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strength to carry all before them, but in this from us? It was the Empire which willed it.
valorous intention they failed. The prefect subse- The Empire is dead. It is well. We have nothing
quently informed the garde nationale that he had in common with that corpse. It is the past, we
received unlimited powers from the government are the future. It is hatred, we are sympathy. It
over the regular troops, so as to be able to deal is treason, we are loyalty."
effectively with any attempt at disturbance. He M. Victor Hugo also addressed a long and
was everywhere well received, and the soldiers inflated epistle to the Parisians, for the purpose of
swore to support him to the utmost.

encouraging them under the anticipated hardships At Marseilles, also, great excitement followed the of the siege :-“Two adversaries,” said the writer, news of the surrender of the

emperor.
The people

“ are in presence at this moment. On one side is
rushed en masse to the Bourse, decapitated the Prussia, with 900,000 soldiers ; on the other Paris,
statue of Napoleon, and derisively rolled the with 400,000 citizens. On one side, force; on the
trunk through the streets and flung the eagles into other, will. On one side, an army; on the other,
the port. They pitched inkstands at the picture a nation. On one side, night; on the other light.
of the imperial family, breaking furniture, tearing It is the old contest between the Archangel and
curtains to shreds, and finally regaling themselves the Dragon which is recommencing. It will have
from the cellars. The news was received at Bor- now the same termination as before; Prussia will
deaux with similar popular manifestations. An be cast down. This war, frightful as it is, has
equestrian statue of the emperor, erected in the hitherto been but trifling; it is about to become
Allées de Tourny, was torn from its base, and in great. I am sorry for you, Prussians, but it is
falling broke into fragments. Thousands of people necessary that you should change your method of
then paraded the streets, and shouted “ Vive la dealing.'
Republique!” before the Hôtel de Ville. Similar Among the arrivals in Paris at this period were
proceedings took place at Toulouse, where an the Orleans princes, the Duc d'Aumale, the Duc
informal committee was constituted in much the de Chartres, and the Prince de Joinville, who
same manner as at Lyons.

under the Palikao ministry had previously offered With the earliest days of the revolution re- their services, which were not accepted. On the appeared the extreme section of the press, which 7th September they reached the capital from Brushad been suppressed during the Palikao ministry. sels, and communicated with the government of The Marseillaise attacked the provisional govern- national defence ; presuming that, as exceptional ment. The Reveil and the Rappel were moderate laws had been practically repealed by the revoluin their tone, but enthusiastic in their praise of the tion, the decree which exiled them was also set republic. In the latter journal, Victor Hugo, who aside, and expressing their desire to be allowed to had returned to “save Paris,” issued to the German serve their country in propria persona.

The people a magniloquent address, which commenced government, however, apprehensive that their as follows:—“ Germans, he who speaks to you is a presence might be misconstrued, declined their friend. Three years ago, at the epoch of the Exposi- offer; and in very courteous and sympathetic tion of 1867, from exile, I welcomed you to our terms appealed to them, in the name of patriocity. What city? Paris. For Paris does not belong tism, to depart, upon which they immediately to us alone. Paris is yours as well as ours. Berlin, left the capital. Meanwhile, the Legitimist candiVienna, Dresden, Munich, Stuttgard, are your date for the French throne, the Comte de Chamcapitals ; Paris is your centre. It is at Paris that bord, issued an address in which he said: one feels the heart of Europe beating. Paris is the “ Amid all these poignant emotions, it is a great city of cities; Paris is the city of men.

There was consolation to see that public spirit, the spirit of Athens, there was Rome, there is Paris. Paris is patriotism, does not allow itself to be cast down, nothing but an immense hospitality. To-day you but rises with our misfortunes. Above everything return there. How? As brothers, like you did it is necessary to repulse the invasion, to save at three years ago ? No, as enemies. Why? What any price the honour of France, the integrity of is this sinister misunderstanding ? Two nations its territory. Every dissension must be forgotten have made Europe. Those two nations are France at this moment, every after-thought put aside. We and Germany.

This war, does it proceed I owe our whole energy, our fortune, our blood, to

1

the deliverance of our country. A true mother This proceeding was regarded as of the first will rather abandon her infant than see it perish. importance, and subsequently the provisional govI experience the same feeling, and say incessantly, ernment fixed on the 2d of October for the elections. May God save France, though I should die with- M. Jules Favre issued a second diplomatic circular, out seeing it again !"

dated the 17th September, the language of which General Garibaldi also, writing from Caprera, Sep- was more moderate in its tone than that of the tember 7, addressed the following to his friends : document already quoted. The minister of Foreign

-“ Yesterday I said to you, War to the death to Affairs thus concluded—“I will sum up our entire Bonaparte ; I say to you to-day, We must help the policy. In accepting the perilous task which was French republic by all possible means. I am an

