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was powerfully impressed by the spectacle of the The reredos of the altar of St. Agilolphus, a quaint ruined cathedral. At his request the Prussian old combination of wooden carving and Flemish monarch resolved to undertake the most urgent painting, is worth examination. restorations, which between 1820 and 1840 ab- The apsidal east end is surrounded by some sorbed no less a sum than 300,000 thalers. And chapels. In the chapel immediately behind the after Frederick William IV. came to the throne, a high altar is placed the celebrated Shrine of the society named the Dombauverein was formed under three kings of Cologne, or the Magi who were led his royal patronage, not merely for the maintenance, by the star, loaded with Oriental gifts, to worship but for the completion of the cathedral. Donations the infant Saviour. Their supposed bones were for an object so laudable flowed in from every carried off from San Eustorjis, at Milan, by quarter. The king promised an annual subscription Frederick Barbarossa in 1162, and were presented of 50,000 thalers; and on the 4th of September, by him to his companion and counsellor, Rainaldo, 1842, the second foundation of the cathedral was archbishop of Köln. We read in the invaluable celebrated with the most imposing ceremonies. Murray: “The case in which they are deposited From that date to the present time, the works is of plates of silver gilt, and curiously wrought, have been carried on under the direction of Herr surrounded by small arcades, supported on pillars, Guirna and his successors, in strict harmony with inclosing figures of the Apostles and Prophets. the original plan, at an outlay already exceeding The priceless treasures which once decorated it a million and a half of thalers. To sum up: the were much diminished at the time of the French choir is completed; so are the transepts; the inner Revolution, when the shrine and its contents were pillars of the nave, consecrated in 1648, have been transported for safety by the chapter to Amsberg, raised to their full elevation; and strenuous exer- in Westphalia. Many of the jewels were sold to tions are being made to finish the vaulted roof and maintain the persons who accompanied it, and lofty towers, each of which will be about 500 feet have been replaced by paste or glass imitations; from base to capital.
but the precious stones, the gems, cameos, and The cathedral is built on a cruciform plan, and rich enamels which still remain, will give a fair rises about 60 feet above the Rhine, on an em- notion of its riches and magnificence in its original inence, which, since the days of German supre- state. The skulls of the three kings, inscribed macy, has formed the north-eastern angle of the with their names, Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthazar, fortifications. Its total length is 511 feet, its written in rubies, are exhibited to view through breadth at the entrance 231 feet; the former corre- an opening in the shrine, crowned with diadems sponding with the height of the towerwhen finished; (a ghastly contrast), which were of gold, and the latter, with the height of the western gable. studded with real jewels, but are now only silver
The choir consists of five aisles, is 161 feet in gilt. Among the antiques still remaining are two height, and, internally, from its size, height, and of Leda, and Cupid and Psyche, very beautiful.” disposition of pillars, arches, chapels, and beauti- Durand describes the choir as the consummate fully coloured windows, resembles a poet's dream. ideal of the Christian tabernacle. Columns slender Externally, its two-fold range of massive flying but- as lances spring aloft to the very roof, where their tresses and intermediate piers, bristling with airy capitals expand in flowers. All the rest is a pinnacles, strikes the spectator with awe and splendid mass of glass-work (verrière), whose astonishment. The windows are filled with fine lancets are tinted over their whole surface with a old stained glass of the fourteenth century; the rich colouring of azure, gold, and purple. The pictures on the walls are modern. Round the choir, artist who constructed this magic wall must have against the columns, are planted fourteen colossal remembered the words of the Psalmist, “My statues : namely, the Saviour, the Virgin, and the God, Thou art clothed with light,” and has made Apostles, coloured and gilt; they belong, like for the Holy of Holies a dwelling-place not less the richly carved stalls and seats, to the early resplendent than Himself. part of the fourteenth century.
