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Mecklenburg troops occupied the place, which health were no longer endangered. Excursions was entered by the grand-duke with a brilliant into the country were immediately undertaken, staff at the head of some regiments.
and civilians, with officers released on parole, were After the surrender Toul presented a scene very seen driving about and inspecting the positions different from what is usually seen on such which had so recently menaced them. occasions. Instead of the bitter feeling on the one The following officers, men, arms, and muniside and the exultation on the other, which are tions of war, &c., were captured at the surrender commonly exhibited, both parties, when the gate of Toul:-109 officers, 2240 men, 120 horses, one was opened, seemed to meet like the best of friends. eagle of the garde mobile, 197 bronze guns, The French garrison were delighted to be out, and including 48 pieces of rifled ordnance, 3000 rifles, the German besiegers no less so to find their work 3000 sabres, 500 cuirasses, and a considerable at an end. As there were many Alsatians among quantity of munitions and articles of equipment. the garrison, besiegers and besieged at once Soldiers' pay for 143,025 days, and rations for entered into conversation, shared the contents of 51,949 days, also fell into the hands of the their flasks with each other, and but for the Prussians. stringent rules separating prisoner from conqueror, It is no idle phrase that Strassburg and Toul would doubtless have made a jovial night of it. "deserved well” of their country. Citizens, as The anxious families had passed the last days well as regular soldiers, appear to have conducted chiefly in their cellars, the windows of their houses the defence of the two cities. All that could be being thickly covered with manure.
done was done. Among the incidents of a camcame creeping out, sunning themselves, and paign prolific in startling illustrations of the spreading out their beds everywhere to dry and collapse of the military system of France, it must air, as they had become damp in the underground ever be remembered, as a redeeming fact, that a abodes. Pale faces were visible everywhere, and fourth-rate fortress, defended by a garrison conloud lamentations were heard; but the habitual sisting almost entirely of civilians, held out for six French elasticity and cheerfulness were soon mani- weeks against the invading force, and blocked up fested, the inhabitants being gladdened by the for that time the direct communications between thought that the siege was ended, and life and Germany and the bulk of her ariny.
The Position of the German Armies in the beginning of October-Their Depot Battalions of the Line serving as Cadres—The great
importance in Modern Warfare of Large Intrenched Camps, with a Fortress for their Nucleus—Count von Moltke's Plans- Occupation of Beauvais by General Manteuffel — The duty of General von Werder's Army-Lerée en Masse ordered by the French GovernmentFormation of New Armies-Sad want of Discipline and Good Officers—The Franc-Tireurs—Severe Treatment of them by the Germans— Burning of Ablis and other Places—Inconsistency of Prussia in attempting to put down Irregular Warfare—Decree of the French Government with the view of protecting the Franc-Tireurs— More Prudence than Courage shown by the French in many Places—Panic at Orleans-Confusion in both the Military and Political System of France-Great Want of a Real General-M. Gambetta leaves Paris for Tours in a Balloon-Biographical Sketch of Him-Narrow Escape on his Aerial Journey -Address presented to him at Rouen-His Arrival at Tours, and his First Impressions of the State of Affairs—Important Proclamation issued by Him-Arrival of Garibaldi at Tours—He is despatched to the East to take Command of a Body of Irregular Troops—The Extraordinary Energy of M. GambettaEngagement between the French and Germans at Toury—Easy Victory of the French-Uneasiness at the German Headquarters, and Despatch of the First Bavarian Corps Southwards—The French are completely surprised at Artenay and easily overcome-Gross Neglect of the French Commanders—Obstinate Encounter near Orleans-Panic amongst the Franc-Tireurs and Terror in the City of Orleans itself
– Disgraceful Conduct of the Troops—The City is entered by the Germans—Proclamation of the German Commander to the Inhabitants, The French Army of the Loire retire to Bourges—General d'Aurelles de Paladines appointed to command it-His First Order of the DayImportance of the Capture of Orleans to the Germans in two ways—The Franc-Tireurs in the Forests around the City prove a great annoyance to them-Chartres and Châteaudun fortified — Determined Resistance at the Latter Town-Chartres capitulates on Favourable Terms—The Military Operations in Eastern France - German Victory between Raon l'Etape and St. Diey-Capture of Epinal, by which Lorraine is cut off from the rest of France - Arrival of Garibaldi on the Scene, and Proclamation to his Irregular Troops—No Combined Action between him and the French General Cambriels, who is actively pursued by General von Werder—Another German Victory-Resignation of General Cambriels—The dislike of the Catholics to Garibaldi, and the obstacles placed in his way-Appointment of General Michel in the room of Cambriels-Surrender of Schlestadt-Siege and Bombardment of Soissons—Acquisition of a Second Line of Railway to Paris-Gallant defence of St. Quentin-Final occupation of it and other Towns in the North of France—The Excitement in Rouen and Amiens—General Bourbaki appointed to the command of the French Army of the North-Short Sketch of his career - First Proclamation issued by him— Preparations for defence in Brittany under Count de Keratry-A Company of Volunteer Engineers formed in Eastern France to operate on the German Lines of Communication-Plan of their Operations—The Germans compel the most respected Inhabitants in the District to accompany the Trains or Locomotives—The Great Mistake of the French in not establishing suitable Cavalry Corps to harass the German Line of Communication—The Prospects for France