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the press, which had been guaranteed by the Spanish constitution, and was now continued in force.8

In Salvador absolute independence had been declared by the ayuntamiento on the 21st of September, and proclaimed eight days after. Pedro Barriere, who as teniente letrado was temporarily acting as chief civil authority, together with the ayuntamiento of San Salvador, decreed the election of seven persons to form a "junta subalterna económica y consultiva." There was great commotion stirred on the one hand by the vicar Ignacio Saldaña, and on the other by the liberals, Arce, Ramirez, and others. The next day, the people being assembled to effect the election, Barriere, pretending that his friends, the so-called serviles, were in peril, retracted his former action. His words enraged the populace. Then he called out the troops to disperse the crowds, and arrested the republican leaders Arce, Rodriguez, and Domingo Lara. But on the news of his course reaching Guatemala, Delgado was despatched to Salvador as a peacemaker, clothed with ample powers. On his way to the capital he liberated prisoners, all of whom joined his following and entered the city with him. Barriere was sent out of the province; the troops were disarmed; peace was restored; a subordinate junta consultiva was installed, and Delgado continued at the head of the government.10

Before the news reached Spain of the change in Guatemala, Deputy Milla spoke, on the 18th of Nov., in the cortes of the insufficiency of Spanish bottoms for the transportation of American produce, and demanded the privilege of using foreign vessels therefor. He alluded also to the inability of the royal navy to protect Spanish merchantmen, in proof of which he stated the fact that five vessels had been carried off by insurgent privateers from Nicaraguan ports. Córtes, Diario Extraord., Nov. 18, 1821, iv. 12-13.

Men who had relations with Delgado, one of the junta in Guatemala. Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 9-10.

10 Delgado assumed authority on his arrival at Santa Ana, and used it effectively, though without violence. Marure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 36-7. The extent of the province of Salvador was 50 leagues long and 30 wide; it was divided into the partidos of Santa Ana, San Salvador, San Vicente, and San Miguel, with three cities, five villas, and 140 pueblos. Mendez, Mem., 910. The following were the signers of independence: Pedro Barriere, Casimiro García Valdeavellano, José Ignacio Saldaña, José Rosi, Millan Bustos,

In Honduras, on the receipt at Comayagua of the news that Guatemala had seceded from the Spanish crown, the governor-intendente, Brigadier José Tinoco de Contreras, and the diputacion" refused to recognize the government constituted in that city, and took an oath to support the plan of Iguala. This was a virtual annexation of Honduras to the Mexican empire. The partidos of Tegucigalpa and Gracias, and the ports of Omoa and Trujillo, would not accept as valid the act of the authorities at Comayagua, and maintained relations with those in Guatemala. The independence from Spain had been declared on the 16th of October.

Tinoco took the two ports above named, which were treacherously surrendered to him.12 He also fitted out a force to march on Tegucigalpa. A counterrevolution, however, on the 1st of December, supported by an approaching Guatemalan liberal force, set aside Tinoco's control and restored that of the junta consultiva.13

Gerónimo de Ajuria, Francisco del Duque, Santiago Rosi, Trinidad Estupinian, Juan B. de Otonto, Francisco Ignacio de Urrutia, Narciso Ortega, and Pedro Miguel Lopez, secretary. Ruiz, Calend. Salv., 67-8; Salv., Diario Ofic., Jan. 26, 1875, 5; Bustamante, Cuad. Hist., vi., no. 187, 1-29; Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 2, 9-10. Alaman has it that Delgado seized the government by a revolution in 1822. Hist. Méj., v. 474-5.

