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equally emphatic in calling the Indian education products poor. This being the judgment of a calm and gentle critic of high professional standing, who carefully weighs his every word, it formed the topic of many private discussions. The uniformity of courses of study throughout the United States Dr. Lyte accounted for by the force of the American ideal. In text-books and school furniture, he said, America undoubtedly leads the world.

Every speaker exulted at the important place accorded to education in St. Louis. This glory of the exposition will never be forgotten. It heralded an educational century. Even the Pike "barkers" had caught the slogan, and "It's educational" was an oft-reiterated argument to persuade people to part with their money for a peep at the mysteries hidden from view. Everything was educational at St. Louis.

Superintendent Maxwell, of New York City, outlined what he declared to be the best organization of a large municipal school system, which was, of course, an unqualified endorsement of the educational provisions in force in New York City. He held that the State, and not the city, is primarily responsible for public education. In all the duties imposed on cities, whether pertaining to the physical side, such as buildings and equipment, or to the intellectual and moral, as instruction and supervision, the city, he claimed, acts only as the agent for the State. Accordingly, he declared members of the board of education and superintendents and principals to be primarily State officers, and officers of the city but secondarily. The State should provide education for all and require it for all. It should provide, or require the community to provide, the means of enforcing education on all. It should provide such laws and machinery as will protect the schools against the foolish doctrinaire or the unscrupulous politician. It may avoid the danger of discouraging local spontaneity and effort, caused by placing too much dependence on the State, by adopting laws laying down the minimum of requirements for the community.

These laws should provide the limits of age between which school attendance must be enforced; the minimum extent of school buildings allowed in proportion to the population; and the minimum amount of time for academic and professional training required of candidates for teachers' licenses. They should provide for the establishment of institutions for the training of teachers; a method of removing the appointments of teachers from political, social, and all considerations except merit; a sure and certain means of securing revenue for the schools

and for its increase with the increase of population; the minimum salary commensurate with the training of the teacher and the social position which ought to be held; and, lastly, pensions for old age. It should be made by law the duty of every State executive officer, whether called State superintendent or commissioner, to see that such laws are enforced in every locality, and to determine, with the aid of a council of experts, the minimum courses for schools. The city should always have the authority to go beyond the minimum. Since the adoption of such a law in New York, there has not been a city in the State which has not made its local requirements above the minimum.

A strong plea was made by Dr. Maxwell for local training-schools for teachers. He held that every city of considerable size should maintain at least one such institution. While considering it desirable that a large number of teachers should come from without the system, he admitted that local sentiment enforces and necessity compels the policy of getting the majority of teachers out of the city's own educational system. The pressure of politicians to secure the appointment of sons and daughters of friends and the pressure of parents, he said, are constant forces which must be reckoned with, and which are ever tending to lower teaching efficiency and to break down any barrier raised by local authority. Therefore, he concluded it to be a necessity that the city training-schools should be established and protected by law if educational standards were to be maintained.

Dr. Maxwell has not a very favorable opinion of State normal schools. He asserted that with some few exceptions these schools have not adapted themselves to city conditions. They are, he announced, mostly secondary schools with little professional training, and they have not risen to the height of considering teaching as a profession. With regard to licenses to teach, he advised that they should be granted on probation for one year until ability has been tested; the teachers should be nominated, appointed, and promoted by experts, not by laymen, from a list of eligibles determined by examinations conducted by an independent expert examining board. He even went so far as to declare himself emphatically in favor of appointing teachers according to their standing on the examination lists, thus applying to teaching the principles of civil service. The written examinations to him are an absolute requirement, though he concedes that they cannot be a test of moral character, personal charm, cleanliness, address, or even of teaching power, and that they do not reveal bodily deformity, sickness, faulty enunciation, or foreign accent. Accordingly, he wants the written ex

aminations to be supplemented by oral examinations. He gave it as the rule of his experience that those who have received the high standings have done better work in the schools than those who have received the lower ones. "Nine-tenths of those dismissed have been those who have received the lower standings."

It sounded strange to those best acquainted with Dr. Maxwell's administrative policy to hear him conclude his paper with an oratorical argument against one-man power. Teachers, he averred, tend to lose their independence of thought and action when entirely in the power of the superintendent, and "in proportion as they lose in independence does their good influence in the schoolroom diminish." Yet there is probably no superintendent who has been more strenuous and more successful in making his will supreme in a school system than Dr. Maxwell. New York City has a board of examiners, to be sure, but the members are absolutely controlled by the superintendent. Appointment, promotion, and dismissal are dominated by the same power. is the educational Kwasind, and cannot help it.