I am an imposed upon us by the fall of the imperial govinvalid, but I have offered myself to the provisional ernment we had but one idea; namely, to defend government of Paris, and I hope it will not be our territory, to save our honour, and to give back impossible for me to perform some work. Yes, my to the nation the power emanating from itself, and fellow-citizens, we should regard assistance to our which it alone could exercise. We should have brothers of France as a sacred duty. Our mission wished that this great act might have been comwill not certainly consist in combating our German pleted without transition, but the first necessity brethren, who, being as the arm of Providence, was to face the enemy. We have not the pretenhave overthrown in the dust the germ of the sion to ask disinterestedness of Prussia. We take tyranny which weighed upon the world; but we account of the feelings to which the greatness of should sustain the only system which can assure her losses and the natural exaltation of victory peace and prosperity among nations."

have given rise to her. These feelings explain To strengthen the authority of the provisional the violence of the press, which we are far from government, the ministry, on the 8th of September, confounding with the inspirations of statesmen. issued in the Journal Officiel the following pro- These latter will hesitate to continue an impious clamation for the appointment of a Constituent war, in which more than 200,000 men have Assembly :"Frenchmen,—In proclaiming four already fallen. To force conditions upon France days ago the government of the National Defence, which she could not accept, would only be to we ourselves defined our mission. Power was compel a continuance of the war. It is objected lying in the dust. What had commenced by a that the government is without regular power to crime finished by a desertion. We simply grasped be represented. It is for this reason that we the helm which had escaped from powerless hands. I immediately summon a freely-elected Assembly. But Europe has need to be enlightened. It is We do not attribute to ourselves any other privinecessary that she should know by irrefragable lege than that of giving our soul and our blood testimonies that the entire country is with us. It to our country, and we abide by its sovereign is necessary that the invader should meet on his judgment. It is therefore not authority reposed route not only the obstacle of an immense city in us for a day. It is immortal France uprising resolved to perish rather than yield, but an entire before Prussia-France divested of the shroud of people erect, organized, represented—an assembly, the empire, free, generous, and ready to immolate in short, which can carry into all places, and in herself for right and liberty, disavowing all polispite of all disasters, the living soul of the country. tical conquest, and all violent propaganda, having Consequently, the government of the National no other ambition than to remain mistress of Defence decrees :Art. 1. The electoral colleges herself, and to develop her moral and material are convoked for Sunday, the 16th of October, for forces, and to work fraternally with her neighthe purpose of electing a National Constituent bours for the progress of civilization. It is this Assembly. Art. 2. The elections will be held by France which, left to her free action, immediately collective voting, conformably to the law of the asks the cessation of the war, but prefers its dis15th of March, 1849. Art 3. The number of asters a thousand times to dishonour. Vainly members of the Constituent Assembly will be 750. those who set loose a terrible scourge try now to Art. 4. The minister of the Interior is charged escape the crushing responsibility, by falsely allegwith the execution of this decree. Given at the ing that they yielded to the wish of the country. Hôtel de Ville of Paris, September 8, 1870.” This calumny may delude people abroad, but there is no one among us who does not refute it as a which had been commenced by the Count de work of revolting bad faith. The motto of the Palikao, were continued to man and provision the elections in 1869 was peace and liberty, and the city, and to put the enceinte and the detached forts plébiscite itself adopted it as its programme.

It in a condition to sustain a 'lengthened siege, is true that the majority of the Legislative Body while the surrounding belt of country was cleared cheered the warlike declarations of the duke of of its inhabitants. The completeness of these Gramont; but a few weeks previously it had also preparations was amply attested by subsequent cheered the peaceful declarations of M. Ollivier. events, and the prolongation of the siege. A majority emanating from personal power be- On the 14th September a grand review of the lieved itself obliged to follow docilely and voted whole armed force in Paris was held by General trustingly; but there is not a sincere person in Trochu. Apparently the spectacle was one of the Europe who could affirm that France freely con- most stirring on record, and for the first time sulted made war against Prussia. I do not draw the in twenty years Paris appeared openly and fully conclusion from this that we are not responsible. armed. The troops consisted of soldiers of the We have been wrong, and are cruelly expiating regular army, national guards, and the garde our having tolerated a government which led us mobile, to the number of 300,000, who were to ruin.