There are numerous archiepiscopal tombs in the The fine painted windows in the south aisle of lateral naves. Like those of Mainz, they are the nave were the gift of King Louis of Bavaria ; overloaded with cumbrous epitaphs. The tomb those in the north aisle were executed in 1508. i of Conrad of Hochstetten, the founder of the cathedral, is regarded with special veneration. | whole has been produced au fur et à mesure, “In the year of our Lord 1248, Bishop Conrad according to the necessity of the times. finding himself superabundantly rich in gold, in The general effect of this ancient structure is, silver, and precious stones, and deeming his treasure however, very imposing. It was begun in 1250, inexhaustible, undertook the construction of the and terminated in 1571, and is therefore a record cathedral of this immense and costly edifice, on of three centuries of architectural progress. Its which we are labouring at the present moment." portico is in the Renaissance style, and the second I take this extract from the “Chronicle of Cologne" story is embellished with small triumphal arches for the year 1499.
made to serve as arcades, and dedicated by quaint Another bishop lies in a tomb fashioned like a inscriptions to Cæsar, Augustus, Agrippa, Confortalice, with a laurel at each angle. He reposes stantine, Justinian, and Maximilian. Among the at their base in a semi-military, semi-ecclesiastic sculptured bas-reliefs, you may remark a man costume. Each archbishop of Köln kept his grave worrying a lion. This man, named Gryn, was open throughout his archiepiscopate, to receive his a mayor of Köln. The archbishop Engelbert III. dust, when needed. A fantastic custom, more had, to rid himself of a troublesome opponent, honoured in the breach than the observance, de exposed him to combat with a lion. His courage manded that every year of his rule should be brought him safely through the perilous experience. marked by means of a small staff of white wood The inhabitants, rendered furious by his perfidy, suspended to an iron hold-fast.
avenged their mayor by hanging to a gate, which We follow M. Durand from the cathedral into at this very day is called Pfaffarthor, or the Priestthe ancient Romanesque church of Saint-Martin; gate, the first priest who fell into their hands. a church to be visited upon market-day, at the The large and splendid hall in the interior, hour when the peasants of the neighbourhood where the Hanseatic League formerly held its abandon their fruits and vegetables to hear mass. sittings, is adorned with nine large statues of In their temporary seclusion from worldly affairs, knights. these rude and angular figures, with their fixed Beside the town-hall stands the “Chapel of the serious gaze, and solemn, stiff
, and almost awkward Council,” which formerly enshrined the Dombild, air, seem to have stepped out of some old wood- now preserved in the St. Agnes chapel of the work, or ancient German engraving, like those of cathedral. The Dombild, I may remark, repreMartin Schoen.
sents, when thrown open, the adoration of the Verily, Köln, metropolis as it is of the banks of three kings, in the middle, and on the flaps (volets) the Rhine, is still the city of the apostles and the St. Geryon with his companions, and St. Ursula princes of the Church, and even in these days with her virgins; when shut up, the Annunciation; of German Rationalism, the capital of Roman it bears the date of 1410. The author of this Catholic Germany.
remarkable picture is unknown; but it is generally What shall I say of its town-hall, which is attributed to Master Stephen Lotheren, of Köln, situated between the Gürzenich (custom-houses) the pupil of Master William. and the cathedral? I cannot do better than imi- The “Chapel of the Council ” contains a fine tate my predecessors, and quote from Victor Roman mosaic, discovered when digging the founHugo :-It is one of those enchanting harlequin- dation of the new hospital; and, also, a small like edifices, he says, built up of portions belonging collection of ancient pictures. In its fine tower, to all ages, and of fragments of all styles, which we ornamented with many statues, and constructed in meet with in the ancient communes, the said com- 1407, the municipal council was wont to assemble; munes being themselves constructed, laws, manners, at present it meets in the adjacent building, erected and customs, in the same manner. The mode of | in 1850. formation of these edifices and of their customs is Near the Jesuits' church and not far from the curious to study. It is an agglomeration rather quays of the Rhine, stands the church of Saint than a construction, a successive development, a Cunibert, commenced, and consecrated in 1248, by fantastic aggrandizement, or encroachment upon the Archbishop Conrad. It stands on the site of things previously existing. Nothing has been laid an older church, built in 633 by the prelate whose out on a regular plan, or digested beforehand; the name it bears. In its architectural character it is 6 )
MEMORABLE CHURCHES OF COLOGNE.
