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sewing and cooking. Make this additional work, not elective, or optional work. Two hours' additional work a week of this character will not burden students. Bear in mind that manual training and domestic science are taught for their culture value, not to make carpenters and cooks. These studies are no more practical than mathematics and physics. They should not be offered as electives to afford an easy way for students out of difficult studies.

Unless sufficient apparatus is provided to teach properly the natural sciences, omit them. Physics, biology, and chemistry can not be properly, and, I believe, profitably taught without laboratories where each student performs the experiments and keeps a record of his work.

Have one course of study for the high school, and "keep this course open at the top," so that any student completing it may take the next step in his education. The high school is an important part of the educational ladder; it reaches from the elementary school to the university; its course of study should not "lead into byways."

The following course, which can be arranged to suit conditions in almost any community where a four-year high school is maintained, is recommended.

1st Year. 1. English (Grammar, Composition, Literature), 45

minutes daily.

*2. Latin (Beginners' Book), 45 minutes daily.

3. Mathematics (Algebra), 45 minutes daily.

4. History (Ancient), 45 minutes daily.

*If Latin be not offered, Physiography, 45 minutes daily.

2nd Year. 1. English (Grammar, Composition, Rhetoric, Literature), 45 minutes four times a week.

*2. Latin (Grammar, Composition, Cæsar), 45 minutes four times a week.

3. Mathematics (Algebra, review of Arithmetic), 45 minutes four times a week.

4. History (Mediæval), 45 minutes four times a week. 5. Greek, or German, or French, or Spanish, or Physics, 45 minutes four times a week.

*If Latin be not offered, a Modern Language must be substituted for it. The modern language substituted must be studied three years.

3rd Year. 1. English (Grammar, Composition, Rhetoric, Litera-ture), 45 minutes four times a week.

*2. Latin (Grammar, Composition, Cicero), 45 minutes four times a week.

3. Mathematics (Geometry), 45 minutes four times a
week.

4. History (Modern), 45 minutes four times a week.
5. Continue the subject elected in the Second Year. In
case physics was elected, complete it the first term,
then take up chemistry.

*If Latin was not offered in the Second Year, continue the
modern language substituted for it.

4th Year. 1. English (Grammar, Composition, Rhetoric, Literature), 45 minutes four times a week.

*2. Latin (Grammar, Composition, Vergil), 45 minutes four times a week.

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3. Mathematics (Solid Geometry, Trigonometry, Reviews), 45 minutes four times a week.

4. History (American), 45 minutes four times a week during first term; Civil Government in second term four times a week.

5. Continue subject elected in Second Year, unless it was physics; if physics, chemistry follows it from the middle of the Third Year.

*Continue modern language substituted for Latin in Second Year.

POSSIBLE COMBINATIONS OF ABOVE COURSE.

(1) English, History, Mathematics, Latin, Greek.

(2) English, History, Mathematics, Latin, Physics, Chemistry. (3) English, History, Mathematics, Latin, German, or French, or Spanish.

(4) English, History, Mathematics, German, or French, or Spanish, Physics, Chemistry.

(5) English, History, Mathematics, two modern languages.

(6) English, History, Mathematics, a modern language, Physio

graphy, Physics, Chemistry.

THE HONOR SYSTEM IN ACADEMIES AND HIGH SCHOOLS.

SUPERINTENDENT P. W. HORN.

In one of the April magazines Dr. Parkhurst has an article on "The Decadence of Positive Authority." The burden of his plaint is that there is coming to be in all quarters less and less of respect for positive authority. He is particularly sure that this is true of the school world. For instance, he says that a few years ago schools said to their students: "If you wish to come to us, you must study such and such things;" but that now the schools say: "If you will only come to us you may take your choice of so many optional courses that you may virtually study what you please." In general, he says that a few years ago faculties governed the student, but that today the students govern the faculty.

We school people of Texas must admit, upon reading this article, that we seem to be a little bit behind the times. We really did not know that things were quite as bad as the Doctor says they are. It is our impression that in Texas, at any rate, the faculties still govern the students-more or less. Rumor has it that even in the University of Texas there are some pretty well defined ideas as to which should be the governing body. In the colleges of the State and the high schools, the question has never even been seriously raised.

