. the Musulmans who have seen them are served an eclipse of the moon at Wadi not capable of giving any satisfactory Coropdel. In all these journeys be endescription of them. On this account creased his store of useful observations they are enveloped for Europeans in a and collections. His chart of Arabia kind of mystery which Ali Bey endea- and the Red Sea, drawn up from his own vours to remove. Three years after his astronomical observations, and his revisit, indeed, a learned German, M. marks on the petrifactions, and on the Seetzen, after he had turned Mussulınan, inequality in the level of the surface of performed the pilgrimage enjoined by the same sea, are peculiarly interesting. his new religion to Mecca, and some ex- Having rested 20 days at Suez, he joine: tracts from his travels have already been one of the great caravans and returned printed. In these, however, all the to Cairo, where he was joyfully received Arabian names mentioned by him are by the most distinguished persons of that either disfigured or mutilated, which city, into which he made his public entry may perhaps he owing to this circum- on the 14th June, 1807. stance, that the traveller in collecting On the 3d July he again departed information always applied to Turks, with a caravan, traversed the desert to who'not only speak a detestable Arabic, Gaza, and thence went to Jerusalem, but are in all respects more ignorant where he was astonished at the magnifithan the Arabs. A small pamphlet in- cence of the temple erected by the Mustituled— Travels to Mecca, is of nó sulmans on the ruins of the ancient value whatever, and all that is there structure of Solomon. Of this temple said of the city amounts to nothing. he took a plan and view, and his descripUpon the wbole all the descriptions of tion must be the more gratifying, as we the place extant are founded on the ex- yet know little or nothing respecting it. tremely deficient, and partly erroneous, This temple is called Beit-el- Mokkadesreports of Turkish pilgrims.
e-Scherif, or the Chief Holy House, and On the 2d March, 1807, Ali Bey set it is a place of pilgrimage for the Musout from Mecca for Gedda, and thence sulmans, who believe it to have been pursued his route to Jemboa. The hallowed by all the prophets ever since Wehbabis bad forbidden all external the creation of the world. At Jerusamarks of respect to the Prophet, and the lem Ali Bey visited all the holy places pilgrims were of course prohibited from of the Christians, which also are deemed visiting bis tomb at Medina. In spite sacred by the Mahometans. Close to of this interdict, Ali Bey resolved to visit Bethlehem he saw in broad day-light a that city, but was taken prisoner by luminous
of extraordinary those reformers at Gideide, in the desert 'beauty. He visited the graves of David, of Medina. He was thereupon tran- Abraham, and his family, and the tomb sported, together with the Turkish chiefs of Christ, where the Mussulmans do not and civil officers, from the temple of perform any devotion, because the Koran Medina, and they were not permitted to says that “Christ is not dead.” tarry on this sacred spot. On this occa- At St. Jean d'Acre he made a drawsion Ali Bey remarks, that the Propheting of Mount Carmel. He next pronever had a tomb, properly so called, as ceeded to Nazareth, pursued bis route his remains were simply deposited in the over Mount Tabor, and upon the sea of earth; and that it is to Jerusalem and Galilee, crossed the Jordan over Jacob's Mecca alone that pilgrimages are per- Bridge, of which he took a view, and arformed, whereas Medina, on the con- rived on the 22d August at the city of trary, is only a place of devotion, which Damascus, whose important manufacmost of the pilgrims dispense with vi- tures and commerce engaged no small
portion of his attention. He then passed On his return from Jemboa Ali Bey not far froin Palmyra, through the town sailed with a numerous convoy of Arab of Homs and Haina, on the banks of the ships for Suez. Of this trip he gives highly Orontes, in the interior of Syria. This amusing particulars. After a voyage of country is extremely rich and populous. a month, during which all sorts of disas. On the 3d Sept. be reached Aleppo. ters befel the travellers, they landed at Leaving that place with a company of Gadabia, a road-stcad' on the Arabian Tartars, he directed his course
[Feb. 1, Nount Taurus, through the centre of consistent with the general laws of naAsia Minor, across the chain of Olym- ture, enough might be produced in fapus and the Bosphorus to Constanti- vour of the existence of second sight.” nople, where he arrived on the 21st Oct. To these more celebrated instances, 1807. A map of the route from Cairo leaving the credulous victims of poor to Constantinople, with many other Joanna Southcott's insane imposture out drawings and important observations, of the question, I must also add the are the result of this journey.