11 In the Spanish córtes, March 29, 1813, was read and passed to a committee a petition of the ayuntamiento of Comayagua, objecting to the limited scope of the decree of May 24, 1812, which authorized the establishment of only two diputaciones in the whole of Guatemala, and asked for one in Comayagua with Omoa, Trujillo, and the partido of Tegucigalpa, and that of San Miguel in Salvador, within its jurisdiction, which would give the new diputacion a territory of 140 leagues from N. to S., and as many from E. to W. Córtes, Diario, 1813, xviii. 61. I have no evidence as to when Honduras was granted the diputacion, but the fact appears that it had such a corporation in September 1821. The province was larger than Nicaragua, and divided into the partidos of Comayagua and Tegucigalpa, and the nine sub-delegations of Gracias a Dios, San Pedro Zula, Tencoa, Yoro, Olanchito, Olancho Viejo, Tegucigalpa, Choluteca, and Trujillo, having within it the ports of Omoa, Puerto Caballos, Puerto Sal, Triunfo de la Cruz, Trujillo, and Cartago. The bishopric of Comayagua embraced the whole intendencia, with 35 parishes, one mission, and 145 churches. Mendez, Mem., 8, 21. In 1821 there lived in Trujillo about 2,500 Caribs, the original inhabitants of Saint Vincent, later occupying the island of Roatan, whence they removed to Trujillo. They were a rather industrious, honest people. Coggeshall's Voy., 2d ser., 161-3.

12 Omoa by Captain Bernardo Caballero, P. Pedro Brito, and others, who seized and imprisoned the commandant, Antonio Prado. Marure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 35.

13 The junta in Guatemala passed an act on the 11th of Dec. to reward the



Nicaragua had, since 1813, a diputacion provincial, under the decree of the Spanish córtes of May 24, 1812. Its jurisdiction extended over the districts of Leon, Granada, Segovia, Nicaragua, and Matagalpa. Under the new system, established in 1821, and since Urrutia's retirement, constant questions of jurisdiction arose between the intendente and the superior jefe político."

On the 3d of October Colonel Crisanto Sacasa, commandant at Granada, issued a general order to the officers to report with their troops next morning, and take the oath to support national independence, pursuant to the instructions he had received from Captain-general Gainza. Intendente Saravia had been at enmity with Gainza, and when the first steps were taken in Guatemala for independence, he threw off his authority. In this he had the aid of Bishop Jerez and Colonel Joaquin Arechavala, commander of the militia, all three being natives of old Spain. They induced the diputacion and the ayuntamiento, by an act of the 11th of October, to declare Nicaragua seceded from Guatemala. This action occurred in Leon. But Granada refused to concur, and sent its representatives to the congress called to meet in Guatemala. Later, October 21st, the authorities in Leon formally accepted the Iguala plan, thereby annexing the whole province to the Mexican empire.


villa of Tegucigalpa, raising it to the rank of a city, and bestowing on its ayuntamiento the title of 'patriótico.' Marure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 35.

14 As a matter of fact, ill feeling had always existed in the provinces against the capital. This hatred was intensified by the respective intendentes in forwarding their ambitious purposes. Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 2. Lieut-col Miguel Gonzalez Saravia, son of the old lieut-gen. shot in Oajaca, was the gov.-intendente of Nicaragua since 1818. Naturally he hated the independents for his father's execution. Marure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 34; Ayon, Apuntes, 22; Juarros, Guat. (Lond. ed. 1823), 337-8.

15 They would remain independent of the Spanish crown, they said, until the clouds disappeared. Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 8; Marure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 31; Ayon, Apuntes, 22; Suarez y Navarro, Hist. Méj., 387; Bustamante, Cuad. Hist., vi., no. 187, 1-29; Alaman, Hist. Méj., v. 346–8; Wells' Hond., 468. Tomás Ayon, Apuntes sobre algunos de los acontecimientos políticos de Nicaragua, Leon, 1875, 8vo, 50 pp., gives a few important memoranda on the political events of Nicaragua in 1811-24, in a clear, concise, and apparently impartial manner.

The country was accordingly divided into two antagonistic parties, the imperialist and the republican.'


Gainza said to the diputacion at Leon, on the 22d of October, that neither they nor the junta consultiva, nor any other body of men then existing, could decide upon the future of the country; none had a legal right to declare for or against annexation to Mexico. This could be arrived at only by the representatives of the people in the general congress." He appointed Colonel Sacasa comandante general of the forces in Nicaragua, and directed him to install in Granada a subordinate junta gubernativa of five members, clothed with the functions of a jefe político, and which was to continue in power till the status of the country should be fixed.18 Sacasa frankly notified the rulers in Leon of what he was to do, and took steps to carry his orders into execution. But Saravia, with the bishop and the diputacion, determined that no such junta should be installed. The diputacion, on the 1st of December, by a special act, forbade its organization, declaring all attempts toward it subversive of good order and hostile to the Mexican empire, to which they owed allegiance; and warning all citizens to abstain from such efforts.