General practicability, timeliness, and constructive effect considered, Dr. James Parton Haney's address on "Manual Training" may well be considered the best number of the Milwaukee programme. Dr. Haney has developed a plan of teaching the manual arts which has won for New York City an enviable reputation in this department of instruction. His address was illustrated by an exhibit of typical specimens of children's work so arranged as to bring out vividly the underlying distinctive principle of the course of procedure and to show the steps of progress from the simplest beginnings to the most difficult activities. His paper offered a rational way of relating the work in drawing, construction work, and design to the general curriculum. It recognized education as an organic process, and demanded that the arts be made an integral part of the process as developmental and socializing agents.

Dr. Woodward, of St. Louis, the great pioneer in the higher manual and industrial training, spoke of "Manual Work in the High School and College Curricula." Miss Jane Addams, directress of the famous Hull House Settlement of Chicago, made an impassioned appeal for more humane child labor regulation. Prof. Vincent, of the University of Chicago, gave a charming talk on "Children and Group Morality." It was given in the evening, and was admirably suited to the general audience that is usually attracted to the evening sessions. Dr. Harris, the revered commissioner of education, was assigned a subject which neces

sarily involved many weighty statistics. He spoke on "Some of the Conditions which Cause Variation of the School Expenditure in Different Localities." The paper, no doubt, will be found an important document when it is read in printed form. As an address at an evening session it could not possibly be rated at its actual value, although it was listened to with respectful attention. The amount of painstaking labor consumed in the preparation of the paper must have been enormous. It should have been slated for a morning session, and assigned to a committee for analysis. The information it supplied concerning matters of direct interest to superintendents might thus have been better utilized

Superintendent Elson, of Grand Rapids, as chairman of the committee on spelling reform, reported that 1,545 active members of the National Educational Association had voted in the affirmative and 171 in the negative on the question: "Shall the N. E. A. devote $2,000 a year for five years and create a permanent organization to encourage and direct the movement to simplify our English spelling?" The N. E. A. has been asked to appoint a committee of experts to recommend the most effective and businesslike method of procedure. The committee on uniform system of key notation for indicating pronunciation distributed printed copies of its tentative report of a simplified English alphabet. The final report will probably be ready before the end of the year.

The convention pledged its support to the movement to secure better compensation for teachers, and endorsed the bill in Congress for the extension for free mailing privileges to the State educational departments. In 1906 the superintendents will meet in Louisville, Kentucky. Superintendent Carr, of Anderson, Indiana, was elected president; Superintendent Phillips, of Birmingham, Alabama, vice-president; Dr. Ida C. Bender, of Buffalo, second vice-president; and Miss Ella C. Sullivan, of Chicago, secretary.

The great social event was the dinner given in honor of United States Commissioner Harris. It was an impressive experience to hear the story of the wonderful influence of Dr. Harris upon the lives and professional ambitions of the leaders in the field. The genius of William T. Harris has truly been and is still a great directing and shaping force on the educational thought of America.

The Bureau of Education has of late become a subject of earnest discussion among educators. This is, in itself, significant of the increased importance attached to that office since Dr. Harris has been the head. Before his time it never occurred to any one that the Bureau might be raised to a place of prominence and power in the educational work of

the United States. The Government at Washington still adheres to its traditional indifference with regard to the present needs and possibilities of the Bureau. How little respect is shown to the office by the Cabinet is evident from the disposition of matters that should logically be under the disposition of Dr. Harris. The Philippine school affairs are in charge of the War Office, the Indian school department is a separate organization, Porto Rican education is completely isolated, not to speak of agricultural instruction and other matters in which the advice of the Bureau's chief could be of incalculable service. Not only does the Government deprive itself of the advantages which a wise organization of the various lines of educational effort would yield, but by inadequate financial support it retards also the development of the Bureau into a great educational centre. There ought to be two or three deputy commissioners to look after the growing administrative work and departmental organization and management. Dr. Harris's great strength is in the philosophical and practical phases of pure education and sociology. The clerical business should be looked after by a special officer, so that the chief may be able to devote himself wholly to advisory duties.

One way in which the Bureau's usefulness might be enormously developed would be by extensive and direct educational investigation and by making the results of these observations available to school officials throughout the country. The mode of research supported by the Society of Educational Research would seem to recommend itself particularly for this line of activity. Whatever scheme is adopted, the Bureau ought to be enabled to transform itself into a great clearing-house of educational experience.

Constructively, too, the Bureau of Education might make itself useful in the elaboration of minimum standards of professional qualifications to govern the issuance of teachers' licenses in the various States. The mere publication of the cold facts concerning present standards and methods of examining teachers would be a valuable contribution toward much needed reform. But much more may be done. With Dr. Harris as chief, his marvellous encyclopedic knowledge, his extraordinary power of discernment and classification, and above all his unsurpassed philosophic judgment and the educational authoritativeness of his utterances could convert the findings of the Bureau's investigations into powerful levers for educational improvement over the whole country. Here is President Roosevelt's opportunity for bringing the influence of the national government to bear upon the educational advancement of America. OSSIAN H. LANG.

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