brighter at the close of October than at the beginning, chiefly owing to the energy of M. Gambetta—Martial Law Established in all the Departments within Seventy Miles of the Enemy's Forces -Formation of Camps and adoption of Severe Measures in various parts of the Country—The extreme Republicans alone devoid of Patriotic Feeling—A Loan of £10,000,000 contracted— Appeals from France to England and other countries for Intervention and Assistance-A Negotiation with the view to an Armistice is agreed on—Interview between M. Thiers and Count von Bismarck-Great mistake of the French in breaking off the Negotiations on the Question of Re-victualling Paris—The General Feeling in France when the Failure of the Negotiations became known—The Germans disappointed at the Prolongation of the War, but determined to support their Political and Military Leaders until Alsace and Lorraine had been recovered—Manufacture of the Pen with which to sign the Treaty of Peace Count von Bismarck's Reply on receiving it—The serious Consequences of the War in France — The advantage, both in France and Germany, of the Women being able to undertake Agricultural Operations.
DURING the sieges of Metz and Paris, the chief German army in France was fully employed, interest of the war, of course, centered in those although not one-sixth of the territory of the two cities. But while France watched with pride country was held by the invaders. Metz, with the endurance and determination displayed by her Bazaine's army inclosed within its line of forts, greatest fortress and her magnificent capital, the found occupation for eight army corps (the first, beleaguered garrisons and citizens in each case second, third, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, the were anxiously looking for the armies of the division of Hessians, and General Kummer's provinces to come to their rescue, and assist in division of landwehr), in all, sixteen divisions of dispersing the besieging hosts. In the present infantry. Paris engaged seventeen divisions of chapter we propose to review the state of France, infantry (the guards, fourth, fifth, sixth, eleventh, and the military operations of both the French twelfth North German, first and second Bavarian and Germans elsewhere than at Paris and Metz, corps, and the Würtemburg division). The newly during the month of October.
formed thirteenth and fourteenth corps, mostly It is a remarkable fact that, even after the fall landwehr, and some detachments from the corps of Strassburg, nearly the whole of the immense already named, occupied the conquered country, and observed, blockaded, or besieged the places | virtually at the mercy of a conqueror who held which, within it, still belonged to the French. possession of barely one-sixth of her territory. The fifteenth corps, the Baden division, and one Count von Moltke's plan of operations embraced division of landwehr, set free by the capitulation not only the siege of the capital, but also the occupaof Strassburg, were alone disposable for active tion of the northern and eastern departments as far operations.
as was possible with the forces at his disposal, thus These forces comprised almost all the organized pressing at once on Paris and the provinces, and troops of which Germany disposed. In accordance rendering each unable to assist the other. with their original purpose, the depot battalions On September 29 Beauvais, the capital of the served as cadres for the drill and organization of department of the Oise, was occupied by the first the men intended to fill up the gaps which battles Prussian corps, under General Manteuffel, who, and disease caused in the ranks of their respective with a portion of the army which had been engaged regiments. Proportionately as the thousand men at Sedan, was commissioned to carry the war into forming the battalion were sufficiently broken in the north-west of France; from this point threatto do duty before the enemy, they were sent off ening Rouen on the west and Amiens on the north. by detachments to join the three field battalions The fall of Toul and Strassburg in the last week of the regiment; this was done on a large scale of September liberated 80,000 German troops, part after the severe fighting before Metz in the middle of whom were sent to assist in the investment of of August. But the officers and non-commissioned Paris, while the remainder, about 70,000, were officers of the battalion remained at home, ready formed into an army under General von Werder, to receive and prepare for the field a fresh batch to be employed in operations over southern Alsace of 1000 men, taken from the recruits called out in and the south-eastern districts of France. It was due course. This measure was absolutely necessary to seize any points at which it might be attempted in a war as bloody as the present one, and the end to form military organizations, to disperse the corps, of which was not to be foreseen with certainty; but break up depôts, and destroy stores. It was, furit deprived the Germans of the active services for ther, to levy contributions upon towns which had the time being of 114 battalions, and a correspond- not as yet felt the pressure of the war, and which ing force of cavalry and artillery, representing expressed a desire for its continuance. It was in all fully 200,000 men. With the exception hoped that in this way accurate conceptions of the of these, the occupation of scarcely one-sixth state of the country and the helplessness of its of France and the reduction of the two large government would be communicated to that part fortresses in this territory-Metz and Paris— of the French public which had hitherto derived kept the whole of the German forces so fully its impressions from the bulletins published at Paris employed that they had barely 60,000 men to and Tours. spare for further operations beyond the territory On October 1 the Tours government issued a already conquered. And this, while there was decree for a levée en masse of all Frenchmen of the not anywhere a French army in the field to military age—from twenty-one to forty—to be oroppose serious resistance!