16 Saravia kept up a sort of underhanded war against Granada, obstructing her relations with Guatemala. Marure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 35. The extent of the province of Nicaragua was 85 leagues long by 75 wide; detaching Nicoya, there were four partidos, Leon, Realejo, Sutiaba, and Matagalpa, with 88 towns in all. Mendez, Mem., 7. According to Miguel G. Saravia, Bosquejo político estadístico de Nicaragua, its population in 1813 was of 149,751, a very imperfect census. Squier's States Cent. Am., 50. The bishopric of Leon comprised all the intendencia of Costa Rica, with 40 parishes, 3 missions, and 88 churches. Mendez, Mem., 20. A considerable military force had been, since 1796, kept at San Juan del Norte; and in 1821 additional defences were erected, by government order of May 2d. This force was expelled after the declaration of independence by the patriots. Squier's Trav., i. 83.

17 On the 11th of Nov. he answered in similar terms the diputacion at Comayagua. Marure, Bosq. Hist. Cent. Am., i. 44-6.

18 Its members were to be chosen by electors appointed by the ayuntamientos supporting the Granada régime. These members to choose every month from their own number the president. Perez, Biog. Sacasa, 5-6. Perez, Jerónimo, Biografía del coronel Don Crisanto Sacasa, 1875, fol., 18 pp., furnishes important data on the origin and life of a man who figured prominently and honorably in the affairs of Nicaragua from 1821 to his death in 1824. In connection with them appear several official letters on events during the period between secession from Spain and annexation to Mexico.



Sacasa had every right to expect that Gainza would support him against attacks from Leon, but he was disappointed. The captain-general wrote him, on the 22d of December, that it was doubtful if Central America could maintain a government separate from Mexico, many towns having already attached themselves to the empire; and that he had expressed the same opinion to Saravia. Whereupon Sacasa, though a republican, made no further opposition to the powers

at Leon.

Costa Rica was privileged by distance to keep aloof from political troubles threatening the other provinces. She had seceded from Spain on the 27th of October, and set aside the governor, Juan Cañas; but when called upon to adopt the plan of the capital or that of Leon, she declined both, preferring a neutral attitude. 19 A meeting of notables confirmed the act of secession, and set up a provisional government entirely detached from that at Leon, which was to reside alternately in Cartago, San José, Heredia, and Alajuela. But this was found inconvenient, owing to rivalries between the two first-named towns; and finally it was decided, on the 27th of November, to place public affairs in the hands of Manuel Peralta, Rafael Osejo, and Hermenegildo Bonilla, who were to reside at the provincial capital, Cartago. Under this arrangement peace was preserved, and the province never was really under the imperial rule.20

19 The people acted prudently; they could but reap trouble from the political complications. Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 2; Molina, Bosq. Costa Rica, 4-5, 17-18; Salv., Diario Ofic., May 23, 1875; Lond. Geog. Soc., vi. 135.

20 It had, from the time of the conquest, a civil and military government of its own, but under dependence of the audiencia and captain-generalcy at Guatemala. In matters ecclesiastic and financial it had been under Leon. Molina, Bosq. Costa Rica, 92; Mem. Rev. Cent. Am., 2. The Spanish constitution gave it, together with Nicoya, a diputacion provincial. Astaburuaga, Cent. Am., 54. In 1812 the province had 22 towns-12 of Indians and 10 of white and black men-besides farms, large estates, etc. The extent in 1821 was 160 by 60 leagues. The cities were Cartago and Esparza; the villas, San José de Ujarráz, Villa Vieja, and Villa Hermosa; the villages, Espíritu Santo, Pueblo Nuevo, Escasu, Alajuela, Bagasses, Las Cañas, Barba, San Fernando, and the Indian towns and settlements; adding Nicoya and Guanacaste, there would be HIST. CENT. AM., VOL III. 4

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