Now we admit the obligation to repair drawn up in line, extending from the Place de by a measure of justice the ill it has done; but if la Bastille to the Arc de Triomphe. The number the power with which it has so seriously compro- of regular troops was considerably increased by mised us takes advantage of our misfortunes to the return of General Vinoy and his army, who overwhelm us, we shall oppose a desperate resist had failed to join MacMahon before the battle of ance ; and it will remain well understood that it Sedan, and also by the scattered remnants of deis the nation, properly represented in a freely- feated soldiers who had managed to make good elected Assembly, that this power wishes to destroy their escape. As General Trochu, accompanied by a This being the question raised, each one will do brilliant staff, rode along the ranks, he was rehis duty. Fortune has been hard upon us, but ceived with great enthusiasm, amid cries of "Vive she is capable of unlooked-for revolutions, which Trochu!" and "Vive la Republique !" The feeling our determination will call forth. Europe begins of the troops was admirable ; but, beyond the to be moved; and sympathy for us is being re- regulars, few were armed with the Chassepot, awakened. The sympathies of foreign cabinets and the uniform of many consisted only of the console us and do us honour. They will be kepi. While the troops marched back to their deeply struck by the noble attitude of Paris in quarters after the inspection the air resounded the midst of so many terrible causes for excite- with patriotic songs, and the muzzles of many ment. Serious, confident, ready for the utmost of their muskets were ornamented with bouquets sacrifices, the nation in arms descends into the and tricoloured flags, which gave a lively and arena without looking back, and having before brilliant appearance to the scene. The governor its eyes this simple but great duty, the defence subsequently issued the following general order :of its homes and independence. I request you,

"To the National Guards of Paris and the Gardes sir, to enlarge upon these truths to the repre- Mobiles of Paris and the Departments, Never sentative of the government to which you are before has any general witnessed so grand a specaccredited. He will see their importance, and tacle as that which you have presented ; three will thus obtain a just idea of our disposition.” hundred battalions of citizens organized and armed,

In the previous chapter we recounted the ener- enveloped by the entire population of the city, getic measures of the authorities for the defence unanimously proclaiming the determined defence and provisioning of the capital. On the morning of Paris and of liberty. If those foreign-nations of the day (September 4) when the republic was which doubt you, if the armies which are marchproclaimed, the Crown Prince of Prussia and the ing upon you, could only have heard that, they Crown Prince of Saxony, accompanied by the would have understood that misfortune has done king of Prussia and Count von Bismarck, started more in a few weeks to rouse the soul of the on their march to Paris. As the German armies nation than long years of prosperity have done to drew nearer day by day, unremitting exertions, abase it. The spirit of devotion and of sacrifice has infused itself into you, and to it you owe that Switzerland resolved, however, to remain in hearty union which will prove your safety. With Paris. our formidable effective force the daily guard of While the government were thus taking their Paris will be 70,000 men. If the enemy by a

measures of defence, M. Thiers was sent to Engfierce attack, or by a surprise, or by effecting a land, and thence to Vienna and St. Petersburg, breach, should pierce our protecting fortifications, charged with a diplomatic mission. But the diffihe would encounter barricades which are being culties in the way of the veteran statesman were prepared, and his columns would be driven back insurmountable. Count von Bismarck had deterby the successive attacks of ten reserves stationed mined to decline all intervention, and the courts at different points. Remain, therefore, perfectly of Europe, to whom M. Thiers was delegated, thus assured, and know that the enceinte of Paris, de found no favourable opportunity to enter upon fended as it is by the persevering efforts of public negotiations. spirit, and by 300,000 muskets, is impregnable. It is worthy of notice, too, that before the National guards of the Seine and gardes mobiles, government had been in existence a fortnight they in the name of the government for the National had the courage to abolish the entire system of Defence, of which I am towards you but the repre- police surveillance. A short time before the Prussentative, I thank you for your patriotic solici- sians finally invested the capital, M. de Keratry, tude for the cherished interests which you have the prefect of police, addressed to the proin charge. Now let us proceed to work in the visional government a report recommending the nine sections of the defence. Let there be every suppression of an institution which had proved a where order, calmness, and devotion; and remem- ready and efficient instrument in the hands of ber that you are charged, as I have previously successive governments for seventy years. The informed you, with the police of Paris during this system had been most abused under Napoleon I., critical period. Prepare to bear your task with by whom it was founded in 1800, and who had constancy, and then you will not fail to conquer." extended its powers during his reign. So great

The provisional government meanwhile com- was the importance attached to it, that at the pleted its preparations against the impending in- change of each régime the first care of the victors vestment of the capital. Communications with was to secure its influence. the departments were abandoned, bridges were A brief review of the financial condition of the destroyed, sometimes too hastily, telegraphs severed, country, prior to the final investment of Paris, obstacles placed in the path of the advancing will be found suggestive. The trade bills under enemy, and the woods near Paris filled with com- discount at the bank of France amounted at the bustibles. In the beautiful woods of the Seine close of June to £26,000,000. On the 8th of and Marne, the forests of Lagny, De Ferriéres, September they had increased to £57,000,000, Clamart, Bellevue, Bondy, and the woods around or nearly 120 per cent.; and while the aggregate St. Cloud, openings were effected by the axe of cash and bullion in the bank continually diof the garde mobile and francs-tireurs, large num-minished, the paper circulation increased. The bers of whom were told off for the service. The weekly drain of the precious metals is represented Journal Officiel published decrees authorizing the by the following table:minister of justice, M. Crémieux, to transfer the criminal chamber to Tours; and placing 40,000 francs at the disposal of the Scientific Committee of Defence. All legal appeals were suspended, together with the octroi duties upon the importa- July 7 £50,723,000

