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mines into parts. Every mine is to be under the control of a manager, who will not be qualified unless he is registered as the holder of a certificate of competency from examiners to be appointed for the purpose. Returns of various particulars of mines are to be sent to the Inspectors; also notices of opening and abandoning and of personal changes in the management and ownership of collieries; provision is made for arbitrations between Inspectors and managers or owners, and for inquests on deaths from accidents in mines. The General Rules are increased in number from fifteen to thirty-one, with a view to insuring the safety of the miners as much as possible. Lastly, it is enacted that, in addition to the former pecuniary penalties, the owner, agent, or manager who is guilty of any offence, personally and wilfully committed, which is likely to endanger the safety of the persons employed, shall be liable to imprisonment, with or without hard labour, for three months. But no prosecution is to be instituted against such owner, agent, or manager before a court of summary jurisdiction except by an Inspector, or with the consent of a Secretary of State.

The above is a slight outline of the provisions of the new code, which comes into operation in Great Britain on the 1st of January, 1873, and in Ireland in the following year, and comprises mines of coal, of stratified iron-stone, shale and fire-clay.

This statute has been enacted in favorem vitæ, and will have the effect of giving more confidence to miners, greatly increasing their safety, and preventing explosions and accidents, so far as human foresight can do so.

The GNOLL, NEATH:

October 1872.

PREFACE

TO

THE SECOND EDITION.

THE WANT of a convenient and inexpensive work on the subject comprised in this volume being proved by the rapid sale and exhaustion of the first edi. tion, the book is again offered to the public with many useful additions. The relation of employers and employed has been so considerably affected by the 'Master and Servant Act' of 1867 as to make it expedient to print the statute verbatim, and to notice all the illustrative cases that have been heard and decided upon it. The new Courts of Conciliation and Arbitration, which may be established under the provisions of the 30th and 31st Vict. cap. 105, have been fully described.

The rating of collieries has been the subject of much study and inquiry by the Author. The Union Assessment Act has enlarged the area of rating and altered the method of proceeding, but has not affected the principles on which the rate is to rest. Nor has any important judgment upon the rating of collieries been obtained from the Superior Courts since the first edition appeared. But the system of Union rating has called many able valuers into this difficult field of calculation, and luminous decisions upon the rating of other kinds of properties have facilitated their labours. In this way some additional light has been thrown upon the subject, and it is hoped that ere long there will be as much uniformity in the received principles and practice of rating collieries, as now prevails in the case of railways, canals, and other property of that nature. The author has laboured to make the chapter on rating as simple and intelligible as the subject permits. He fears it may not be satisfactory to some professional men who hold peculiar theories, but he ventures to hope it may be of use to many proprietors.

It will also be found that considerable additions have been made to the chapters relating to combinations of workmen, and to that on inspection of mines. Both subjects have received useful illustrations and comments in cases decided within the last five years. The law relating to the responsibility for accidents occurring to colliers in their work has also been more fully explained, and minor additions have also been made to most of the other chapters, so as to embody the very

latest decisions of the Courts in this edition. Lastly, some very valuable forms will be found in the Appendix. The first of these additions is a lease of a tract of coal in the North of England. It is perfectly free from the antiquated and cumbrous verbiage

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