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acceptance by the President of the offer made by Great Britain.
On the 16th of June a message was received from the President of the United States announcing the fact, that a convention between the two Governments for the settlement of the Oregon boundary, had been signed on the day before.* On the
* “ Convention between the United States of America and her Majesty, the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britian and Ireland, concluded at Washington, the 15th of June, 1846.
“The United States of America and her Majesty, the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, deeming it to be desirable for the future welfare of both Governments, that the state of doubt and uncertainty which has hitherto prevailed respecting the sovereignty and government of the territory on the northwest coast of America, lying westward of the Rocky or Stony Mountains, should be finally terminated by an amicable compromise of the rights mutually asserted by the two - parties over the said territory, have respectively named plenipotentiaries to treat and agree concerning the terms of such settlement: that is to say, The President of the United States of America has on his part furnished with full powers James Buchanan, Secretary of State of the United States, and her Majesty, the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, has on her part, appointed the right honorable Richard Packenham, a member of her Majesty's most honorable Privy Council, and her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States, who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles :
“Art. I. From the point on the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude where the boundary laid down in existing treaties and conventions between the United States and Great Britain terminates, the line of boundary between the territories of the United States and those of her Britannic Majesty shall be continued westward along the said forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver's Island, and thence southerly through the middle of the said channel and of Fuca's Straits to the Pacific Ocean. Provided, however, that the navigation of the whole of the said channel and straits, south of the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, remain free and open to both parties.
“Art. II. From the point at which the forty-ninth parallel of north
18th of June, 1846, the Senate, by a vote of 41 to 14, advised and consented to the ratification of the treaty.* latitude shall be found to intersect the great northern branch of the Columbia River, the navigation of the said branch shall be free and open to the Hudson's Bay Company and to all British subjects trading with the same, to the point where the said branch meets the main stream of the Columbia, and thence down the said main stream to the ocean, with free access into and through the said river or rivers; it being understood that all the usual portages along the line thus described shall in like manner be free and open. In navigating the said river or rivers, British subjects, with their goods and produce, shall be treated on the same footing as citizens of the United States; it being, however, always understood that nothing in this article shall be construed as preventing, or intending to prevent, the Government of the United States from making any regulations respecting the navigation of the said river or rivers, not inconsistent with the present treaty.
“ ART. III. In the future appropriation of the territory south of the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, as provided in the first article of this treaty, the possessory rights of the Hudson's Bay Company, and of all British subjects who may be already in the occupation of land or other property, lawfully acquired within the said territory, shall be respected.
“ Art. IV. The farms, lands, and other property of every description, belonging to the Paget's Sound Agricultural Company, on the north side of the Columbia River, shall be confirmed to the said company. however, the situation of those farms and lands should be considered by the United States to be of public and political importance, and the United States Government should signify a desire to obtain possession of the whole or any part thereof, the property so required shall be transferred to the said Government, at a proper valuation to be agreed upon between the parties.
“ Art. V. The present treaty shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice of the Senate thereof, and by her Britannic Majesty, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London at the expiration of six months from the date hereof, or sooner if possible.
In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms.
Done at Washington the fifteenth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-six. (L. S.]
“JAMES BUCHANAN. [L. S.]
“ RICHARD PACKENHAM.” * Those who voted in the affirmative were Messrs. Archer, Ashley,
Bagby, Barrow, Benton, Berrien, Calhoun, Chalmers, Thomas Clayton, John M. Clayton, Colquitt, Corwin, Crittenden, Davis, Dayton, Dix, Evans, Green, Haywood, Houston, Huntington, Johnson of Maryland, Johnson of Louisiana, Lewis, McDuffie, Mangum, Miller, Moorehead, Niles, Pearce, Penybacker, Phelps, Rusk, Sevier, Simmons, Speight, Turney, Upham, Webster, Woodbridge, and Yulee.
Those who voted in the negative were Messrs. Allen, Atchison, Atherton, Breese, Bright, Cameron, Cass, Dickenson, Fairfield, Hannegan, Jenness, Semple, Sturgeon, and Westcott.
Different races in Mexico.—The information is received there that Joseph
Bonaparte was placed upon the throne of Spain.—Course pursued by the Mexicans.-Rupture between the Natives and Europeans.—Insurrection headed by Hidalgo.—Plan of Igualo.— Iturbide proclaimed Emperor.--He is banished, and on his return to Mexico, is shot.-Revolutions.-Santa Anna elected President.—Texas Revolution.
The war with Mexico occupied much of the attention of the administration. Mr. Polk had no sooner taken the oath of office, than he found our relations with that country were extremely delicate. No efforts which he could make, appeared to appease the Mexicans, or to induce them to act in good faith towards us.
It is now my purpose to trace the events which preceded the commencement of hostilities
the Rio Grande, and to follow our victorious troops through their triumphant progress, until the capital of Mexico surrendered to their prowess and valor.
Before examining into the immediate causes of the war with Mexico, I will briefly refer to the prominent revolutions which occurred in that country previous to that event. The contest was waged with a so called republic; yet Mexico hardly deserves the name. Since the struggle terminated, which produced a separation from Spain, Mexico has been the theatre of anarchy and blood. Revo
lution and violence have succeeded each other in rapid succession. The existence of each government has seldom lasted longer than two years, and instability and misrule have always controlled the fortunes of the Mexicans. This result, so fatal to law and order, has undoubtedly been produced by the peculiar mental organization of that people, and the amalgamation of the different races, which are found within the borders of Mexico.
The people are divided into seven great classes : 1st, the Europeans; 2d, the Creoles or whites, of pure European blood, but born in America ; 3d, the. Indians; 4th, the mestizos, or mixed breeds of whites and Indians; 5th, the mulattoes, or descendants of whites and negroes; 6th, the negroes; and 7th, the descendants of negroes and Indians. The pure Indians, in 1803, exceeded two millions and a half, and at the time of the revolution there were only eighty thousand Europeans. Among such a motley collection, perhaps it would be too much to anticipate the prevalence of republicanism.
The first manifestation of excessive zeal exhibited by the Mexicans in the affairs of the mother country, was upon the reception of the news that the Spanish Bourbons had been dethroned, and the crown usurped by a Bonaparte.
In July, 1808, a determination was manifested throughout Spanish America, to sustain the cause of the dethroned princes. Iturrigaray, the viceroy, proclaimed the establishment of the Spanish Junta, and required the ayuntamiento to yield obedience to its orders. Although they were true to Ferdi