£57,557,000

14 49,809,000 £914,000 58,209,000 £652,000 tion of goods. The government further decided

48,590,000 1,219,000 58,808,000 599,000 to sit at a town in the interior of France during

28 45,775,000 2,815,000 61,092,000 2,284,000

August 4 43,875,000 1,900,000 61,044,000 48,000* the siege; and besides M. Crémieux, the minister

11 41,142,000 2,733,000 61,344,000 300,000 of Marine and M. Glais-Bizoin established them

18 36,244,000 4,898,000 66,705,000 5,361,000

34,742,000 1,502,000 68,340,000 1,635,000 selves at Tours, where they were joined by Lord September 1 33,764,000 978,000 69,206,000 866,000

594,000

32,320,000 1,444,000 69,800,000 Lyons and several other foreign ambassadors. The envoys of the United States, Belgium, and

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VOL. II.

On the 12th August the bank suspended pay, hope of an honourable peace; but if it is necessary, ments in specie, and the following week nearly we will sacrifice everything to the very last for £5,000,000 was withdrawn. At the same time the defence of the country." the note circulation was increased by upwards of In the United States the successes of the German £5,250,000.

arms, and the surrender of Napoleon, caused exuWith regard to the foreign relations of the pro- berant rejoicings among the German population visional government, it may be stated that the and those of Teutonic origin, as well as among a republic was early recognized by the United large part of the nation itself, whose sympathies States of America. On the 5th of September were against the French empire. In Philadelphia M. Favre officially notified its institution to long processions, bearing torches and transparencies, the American ambassador, Mr. Washburne, who, and led by the German musical societies, went on the day following, replied :—"I have the singing through the streets, while the offices of satisfaction of announcing to you that I have the newspapers favourable to the German cause received from my government a telegram em- were serenaded, as well as the residence of the powering me to recognize the government of German consul. With this feeling throughout the National Defence as the government of the country, there was a general hope of a speedy France. I am consequently ready to enter into peace. On the intelligence of Napoleon's downfall, relations with the government, and, if you wish the premium on gold fell from above 117 to 1131 it, to treat with it on all the matters arising out The news of the establishment of the republic of the functions with which I am invested. In in Paris, however, caused a sensible diminution of making this communication to your excellency, the sympathy with the Germans, and, combined I beg to tender to yourself and to the members with the overwhelming defeats inflicted on the of the government of the National Defence the French, excited a general desire for peace on congratulations of the government and people of moderate terms. France was more frequently the United States. They will have learnt with spoken of as “our ancient ally,” and, as already enthusiasm the proclamation of the republic which stated, the government promptly recognized the has been instituted in France without the shed republic. Nevertheless, with France as a military ding of one drop of blood, and they will respond nation, or with her military standards of morality, heartily and sympathetically to the great move- there was little sympathy. The democrats, howment which they hope and believe will be fertile ever, gained courage in their denunciations of in happy results for the French people and for Germany from the French defeats, and the Irish humanity at large. Enjoying for nearly a century grew more noisy than ever in their demonstrations immeasurable benefits from a republican govern- of fellow-feeling, especially with the disasters of ment, the people of the United States cannot but MacMahon, who was generally believed amongst witness with the deepest interest the efforts of the them to be the lineal descendant of an Irish king. French people, attached to them by the bonds There was undoubtedly a strong dislike of the of a traditional amity, who seek to found institu- Germans in the country. tions by which will be assured to the present The new government in Paris was also acknowgeneration, as well as to posterity, the invaluable ledged by Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain, and right of living, by working for the welfare of all.” Portugal. Switzerland expressed a hope that the M. Jules Favre, in acknowledging this letter, republic “would be able shortly to procure for hailed as a happy augury for the French republic France the blessings of an honourable peace, and that the American government should have been to consolidate for ever liberty and democratic inthe first to recognize and countenance it. Sub- stitutions.” Chevalier Nigra informed M. Jules sequently a large gathering of citizens visited Favre that he had received instructions from the American legation, and gave enthusiastic Florence to keep up relations with the provisional cheers for the United States. The crowd then government in every way conformable to the symwaited on M. Jules Favre, who replied, “I am pathies existing between the two countries. A happy to hear of your demonstration. I am, as similar statement was made by Senor Olozaga, the you know, the personal enemy of war, which Spanish ambassador, to whom M. Jules Favre divides and tears in pieces mankind. I retain the replied, " It is precisely at this cruel moment for

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