Romanesque; two portions only belong to the rising opposite the entrance, to an altar and oblong ogival style. Its small side-door presents a most choir behind it; whence other steps again ascend remarkable combination of Oriental art and Gothic to the area between the two high square towers, form. The front has been restored. The two and to the semi-circular east end, belted, as well Romanesque towers in the rear were formerly of as the cupola, by galleries with small arches and a much greater height. The principal tower, pillars, on a panelled balustrade. The entrance having fallen into ruins, was rebuilt in 1850 in door, with square lintel, low pediment, and pointed the ogival style; it has no other merit than that arch, is elegant; and the crypts show some reof magnitude. The most noticeable feature of the mains of handsome mosaics." church is the thirteenth century stained glass in The baptistery, an elegant structure of the same the apex; this is very rich and beautiful. There date as the nave, contains a font of porphyry, said are also several small pictures on wood, by artists to be a gift of Charlemagne. of the early German school.
In the late Gothic choir of the semi-Romanesque Of course, no visitor to Köln fails to make a church of St. Andrew are preserved the relics of pilgrimage to that legendary edifice, the church the great chemist and necromancer, Albertus Magof St. Ursula. From an artistic point of view it The church of the Jesuits (1636) contains presents very little that is interesting or remarkable; the crosier of St. Francis Xavier, and the rosary except in the choir, the tomb of St. Ursula (dating of St. Ignatius Loyola. from 1668), and her statue in alabaster on a Our
forbids us to dwell at any length on pedestal of black marble, with a dove at her feet. the numerous and interesting churches of this
The legend runs that St. Ursula, daughter of a thrice-holy (and most odoriferous) city. But one of British king, set sail with a train of 11,000 virgins, the most ancient-nay, I believe it wears the palm to wed the warriors of an army which had migrated, of unsurpassed old age—is that of Santa Maria di under Maximus, to conquer Armorica from the Capitolio. It is reputed to have been founded in Emperor Gratian. The ladies, however, losing 700, by Plectruda, wife of Pepin d'Héristal, and their way, were captured at Köln by the barbarous mother of Charles Martel, who erected a chanonry Huns, who slew every one of them because they beside it. It is very clear that Plectruda's tomb refused to break their vows of chastity.
belongs to an earlier date than the edifice which This story is told in a series of most indifferent now enshrines it; and which, judging from its pictures, to the right of the visitor as he enters Romanesque style, was erected about the beginthe church.
ning of the eleventh century. It was restored in The reliques of the virgins cover the whole 1818 (the porch and choir in 1850), and enriched interior of the building; they are interred under with stained glass windows. In addition to the the pavement, let into the walls, and displayed curious tomb of its foundress, this church possesses in glass cases about the choir.
an object of interest in an altar-piece attributed to As in St. Ursula's, so in St. Gereon's church, Albert Dürer. Painted in 1521, and placed in a the principal ornaments are bones; its walls being side chapel, left of the choir, it represents in one lined with the remains of the 6000 martyrs of the compartment the Death of the Virgin, and, in the Theban legion, who, with their leader Gereon, other, the Dispersion of the Apostles. In the perished in the persecution under Diocletian, be- Hardenrath Chapel will be found some interesting cause they refused to renounce the Christian faith. mural paintings, portraits, and a Miracle of St.
The church itself is one of the finest in Köln. Martin, by Lebrun. The Schwarz Chapel conThe nave dates from 1262; the other portions, tains the brass font (1594), surmounted by a including the choir and crypt, are as early as figure of St. Martin on horseback. 1066–69. Mr. Hope thus describes the decagonal
The Church of St. Peter should be visited for nave:-“By a singular and theatrical arrangement, the sake of the great picture of Rubens, forming its arising out of these various increments, its body altar-piece, of the Crucifixion of the Apostle, with presents a vast decagonal shell and cupola, the his head downwards. It was painted shortly pillars of whose internal angles are prolonged in before the master's death. Wilkie and Sir Joshua ribs, which, centering in a summit, meet in one Reynolds both criticise it adversely; but the point, and lead by a high and wide flight of steps, | visitor who contemplates it, however, without any foregone conclusion, will be powerfully im- receive, at a moderate price, a flask coquettishly pressed by it, and will pronounce it, we think, invested in an outer garb of white straw. There not unworthy of Rubens.