ganized into a mobilized national guard. Had this If ever there was needed a proof of the immense decree been carried out, it would have supplied at importance, in modern warfare, of large intrenched least three millions of men, for not one in three, camps with a fortress for their nucleus, here that even of those liable to serve, had been as yet proof was furnished. The two intrenched camps enrolled. The larger towns had done their part, in question were not at all made use of to the best but the country districts were surprisingly apaadvantage, for Metz had for a garrison too many thetic, and those who possessed any means and troops for its size and importance, and Paris had desired exemption from service obtained it with of real troops fit for the field scarcely any at all. | little trouble. Still, the first of these places held at least 200,000, From this date, however, commenced the formathe second 250,000 enemies in check; and if tion of new armies in the north, south, east, and west France had only had 200,000 real soldiers behind of France. Indeed, immediately after the events of the Loire, the siege of Paris would have been an the 2nd September, the government had adopted impossibility. As it was, however, France was vigorous measures to raise fresh troops by means of a forced conscription, embracing soldiers whose | inhabitants fired upon their troops, , or took part
in term of service had long since expired, and youths the defence, should be burned down; that every not yet arrived at the legal age; and by calling out man taken in arms who was not, according to their all the retired, invalided, and pensioned general notion, a regular soldier, should be shot at once ; and other officers, with all the depôt and garrison that where there was reason to believe that any troops, gardes mobiles, marines, and gendarmes. considerable portion of the population of a town The result was that, early in October, there were, actively sided against them, all able-bodied men in various parts of France, an immense number should be treated with merciless severity. A of men ready for service when provincial armies squadron of German cavalry and a company of should be organized. This was especially the case infantry took up their quarters in Ablis, a vilin the district of the Loire, where a very well lage of 900 inhabitants, just off the railway from defined nucleus of an army had already been Paris to Tours. During the night the inhabitants, got together. Its headquarters were about fifty- giving way to a patriotic impulse, with the aid of five miles south of Orleans, at Bourges, a place franc-tireurs attacked the sleeping men, killed containing a large cannon foundry, and of strate- several, and captured or dispersed the rest. The gical importance owing to its being situated next day the German general sent a force which within the loop formed by the Loire, and at the burnt Ablis to the ground, and a neighbouring junction of the different roads leading to Tours, village from which the franc-tireurs had come. Blois, Orleans, and Nevers, all commanding pas- The threat, by the French, of reprisals upon the sages over the river.
The force numbered, on captured hussars, alone prevented more of the October 1, about 60,000 men, well armed, but able-bodied men of the place from being shot. greatly deficient in artillery. The regulars, mostly This was but one of numberless instances. A fugitives from Sedan, were in the proportion of Bavarian detachment in the neighbourhood of one in nine; but even out of this unpromising Orleans burned down five villages in twelve days. material a very formidable army might have been
army might have been Thus the mode of warfare which was pursued obtained with a fair amount of discipline. There in the days of Louis XIV. and Frederick was, however, a strong republican feeling amongst II., in 1870 was again found necessary. The them; they did not yield a willing obedience to Prussian armies should have been the last in the superiors; they thoroughly distrusted those in com- world to treat with severity irregular warfare ; mand; and this, coupled with the want of good for in 1806 Prussia collapsed from the absence officers, went far to neutralize the efforts of the of that spirit of national resistance which in 1807 government.
those at the head of affairs, both in the civil and Simultaneously with the formation of armies, military departments, did everything in their irregular corps of volunteers, or franc-tireurs, power to revive. At that time Spain showed a began to spring up all over the country. Many sagacious example of resistance to an invasion, of these were expert marksmen, and caused great which the military leaders of Prussia-Scharnannoyance to the Germans by cutting off their horst, Gneisenau, Clausewitz—all urged their convoys, carrying out night surprises, and lying countrymen to emulate. Gneisenau even went in wait and falling unexpectedly on their outposts to Spain to fight against Napoleon.
