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dents prepared for the work, allow him to offer a one-half course in qualitative and a one-half course in quantitative analysis.

To give such a course as is outlined would require only six recitations or lecture periods a week, with an occasional lecture or quiz on the courses in analytical chemistry. Even if the teacher giving such a course should have to give the course in preparatory physics, he would be required to do not exceeding twelve hours' work a week in the class room. Assisted in the laboratories by advanced students, he can do the work well, and the credits received will be worth their face value. To be sure, to do this work well, a man must be thoroughly prepared, to begin with, and he will have to sacrifice, to a large extent, the pleasure and privilege of doing research work. But the fact pertinent to this paper is it can be done. A grouping similar to the foregoing can be successfully effected in some other departments of a college course, and thus the energies of the members of the faculty invested so as to yield the largest possible returns. It should be remembered that in the small colleges the sophomore and junior classes combined do not make a class too large to do effective work.

That it is desirable for a perfect understanding to exist among our leading Texas institutions concerning this subject cannot be doubted. That it is often convenient and perhaps desirable from the student's viewpoint to go from one school to another is a fact. And it is certainly just that the student in passing from one institution to another of like rank should receive full credit for all work meritoriously performed.

May I, before closing, be permitted to say that, in my humble judgment, the best interest of all our leading institutions under denominational control, the best interests of The University of Texas, and especially the best interests of the cause of education in the State, would be subserved by a very cordial agreement along certain lines? I submit as a proposition for consideration that it would be well in connection with this discussion to consider the feasibility of an agreement among our institutions of higher grade in Texas, whereby a student having completed one, two, or three years' work in one institution may enter any other institution in the group, receiving full credit for work done. I believe that such an arrangement would result in many students from the other institutions spending their senior year in The University of Texas, where they can have greater freedom in the selection of courses in

line with their chosen professions. On the other hand, I think that some of the younger students who now enter the freshman class of the University would enter the freshman class of some of the other institutions, for there are parents in Texas who believe it better for their sons and daughters, while young, to spend one or more years in a smaller school, where the individual student counts for more; and who also desire earnestly that their children should have the prestige of graduation from their State institution, the pride of all Texas. I believe that such an agreement would result also in many graduates from the other institutions in the group spending one or more years in this great institution, pursuing graduate courses. Scores of graduate students go from the various institutions of Texas each year to the University of Chicago, Princeton, Harvard, Yale, and Columbia. Could not much of the work that these graduate students do be done in own own State University at much less expense? In concluding allow me to express the hope that this paper may provoke a discussion that will be conducive in some small degree to educational progress in the great State of Texas.



Any discussion or enforcement of the requirement that a student shall do a full day's work each day is rendered exceedingly difficult by the varying ability of different students in the same subject and of the same student in different subjects. The impossibility of distinguishing the moral value of the effort from the practical achievement increases the difficulty, and the college administrator must needs fall back upon the law of averages, using his best judgment now and then in dealing with exceptional cases.

Let us abbreviate this discussion, then, by admitting that there is a time to work and a time to play, and that we are to deal here only with the time to work. Let us also assume that, on the average, the proper time to work is eight hours a day, agreeable to the practice of the labor unions and to the theory of American colleges, which

with remarkable unanimity, demand sixteen hours of class-room work a week, accompanied by thirty-two hours of preparation. Let us assume further that it is very harmful for one who can accomplish the set amount of work in a certain time to take a longer time in which to do it. Such loitering while at work affects injuriously the mental and moral fiber, and in the end is prejudicial to results and to success. But this is an evil that the college or any external influence can scarcely control, and its prevention or cure depends almost wholly on the individual concerned.

The individual departures from this average of eight hours of work a day are of course large. Many college students-let us not venture a guess at the percentage-work a good deal more than this, but apparently a larger number devote less than this time to their studies. A considerable number of the best students are unable to keep a simultaneous interest in four or five subjects, and hence vary in performance under different instructors even when pretty constant in the total amount of work performed each week. But the good or even the moderately good student need not concern us much here, where we are to deal mainly with the delinquent student and with the possibility of raising the minimum of effort to eight hours of honest toil a day. Undoubtedly many youths go through college and in some mysterious way get a good deal of benefit out of it with very little effort. Despite the eloquent and in many ways valid pleas for the benefits to be derived from leisurely contact with the best that has been said and done and thought in the world (pardon the plagiarism!), nevertheless the world is a working one, and the habit of industry, of earnest effort, is one that should be strengthened, not weakened, by four years of college life. It is precisely the earnest effort that collegians put into sport that makes athletics of value in college life. If the average of effort in study could be raised, the benefits to be derived from a college career would become much more manifest than they are at present, manifest though they are. Let us proceed in detail to the means and the difficulty of raising the average of effort.

