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shall nominate two persons, and they shall proceed to a decision; but in case of disagreement of the commission (by reason of their being equally divided in conclusion) an umpire shall be appointed by the two governments, who shall render the decision. In the event of the death, absence or incapacity of a commissioner or umpire, or of his omitting, declining or ceasing to act, his place shall be filled by the appointment of another person in the manner above indicated. All decisions by the majority of the commission or by the umpire shall be final.


The two governments shall make adequate provisions by future agreement for the pursuit, capture, imprisonment, detention, and delivery within said zone and auxiliary lands to the authorities of the Republic of Panama, of persons charged with the commitment of crimes, felonies, or misdemeanours without said zone, and for the pursuit, capture, imprisonment, detention, delivery without said zone to the authorities of the United States, of persons charged with the commitment of crimes, felonies, and misdemeanours within said zone and auxiliary lands.


The Republic of Panama grants to the United States the use of all ports of the Republic open to commerce as places of refuge for any vessels employed in the canal enterprise, and for all vessels passing or bound to pass through the canal which may be in distress and be driven to seek refuge in said ports. Such vessels shall be exempt from anchorage and tonnage dues on the part of the Republic of Panama.


The canal, when constructed, and the entrances thereto shall be neutral in perpetuity, and shall be open upon the terms provided for by section 1 of Article III. of, and in conformity with all the stipulations of, the treaty entered into by the governments of the United States and Great Britain on November 18, 1901.


The government of the Republic of Panama shall have the right to transport over the canal its vessels and its troops and munitions of war in such vessels at all times without paying charges of any kind. This exemption is to be extended to the auxiliary railway for the transportation of persons in the service of the Republic of Panama, or of the police force charged with the preservation of public order outside of said zone, as well as to their baggage, munitions of war, and supplies.


If by virtue of any existing treaty in relation to the territory of the Isthmus of Panama, whereof the obligation shall descend or be assumed by the Republic of Panama, there may be any privilege or concession in favour of the government or the citizens and subjects of a third power relative to an interoceanic means of communication which in any of its terms may be incompatible with the terms of the present convention, the Republic of Panama agrees to cancel or modify such treaty in due form, for which purpose it shall give to the third power the requisite notification within the term of four months from the date of the present convention, and in case the existing treaty contains no clause permitting its modification or annulment, the Republic of Panama agrees to procure its modification or annulment in such form that there shall not exist any conflict with the stipulations of the present convention.


The rights and privileges granted by the Republic of Panama to the United States in the preceding articles are understood to be free of all anterior debts, liens, trusts, or liabilities or concessions or privileges to other governments, corporations, syndicates or individuals, and consequently, if there should arise any claims on account of the present concessions or privileges or otherwise, the claimants shall resort to the government of the Republic of Panama and not to the United States for any indemnity or compromise which may be required.


The Republic of Panama renounces and grants to the United States the participation to which it might be entitled in the future earnings of the canal under Article XV. of the concessionary contract with Lucien N. B. Wyse now owned by the New Panama Canal Company and any and all other rights or claims of a pecuniary nature arising under or relating to said concessions, or arising under or relating to the concessions to the Panama Railroad Company or any extension or modification thereof; and it likewise renounces, confirms and grants to the United States, now and hereafter, all the rights and property reserved in the said concessions which otherwise would belong to Panama at or before the expiration of ninety-nine years of the concessions granted to or held by the above-mentioned party and companies, and all right, title and interest which it now has or may hereafter have, in and to the lands, canal, works, property, and rights held by the said companies under said concessions or otherwise, and acquired or to be acquired by the United States from or through the New Panama Canal Company, including any property and rights which might or may in the future either by lapse of time, forfeiture or otherwise, revert to the Republic of Panama under any contracts or concessions, with said Wyse, the Universal Panama Canal Company, the Panama Railroad Company, and the New Panama Canal Company.

The aforesaid rights and property shall be and are free and released from any present or reversionary interest in or claims of Panama and the title of the United States thereto upon consumation of the contemplated purchase by the United States from the New Panama Canal Company, shall be absolute, so far as concerns the Republic of Panama, excepting always the rights of the Republic specially secured under this treaty.


If it should become necessary at any time to employ armed forces for the safety and protection of the canal, or of the ships that make use of the same, or the railways and auxiliary works, the United States shall have the right, at all times and in its discretion, to use its police and its land

and naval forces or to establish fortifications for these purposes.


No change either in the government or in the laws and treaties of the Republic of Panama shall, without the consent of the United States, affect any right of the United States under the present convention, or under any treaty stipulations between the two countries that now exist touching the subject matter of this convention.

If the Republic of Panama shall hereafter enter as a constituent into any other government or into any union or confederation of states, so as to merge her sovereignty or independence in such government, union or confederation, the rights of the United States under this convention shall not be in any respect lessened or impaired.


For the better performance of the engagements of this convention and to the end of the efficient protection of the canal and the preservation of its neutrality, the government of the Republic of Panama will sell or lease to the United States lands adequate and necessary for naval and coaling stations on the Pacific coast and on the western Caribbean coast of the Republic at certain points to be agreed upon with the President of the United States.


This convention when signed by the plenipotentiaries of the contracting parties shall be ratified by the respective governments and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington at the earliest date possible.

In faith whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the present convention in duplicate and have hereunto affixed their respective seals.

Done at the city of Washington the 18th day of November in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and







not allowed in the canal, 112.
Adams, Mr.: United States
Minister at London, 37.
Alaska :

land and water near, claimed
by Russia, 4, 72.

Amador Guerrero, Doctor Manuel :
65, 66.
Arbitration :

refused by the United States
for the solution of the
Clayton-Bulwer difficulties,


Argentine :

in relation to the Straits of
Magellan, 87, 92, 134.

Arthur, President: 49-50.

within more easy reach from
the ports on the Atlantic
coast of America, 103.
Ayon See Dickinson-Ayon treaty.

BEAUPRÉ, MR.: United States
Minister at Bogotá, 60, 61, 62,

is neutralised, 85, 135;
keeps armies for purposes of
defence, 132, 135.

Belize: 25.

Biddle, Mr. Charles :

appointed to make investiga-

tions on the Isthmus, 14.

Bidlack, Mr. American Chargé
d'affaires at Bogotá, 17.
Black Sea: 87, 134.
Blaine, Mr., Secretary of State:

on the policy of the United
States with regard to the
canal, 43 et seq., 75–6, 106;

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asked by Mr. Clayton to enter

into negotiations, 29;
concluded the Clayton-Bulwer
Convention, 30.


Mr. : British Chargé
d'affaires at Bogotá, 39.
Buren, van, President: 14, 15.

acquisition of by the United
States and its effect on the
isthmian transit, 15.

Canal Companies:

See Canal Projects.

Canal projects:

the Dutch scheme, II:
discussed at the Congress of
Panama, 10;

by Nicaragua, 9, 13, 50, 53,

impetus on, 15;

by Honduras, 36;

by Tehuantepec, 15, 39;
by Panama, 37, 39, 57 ;

the French company, 39, 40,
41, 50, 53, 57.

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