are upwards of thirty rivals, more or less legitiThe artist was baptized in this church, and the mate heirs of the same name, sons and grandsons, brazon font used on this occasion is still preserved. nephews and great-nephews, disciples and succes
Until he was ten years old (1587), he lived in sors of the illustrious Jean Marie Farina, inventor, the house, No. 10 Sternengasse where Maria in 1672, of the Eau de Cologne, sole possessors of de' Medicis died in 1642.
his secret, sole manufacturers of the true 'water,' The church of the Minorites, that of St. Mauritus, sole inheritors of his genius. Their lives are spent those of St. Pantaleon and St. Andrew, are well in decrying one another, vivâ voce or in writing. worth visiting. The same may be said—I wish In fact, the question of whose or which is the that I had space to say more-of the double iron genuine Eau de Cologne has quite a literature of bridge (1352 feet long), across the Rhine; the its own, into which neither reader nor writer will noble quays; the house of the Templars, No. 8 be desirous of plunging." Rheingasse ; the new Rathhause, and the Wall- We have now brought our readers to the point raff-Richartz Museum of pictures, founded and where the valley of the Rhine terminates, and the enriched by the two citizens whose name it bears. once grand and rolling river enters upon the low
So much for Köln. But stay, how can we leave plains of Holland to creep sluggishly through the city without an allusion to its Eau de Cologne? winding channels, and finally mingle with the sea To that celebrated perfume, which is nowhere more in two dreary estuaries. Soon after entering the necessary than in Köln itself, though its evil odours Netherlands, the great river bifurcates into two are not quite so overpowering as they were in the arms—the left, called the Waal, and the right, the days of Coleridge:
true Rhine. The Waal, near Fort Louvestein, is “Ye nymphs, who reign o'er sewers and sinks,
joined by the Maas, and forms the Merve or MerThe river Rhine, it is well known,
vede, which, below Dordrecht, takes the name of Doth wash your city of Cologne : But tell me, nymphs, what power divine
the Old Maas. The Rhine proper, a short distance
above Arnheim, throws off the New Yssel, which “My eyes,” says a traveller, " are still dazzled
was anciently a canal, cut by the Roman Drusus by the placards announcing in gigantic letters the to connect the Rhine with the Old Yssel. At sale of this precious perfume. Its distillation is Wýk by Duerstede the Rhine again divides; the most important industry of the city. There one branch, the Lek, uniting with the New Maas are twenty-four manufacturers of it, and upwards near Ysselmonde; the other, the Kromme Rhine, of a hundred vendors. The annual production is separating at Leyden into the Vecht and the Old estimated at from eight to nine million litres, worth Rhine, the latter eventually reaching the North about £6,000,000. But what a display of charla- Sea to the north-west of Leyden. The delta of tanism for such a sum ! The ancient Colonia the Rline is a low semi-inundated level, extendAgrippina has no longer its consuls, its patricians, ing from lat. N. 51° 35' to 52° 20', and occupying its princes, electors of the Holy Empire. It is nearly 50,000 square miles. It is protected from swayed by the dynasty of the Jean Marie Farinas, the ocean-floods by artfully disposed and solidly an encroaching dynasty, swollen by usurpers and constructed dykes or embankments, varying from pretenders, who flood the streets with their pro- twenty to thirty feet above the river-level. ducts, their ensigns, their agents. Every wall is Here, then, as it is only with the German plastered over with provoking bills, which would Rhine we had to deal—with that romantic and be amusing enough if we were not weary with the beautiful Rhine valley, which so abounds in old ' posters' of other cities. All the crossways are associations and chivalrous memories, and which guarded by bill-distributors and touters, who has been so frequently the cause, the scene, and almost take you by the collar and force you to the prize of sanguinary wars—our task is done. 120
Shall benceforth wash the river Rhine?"