The new or rearguard. Many others were merely highway- military system, then inaugurated in Prussia, men under a different title, who shot and plundered | was an attempt to organize popular resistance to friend and foe alike. On the ground that these the enemy, as far as this was possible in an absolute franc-tireurs wore no distinctive uniform, and had monarchy. Every able-bodied man was to pass no regular officers, the Germans claimed the right, through the army, and to serve in the landwehr under the laws of war, of treating them as unre- up to his fortieth year ; the lads between sevencognized combatants, trying them by drum-head teen and twenty, and the men between forty and court-martial, and shooting them as soon as cap- sixty, were to form part of the “landsturm," or tured. In fact, the whole policy of the Germans, levée en masse, which was to rise in the rear and at this time, seems to have been marked by extreme on the flanks of the enemy, to harass his movealthough necessary severity. Their rule was that ments, intercept his supplies and couriers, and to every town or village where one or more of the employ whatever arms it could find, and whatever
6. The more
means were at hand to annoy him.
nected with the telegraph carried off their apparatus. effective these means the better.” Above all, they The prefect, thus deprived of the means of recallwere to "wear no uniform of any kind, so that ing the runaway garrison, managed at last to press the landsturmers might at any time resume their
a one-horse chaise into the service of the state, to character of civilians, and remain unknown to convey to the general letters informing him that
It was proposed more than once a spontaneous deputation was about to start for that the Prussian “ landsturm ordinary” should Tours to ask of the government a general able and be printed and issued to each franc-tireur as his willing to defend the forest of Orleans and its guide-book, by which, upon his capture, he could environs. Meanwhile the money in the banks and at least show the Prussians that he had only been public money-chests had all been removed; the acting upon the instructions issued by their own municipal council had met and protested against king
the abandonment of the city; and all was confusion With the view of protecting these guerilla and fear. troops as much as possible, on the 1st of November The whole military and political system of it was decreed by the French government, that France was in fact at this time in a state of hopefrom that date every corps of franc-tireurs, or less confusion, without a directing head to set it volunteers, should be attached to an army corps right. The arrangement which gave the prefects on active service, or to a territorial division ; and the military command of their respective departthey were strictly prohibited acting independently ments, was producing its natural results in disconor beyond the assigned limits, under penalty of nected and useless efforts and conflicting authority. being disarmed and dissolved.
Marseilles and Lyons were threatened with a red By the imposition of a fine of a million francs republican insurrection, which was only prevented upon any department in which bands of franc- by the good sense and patriotism of the masses. tireurs should be met with, the German authorities At Grenoble, General Monnet, a Crimean veteran, strove to keep down the perilous annoyance. On was, at the instigation of a few riotous citizens, every town which fell into their hands after deposed from his command of the garrison and resistance offered, they also made heavy requi- imprisoned. The prefect of Lyons, without a sitions in money.
Under these circumstances, shadow of justification, arrested General Mazure, and remembering what had happened at Ablis in command of the troops in the city, and because and elsewhere, it is not surprising that the local the senseless act was approved by his colleagues municipalities sometimes evinced more prudence of the government delegation at Tours, Admiral
Fourichon resigned the portfolio of War. On the In the night of the 26th to the 27th September, other hand, thirteen departments banded together General Polhès, the commandant of the military to demand the nomination of a general of independivision of Orleans, suddenly turned out the garri- dent authority, to organize the defence of the son, and in hot haste took his departure southwards. western provinces. Here and there might be The Prussians were coming. Next day it was heard murmurs of revenge, and in certain districts discovered that they were not coming; that there corps were formed which the government would were only a very few of them in the neighbour- fäin have dignified with the name of armies. But hood, who certainly were not advancing on Orleans. there was no man to stir up popular enthusiasm, So General Polhès came back. A couple of hours or turn it to account; and France merely waited, after his departure, however, two regiments of every day increasing her peril. With an enemy French cuirassiers had arrived in Orleans from 700,000 strong in their country, the French forces Blois, who, finding no one to give them orders, were without a commander-in-chief! No energetic and hearing that the commander had retreated, man fit to be endowed with supreme authority, also returned. In the forest of Orleans about 800 and capable of reducing the chaos to order, was men, apparently forgotten, had been left without forthcoming. Bazaine, the only man thought to any orders. All this evidence of haste naturally be equal to the present emergency, was closely spread alarm : the consequence was that the rail- besieged in Metz, and with him were Canrobert, way authorities went off with their rolling stock L’Admirault, Jarras, Coffinières, Lebœuf, and Bourtowards La Ferté and Beaugency, and those con- baki. MacMahon was a prisoner at Wiesbaden,