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cutting, or dividing; and hence may be derived the Latin corpus and English corpse, a dead bodiy, which alone is the subject of anatomy, and in French the word corps, body, is also expressive of a regiment, as being divisible into numerous parts, or sections. Geometry is ce-thomhas, from cè, globe or earth, and tomhas, measuring. Anemoscope is dil-innisan, from dile, air, and innisan, teller. Anemometer is àile-mheidh, from àile, air, and meidh, measure, scale, or balance. Mercury is airgad-beo, from airgad, silver, and beo, living. Amalgamate is co-leagha, from co or comh, together, or mixture, and leagha, melting, literally, melting together.

The reason why the words and structure of the Celtic language appear so conspicuous in the Greek and Latin, is, with much erudition, given in the notes at the end of the Report of the Highland Society of Scotland.* In this place, it may not be improper to add, that in France, Spain, and Italy, as well as in several other countries of Europe, there are a number of names of cities, towns, rivers, mountains, capes, promontories, &c. found in the works of ancient geographers, and many of them even extant at this day, all which are evidently of Celtic origin; and for the propriety and aptness of the etymologies, we have only to compare some of these appellatives with the Celtic or Gaelic radical words.†

Though the Celts in the most early ages retained an uniformity of manuers, and nearly the same language in all their different settlements, yet, in process of time, from various accidents, their language was altered, and they began to be distinguished by new and different appellations. By the Roman conquest, the Celts in Gaul gradually lost their original name, and were, by subsequent conquests, confounded with the Franks. The Celts, however, who inhabited Britain, or Albion, did not share the same fate, especially those of the mountainous regions of Caledonia ; they were a distinct people, as Cæsar tells us, from those in other parts, and have so continued, with little variation in their manners, customs, and language, since Cæsar's time.

* See App. to the Report, p. 267 et seq.

+ See the Alphabetical Table of Words, of which the etymologies are given in Monumens Celtiques par M. Cambry, of the Celtic Academy at Paris.

The learned Pezron, author of a small work on the antiquity of the Celtic nation, had in contemplation to publish a complete work on the origin of nations, but more especially on the antiquity of the Celtic language; and he had for some years before his death been collecting materials for that purpose. In a letter from Pezron to the Abbé Nicaise, published in Martiniere's Geographical Dictionary, under the article Celtes, he mentions that he had collected seven or eight hundred Greek words, or simple roots, which are derived from the Celtic, besides almost all the numerals; thus the Celts say dec, ten, and the Greeks dexa, the former undec, eleven, daudec, twelve, &c. the latter Evdexa, dondexce, &c.; the other numerals may be judged of by this specimen. With respect to the Latin, Pezron mentions having collected more than twelve hundred words, or roots, obviously derived from the Celtic; and concludes with observing

that the Celtic language is diffused throughout almost all the languages of Europe, and that the Teutonic, or German, is full of Celtic words. It is much to be regretted, that Pezron died before the publication of the proofs, on which his system was founded; such a work is still a desideratum in the republic of letters. *

Monsieur Cambry, a member of the Celtic Academy at Paris, has, in his ingenious work lately published, † announced his intention to exhibit, in the periodical papers of the academy, no less than two thousand Celtic words cited in various authors, and ancient monuments, which have the same sound and meaning as those in the Armoric, or language spoken in Britanny, a province of France. He affirms, that the Celtic language still exists, and is spoken by two millions of people in lower Britanny, and in the principality of Wales, and in Cornwall, without including the Highlands of Scotland and Ireland, where the people also speak a dialect of the Celtic called the Gaelic, which, he observes, was the language of that illustrious bard Ossian, the Homer of the Caledonians.

* As the subject is interesting to the Gaelic scholar, the following is an extract of Monsieur Pezron's letter to the Abbé Nicaise.

Pour revenir a ces princes Titans ou Celtes, comme ils ont regné assez long temps dans la Grece, et même dans d'Italie, où Saturne se refugia, étant persecuté par son propre fils, leur langue s'est tellement mêlée avec la Grecque, qui étoit alors l'Eolique, et avec l'ancienne Latine, qu'on peut dire qu'elles en sont toutes remplies. Vous serez surpris, Monsieur, quand je vous dira, que j'ai environ sept ou huit cens môts Grecs, je dis de simple racines, qui sont tous tirez de la langue des Celtes, avec presque tous le nombres ; par example, le Celtes disent dec, dix, et les Grecs dena. Les Celtes disent undec, onze, daoudec, douze, &c. Les Grecs Evdence, desdexa, &c. Jugez du rest par cet échantillion. Pour ce qui est de la langue Latine, j'ai actuellement plus de douze cens môts, qui viennent tout visiblement du Celtique, et je repondrai solidement à ceux d'entre les savans, qui, ne pouvant nier un fait qui paroît sensible, sont reduits a dire que les Celtes ont emprunté ces môts de Grecs et de Latins. Je ne saurois finir cette lettre sans vous dire que le Celtique s'est repandu dans presque tout les langues de l'Europe, mais la Teutone ou l'Allemande en est toute remplie.”

+ Monumens Celtiques, p. 381, 382.

These precious words, Monsieur Cambry further observes, will illustrate and re-establish, in the most positive and wonderful manner, a number of passages in ancient history, and will, at the same time, give us a more perfect knowledge of the antiquities, origin, customs, and monuments of different nations,

It may be admitted, that M. Cambry is correct in his statement, but while this leads us to reflect on the causes of the decline of the Celtic language, for the last 1500 years, it gives rise to the gratifying idea, that, in the course of the present century, our national language will probably be the vernacular tongue of numbers nearly equal to the present population of Europe. For when we contemplate our vast political and commercial relations with America, the East and West Indies, and other parts of the world, it

may be fairly calculated that, before the lapse of the present century, no less than 150 millions of people, in both hemispheres, will speak the English language, subject however to various fluctuations and different dialects, in proportion to the distance of one country or tribe from another. This is by no

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means an exaggerated computation, when we separately consider the rapid progress of population in the United States of America, where during the last twenty-five years of the eighteenth century, it was more than doubled; viz. from 2,486,000 in the year 1774, to 5,214,800 in the year 1800. Consequently in the same ratio the population of the United States of America will be increased to upwards of eighty millions at the end of the present century.

It is well known, that the letters of the ancient Gaelic and Irish alphabet had a resemblance to the ancient Greek, and in fact Mr. Macpherson had it at one time in contemplation to publish the original of Ossian in Greek characters, or in those in which the MSS. were supposed to have been first written, Mr. Astle, in his Origin and Progress of Writing, * has given a series of Gaulish or Celtic characters, which somewhat resemble those of Greece. They were taken from the monumental inscriptions of Gordian, the messenger of the Gauls, who suffered martyrdom, with all his family, in the third century. Whether the ancient Celtic character was derived from the Greek, or the Greek from the Celtic, we have no positive proofs, and the question is still problematical: yet Mr. Astle is inclined to believe the former.

The ancient Spaniards used also letters nearly Greek, before their intercourse with the Romans. “ It is singular, as observed by Mr. Astle, and no less true, that the Roman characters were generally used in England from the coming of William I. and

• Origin and Progress of Writing, p. 57. 2d Edit.

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