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Mr. Ryburn:

We have heard much today of the aims and ideals of a university. In a civilization so progressive as our own our higher institutions of learning must of course take the lead in the dissemination of knowledge. Here, if anywhere, should be found the sources of fresh thought and original investigation, and thinking people will always look to the university for the discovery of new truths and the propagation of new ideas. To investigate thoroughly and accurately, to consider justly and impartially, to proclaim frankly and fearlessly, should be the crowning purpose of such an institution, and until it has realized this ideal, it has not fulfilled its true mission.

Many factors enter into the constitution of a center of learning, and each has its influence in fixing the standard of the institution, but no element is more vital, no constituent more controlling, than the character of the men and women who compose the student body. Magnificent buildings, splendid libraries, excellent equipment, and liberal endowments, are of value only so far as they are made the instruments of intelligent and conscientious endeavor. Prudent management and capable instruction are necessary for complete success, but even they are powerless to promote their aims without the intelligent co-operation of those under their direction. The student must ever form the substantive factor in the organization. For him the university is established, and through him must its influence be perpetuated. Upon him rest the responsibilities of the present, within him lie the hopes and possibilities of the future. His is an important position, and if in his mental and moral capacities he can measure up to the standard of true manhood, the future welfare of the university is assured. Any human institution is precisely what human being make it, and since the university is in its broader conception the creature of the students, its claims for excellence must depend upon their breadth of mind and strength of character.

The true scholar is he who knows how and when to act, and is not afraid to execute his convictions; a man who is not content with the simple acquisition of knowledge, but who is ready and anxious to make it the common property of all. The cry of the century is for leadership. In political, social, and religious life. public thought is no longer molded and guided by a few masterful minds and courageous hearts. We need leaders, men who are not

moved by every fitful gust of public opinion, but who, firm in their conception of the right, will stand by that belief until it ultimately prevails. The true leader does not gauge his conduct by the trend of public sentiment. Such a man is a demagogue, not a leader; a Cleon, not a Pericles; a Catiline, not a Cicero. A leader is he who perceives the truth, and glories in the knowledge of it, whose knowledge has become wisdom, whose wisdom has produced conviction, and whose conviction has become the mainspring of his action.

The student, then, should cultivate the qualities of leadership. No environment is more favorable to such development than that which is found at the university. The man of independent mind must be trained in an atmosphere of freedom. In his investigations he must find the truth unpolished and unalloyed, without the varnish of preconception, without the stain of bigoted prejudice. Freedom of thought and action is the very soul of the university. It prescribes no goal, it lays down no rigid rules of action, but it encourages the student to think and act independently and fearlessly, acknowledging no dictator but his own conscience, worshiping no idol but truth. In such an atmosphere the individual is taught to defy the mobs of passion and prejudice, yielding not to the tyranny of the majority, nor fearing the condemnation of public opinion. When this condition is fully realized, the university will have attained her higher ideals; her students will become leaders of men, molders of public opinion, exponents of truth, defenders of right.

ADDRESS ON BEHALF OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

THE HON. R. B. COUSINS.

Dean Mezes: There is constant touch and cordial co-operation between the schools and normal institutes and the State University, and those ties become stronger each year. The school system is represented by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, the Hon. R. B. Cousins.

Superintendent Cousins:

The State's educational purpose embraces the organization and maintenance of schools from the most elementary to a university of

the first class, together with technological and professional schools that shall both create and supply the demand for the complete education of the people.

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The inspiration of this innate purpose, which is co-existent with the State, was expressed in the oft-repeated quotation from President Lamar of the Republic of Texas: "Cultivated mind is the guardian genius of democracy. It is the only dictator that free men acknowledge and the only security that free men desire.” The committee on education in the Congress of 1839, to which that part of the President's message concerning education was referred, responded generously, repeating and enlarging the President's recommendations in its report on the message. The committee argued for appropriating a large part of the public domain to educational purposes, for the establishing of free academies in convenient places, for the building of schools for the training of teachers, and for creating one university for the State, rather than two, as had been suggested and advocated. Perhaps this effort to establish two universities instead of one was the greatest danger to which The University of Texas was ever exposed. Its growth has been sure and steady from its beginning to this auspicious day. The public free schools passed their most critical stage in the constitutional convention of 1875, when for a time the very life of these schools seemed seriously endangered. Our independent district system, and the low limit of 20 cents for taxation in commonschool districts with its requirement for two-thirds majority, represent at once the triumph and the scars brought from that memorable contest. Public education has taken an increasing grasp on the hearts of the people with the passing years.