In one sense a university is a manufacturing plant in which the instructors are the foremen of gangs of workmen. Hence, in many ways, the methods of business can be applied with profit to college work. A few examples where business system is applicable will suggest others.

1. Regular attendance at class can be secured by limiting the


number of allowable absences a subject each term. If the allowable number be exceeded, no credit for the course should be given. cover certain special cases the limit should be removable by special action of a central officer acting agreeably to his own judgment and to that of the instructor concerned.

2. Frequent written or other tests by the instructor of each class so that each student gets at least two grades a week in a class that meets thrice. The written test is the only way of reaching large classes effectively, for it falls, like the rain, on the just and the unjust.

3. Weekly reports, promptly sent in by each instructor to the central office, dealing only with defective students and promptly acted upon by the central office, said action to result in probation or dismissal, a time limit being placed upon the period of probation.

4. Systematic report of the grades of defective students promptly reported to the parent or guardian.

All of the above methods are objective, and can be carried out as mechanical routine. In my opinion, a reasonable percentage of students should be sent home each term, both for their sake and for the sake of those that remain. It is quite astonishing how a few dismissals for neglect of work tend to tone up the general work. It is a fortunate circumstance when one so relegated to the parental care is prominent socially or otherwise. Further, I think the college should occasionally dismiss a student who is making his courses, on the general ground of being a nuisance,

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While the above methods deal fairly effectively with the obviously delinquent student, they fail to reach the large and very important class which is making its courses but which could do better if properly urged. Students belonging to this group could hardly be sent home; to do so would be unfair and would almost depopulate any college. They can be reached only by appeals to their pride or to that of their parents. They are almost beyond the reach of drill master, and form the material from which the teacher who is an inspiration creates his own movement. The only way in which college routine could deal with such students is by letters to parents telling them that the son or daughter has more ability than industry. The compliment would be appreciated, and results would probably follow.

Difficulties arise in regarding a college as a manufacturing plant when we attempt to estimate quantitatively the article produced,

which is of the spirit and not to be measured in terms of any known unit. We cannot accurately determine the achievement of a student, and still less can we determine the effort required to produce the achievement. Morally we should demand eight hours of honest effort; practically, and, viewed from an evolutionary standpoint, rightly, we should demand eight hours of actual achievement. To distinguish between effort and achievement requires the most intimate acquaintance between pupil and instructor, an acquaintance possible only with small classes and under the most favorable social conditions. Under the most favorable circumstances the judgment of effort will be rude, and upon achievement will the merit of a particular individual be based. Such is the way of the cruel world, such the result of grading examination papers. To acquire merit and to succeed are two different things, and perhaps it is well that it is so.

Making each course demand about the same amount of work from the average student is another important factor in getting a full day's work out of each student. Difficult as the equating of work in different courses under different instructors may be, I think it possible to improve on present conditions. The central officers, by hypothesis, of sane judgment and close observers, can tell pretty well from the drift of students from one course to another how the courses compare in difficulty; the line of least resistance is a fairly well blazed trail. The snap courses and the unduly difficult ones can be located, and in most cases a gentle hint will lead the instructor concerned, generally willing to profit by well-meant advice, to bring his course nearer to the general level. If hints are not effective, then arises a case for judicious executive interference.

Students too generally regard themselves, while in college, as working for a master rather than for themselves. This view, obviously erroneous, should be discouraged by the instructor, who should, as far as humanly possible, make the student feel that he is grappling with the difficulties of the subject itself and for his own benefit, and not because of any caprice on the part of the instructor.

Moreover, students often fail to discern any benefit to be derived from studies, the benefits being in many cases obscure and remote in time. It seems to me that an instructor should now and then tell his pupils frankly what good they may expect of the particular topic that he is giving them. Frankly coming into contact

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