case of the late absurdities practised in At Constantinople our traveller drew Somersetshire; “ a county which,” it has the plan of the temple, or mosque, of been justly remarked, " has of late been Eyub, where the Grand Signor on bis ac- the scene of the grossest superstitions cession, is yırt with the sabre, a solemn that ever debased the human mind." I ceremony, equivalent in effect to the cite this last case in particular, as it bas coronation of European monarchs. No led to a laudable attempt to counteract Christian los ever yet penetrated into the growing influence of superstition on the place where this ceremony is per- the popular feeling, in a very judicious formed, and the Picture of the Ottoman discourse delivered on the spot, and Empire, by M. d'Ohsson, is the only since published by its author, Mr. Vowles, book that contains any, and that an in- of Tiverton. In this discourse the author perfect description of this edifice.
has very ably displayed the lamentable On the 7th Dec. Ali Bey quitted Con- folly of such superstitions, and most stantinople, crossed Mount Hæmus and clearly shewn the futility of the arguthe Danube, and arrived on the 13th of ments which are supposed to countea the same month at Bucharest, in Walla- nance the belief of preternatural visitachia.
But, satisfaciory as this gentleman's MB, EDITOR,
view of the subject is, as far as the abHAVING recently observed in some surdity of the thing, and its melancholy of the public prints a revival of the well- consequences, are concerned, it still known story of Lord Lyttelton's appari- seems to require a closer investigation tion, with the additional circumstance hy tracing it to its origin, and to the of the late Mr. M. P. Andrews having causes that first produced it. As a dereceived a similar supernatural imprese cided enemy to every species of credusion at the time of bis friend Lord L.'s lity and imposture, I should feel, theredeath, I should be ohliged to you to fore, particularly gratified if I could expermit me to call the attention of cite the attention of your readers to the some of your intelligent correspondents subject. Some amongst them, with leito an investigation of the origin and sure and resources to pursue the inquisource of the superstitious credulity now ry, would do an acceptable service to so lamentably prevalent in this country. the cause of reason, so degraded by such
It is a well-known fact, scarcely as it senseless visions, by undertaking, in a may scem credible in the nineteenth concise sketch of the origin and history century, that, among other widely cir- of popular superstition, exemplified in culated stories of this description, the some of the more inemorable instances famous Blonberg vision (as it is gene- of its influence, to account for the real rally called) is to this day seriously ac- cause of that extraordinary credulity credited even in the highest circles. In which seems still to retain such unabated close connexion too with ' visionary iinpower, not merely over the minds of the pressions of this stamp, we may reckon weak and illiterate, bui, in a great meathe po ular belief of second sight in sure, even over the understandings of the Scotland; that “vision'd future," as Mr. rational and reflecting. Scott so elegantly designates it in bis Dec. 7, 1814. SCRUTATOR. beautiful poem of the Lady of the Lake, (Canto I si. 23.) In his note al the
MR. EDITOR, şubject* even this accomplished writer I OBSERVE with great satisfaction observes, that “ if force of evidence that you are accustomed to pay a most could authorize us to believe facts in- laudable attentaon to the maxim, audi
* In this note Mr. Scott gives a detailed alteram partem : this is any encourageaccount of the nature of this strange belief, ment for intruding upon your pages on aid of its manner of operation on the Gae- the present occasion. May you conlie seers, extracted at length from “ Martin's tinue to go on as you have begun, and Description of the Western Isles." you cannot fail to pin the admiration of