The administration of Governor Elisha M. Pease, 1856-1860, is a red letter administration for the public free schools of the State, for during this administration $2,000,000 received from the Federal Government was set aside as a part of the permanent school fund. This act helped to decide, finally and forever, that Texas is irrevocably committed to the doctrine of the education of all the people, and the work was actually begun. To the administration of the "Old Alcalde" belongs the distinction of witnessing the accomplished fact of the beginning of the University.

Texas has it in her heart to place elementary instruction of good quality, for at least six months in the year, within reach of every child in the State, and to insist that he shall accept it; to put

secondary instruction within reach of every young man and young woman in Texas, which shall be correlated with the life and needs of the people, as well as with the University; to supply the common schools with teachers of training; and to furnish such technological instruction as will develop the inventive genius of the people, so that she may man and manage her manufacturing industries without the aid of imported knowledge or skill; to build a University of the highest rank, that shall exert a beneficent influence over the system. She purposes the establishing of better schools through improved teaching; by the consolidation of weak schools into stronger ones; through local taxation for better houses, longer terms, and better pay for better teaching; through the establishing of more schools for the training of teachers, and the better equipping of those in existence; through enlarging the scope and usefulness of the colleges of industrial arts; through adequate provisions for the University, thus enabling it to approach nearer and nearer the ideals of those who are charged with leadership in its development.

Great as her system of education is, Texas has failed as yet to provide the second step in the series. There is no free high school in reach of the boy in the rural district, although this school is undoubtedly contemplated in the Constitution of the State. The purpose to establish and maintain rural high schools is deep in the hearts of the people, and is working its way to its realization. Doubtless, within a few years, this link will be supplied and the chain will be complete, making a system of schools worthy of a great State.

The county should be brought into the scheme of education, to strengthen the weak schools and bring to pass the State's purpose to educate every child; and the rural high school will be the ward and pride of the county. The school organization will be compact and effective through graduation, correlation, close and intelligent supervision. Texas will offer "equal opportunities to all and special privileges of education to none"-the realized dream of the fathers.

We are in the beginning of really great things in Texas. People and politicians are looking with favor as never before upon the school man's efforts. The signs of the times point to an awakened public sentiment on educational questions, and to great things during the next few years through the development of old plans and

the devising of new ones. The purpose of the people is but partially revealed at present, but the outlines of a more perfect system are beginning to appear, with more and more distinctness.

In the studio of a sculptor there stands the half finished statue of a man of marvelous size, strength, and beauty. The figure appears to be eager to step out from the restraining marble. Month by month the fuller and deeper thought and meaning of the artist appear, as the resisting stone gives way under the patient, careful strokes of the artist's chisel. This is a picture of the slowly evolving purpose of Texas regarding her school system.

In the public library in Boston there is Sargent's masterpiece of art, called "The Prophets." Some of the figures are looking backward with satisfaction upon the pictured prophecies already fulfilled. Others appear dejected and discouraged. Three there are Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi-looking hopefully to that larger part of the canvas yet untouched, where are to be painted the maturing miracles of Christ's dominion over the hearts of men. Accomplished facts in our school system prophesy yet greater achievements for the good of all the people of Texas, rich and poor alike. Prophets of righteousness look with enraptured gaze toward the picture yet to be drawn. They are they who recognize all the schools at once as the objectified will of the State of Texas, and who teach all men everywhere in Texas to say with emphasis, delight, and with a warm devotion, our common schools, our normal schools and technical schools, and our University. The schools are divided for the purpose of work, correlated and co-operative, but they are one in sentiment and purpose, and one in the hearts of the people. All the State schools send cordial greetings to the University this day, and to its new President.

ADDRESS ON BEHALF OF THE FACULTIES.

PROFESSOR GEORGE P. GARRISON.

Dean Mezes: United in sentiment and support, the Faculties extend their greetings to the President through the address of their senior professor, Dr. George P. Garrison.

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