It is evident, however, even in Texas, that Dr. Parkhurst's article points out something of a growing tendency, even if not an established condition. Not only in schools, but in all departments in life is there less and less of tendency to accept arbitrary and unsupported authority. People have, today, less of awe in regard to the opinion of the minister, the doctor, the editor, the teacher, and even the prosecuting attorney than they formerly had.

They may at heart have just as much consideration for these men as they previously did; but they ask now to know on what their opinions are founded. It is not so much authority which they think little of, as it is unsupported and unjustified authority.

While all will doubtless agree in recognizing this drift in human affairs, there may be some difference in regard to approving or disapproving it. It seems, however, that this is only a corollary of the

fundamental proposition of democracy. At any rate, it is in the air and in the hearts of the people.

As a matter of fact, the rightness or wrongness of it doubtless depends upon the way in which it works itself out. If I am no longer to shape my course according to another man's command, the question arises as to how I am to shape it. If I shape it according to enlightened conscience and judgment, the change will be for the better. If I shape it according to mere caprice, it will undoubtedly be for the worse.

It is my opinion that these things apply to the young people in academies and high schools no less and probably not much more than to society in general. The same question arises with them as to what shall take the place of the decadent arbitrary authority. It goes without saying that it is far better for these young people to be guided by a properly developed sense of honor than it is for them to be cast adrift upon the waves of mere whimsical caprice.

There are, however, several observations which I feel to be especially applicable to the honor system as applied to these immature young people.

In the first place, it is an error to admit that the idea of authority is in itself unwholesome. As a matter of fact, the foundations of all government, whether of church, State, home, or school, must rest somewhere upon the idea of ultimate authority. The less mature the one governed, the greater the necessity for this idea. Human nature at best is "unco weak," and the less mature the human nature, the weaker it is. It is not safe even in the State to lose sight of the respect which men owe to legitimately constituted authority. Still less safe is it to do so in the school.

In the second place, however, it is unwise not to recognize the growing tendency pointed out in Dr. Parkhurst's article. We must recognize it and should not even wholly deplore it. The good government that really does come from within will endure. That which depends upon pressure will lapse as soon as the pressure is removed. The idea of a sense of honor within the pupil and that of a proper respect of legitimate authority outside should work in complete harmony, each reinforcing the other. Honor without authority, or authority without honor, would either be as much out of place in the school world as in the State.

In the third place, it should be recognized that the chief question involved in this whole discussion is not in the element of

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honor, but in the element of high schools and academies. thinking people know that a well developed sense of honor is one of the strongest inspirations to right living. The only question that arises is as to the extent to which this can be depended upon for the government of the immature young people in our high schools and academies.

As bearing on this last point, I submit several other considerations.

Any honor system in high schools and academies will fail if it does not take into consideration the difference between a boy's ideals of honor and those of a man. They are different, just as the ideals of honor held during the Middle Ages differ from those held by the world today. No honor system will succeed if it fails to make preparation for the emergency which will be sure to arise when the notion of honor in the student body differs from that of the faculty. It may just as well be conceded at the start that such differences will arise. Furthermore, they will arise on matters that are of vital interest to the welfare of the school. Such matters as cheating in examination are looked at from two very different standpoints when looked at from the standpoint of mature age and immature youth. Practices which both condemn will always be condemned much more severely on the one side than on the other.

Again, every honor system must make judicious enquiry into the question of the exact amount of strain which an undeveloped character may be expected to bear. It is alike injurious to put too much or too little of temptation into the young man's way. We all recognize the wisdom of the prayer, "Lead us not into temptation;" and yet on the other hand, we can see the point in Mark Twain's story when he draws the moral, "Lead us into temptation." It takes a certain amount of temptation to develop moral strength. It will not do to assume that our young people cannot measure up to a certain reasonable standard of moral strength; nor will it do to assume that any immature characters can withstand with certainty the greatest strain. Wise indeed is the governing body which can see that there shall be no temptation overtake them "which is greater than that they are able to bear."

Lastly, it is a mistake to assume that the honor system means the complete absence of a judicious system of watchfulness. It is not distrust which demands that the auditor of a company shall go over the books of the treasurer. It is to the treasurer's own interest

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