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with the point of view of the student, correcting it where necessary, and commending it when possible, is a part of the duty of the instructor, applicable to the things of his own topic and to matters of even wider range.

Parents and the public generally expect far too much of schools in the way of moral education. It is unreasonable to expect the college, which must deal largely with boys in the mass and which exists mainly for the benefit of those who have the desire to profit by the opportunities to have as minute a knowledge of the boy's character as the parent and to inculcate habits of industry and selfcontrol in four years which the boy has not acquired in the previous sixteen. It is mainly the parents who should incline the twig the way the tree should grow; the school should help, but it is only one and not the chief factor. The college has the right to say, "Do your tasks or get out;" the parent has a harder duty to perform.

In closing, let me express the opinion that all methods which seek to control the daily life of the student outside of class are liable to create evils perhaps more serious than they are intended to destroy. For boys rules are especially made to be broken, and in dealing with them it is well to present to them in not too obvious ways the opinions of respectable society and to deal with infractions of the code after they occur in a prompt and vigorous manner. Students nearly always know as well as their instructors what is right and what is wrong, and resent being told too much. It may be laid down as a rule that rules make sneaks, from which heaven deliver us. The duty of a college is not to see that rules are enforced, but to create and cherish such an atmosphere, such a spirit, on the part of all its members, that the mind is fixed more on doing noble things than on not doing ignoble ones, more on the significant and large phases of life than on the gossipy and trivial. Living in such an atmosphere in constant contact with large views, the student will learn to place himself, to see his nation and his time in due perspective, to master his own powers, and to reach "self-knowledge, self-reverence, self-control."



The meeting of the County Superintendents' Association of Texas in the Athenæum Hall of The University of Texas on April 18 and 19 was an occasion of great interest and aroused much enthusiasm in the educational circles of Texas. It was the first regular meeting of the new organization, and the successful launching of the organization under the inspiration of The University of Texas portends well for its success in the future.

Throughout the meeting Superintendent Carl Hartman of Travis County presided, and Superintendent S. C. Wilson of Walker County acted as secretary. President David F. Houston of the State University welcomed the association to Austin and the University, and in the course of his address emphasized the unity of the school system of the State and paid a high tribute to the teachers and officers of the country schools of Texas. Superintendent Charles L. Block of Hill County responded to the address of welcome, expressing the thanks and appreciation of the cordial greeting and welcome from the University.

After the preliminaries the subjects of the program were taken up in regular order and discussed. Each subject proved to be full of interest and the solution of the problems involved of such importance to the various county superintendents that justice could be done to few of the subjects in the alloted time. Indeed, some of the subjects were, by request, continued to the December meeting. Yet some definite results were attained, as is seen from the resolutions reported by the committee appointed at the beginning of the meeting and whose duty it was to reduce to definite form the conclusions arrived at on the floor of the house.

The first subject, "What Should Be the Main Purpose of the Association of County Superintendents," was discussed interestingly and profitably by Hon. F. M. Bralley of Austin, Superintendent M. L. Moody of Jefferson County, and others. The purposes of the

Association as agreed upon and as adopted in the Constitution are as follows:

"1. To so work together in the study of school conditions and possibilities in Texas, that, by concerted action on the part of the members of the Association, the efficiency of the public school system may be increased.

"2. To more perfectly determine the duties and responsibilities of the County Superintendents of the State, and to arrive at conclusions as to the most efficient methods of school supervision.

"3. To co-operate with the State Teachers' Association and other educational forces of the State in all matters that look to the improvement of the county schools."

The "County Institute Work in Texas" was the second subject to engross the attention of the superintendents. Superintendent P. P. Stewart of Bexar County and Superintendent C. A. Wheeler of Bowie County lead in the discussion, and were followed by many others, thus giving the Association the benefit of experiences in institute work from all sections of the State. The discussion of this subject led to the unanimous adoption of the following resolutions:

"1. This Association heartily and unqualifiedly endorses the law enacted by the Twenty-ninth Legislature, making more definite the duties and responsibilites of the superintendents and ex-officio superintendents concerning the county teachers' institutes and in requiring the attendance of the teachers at the said institutes.

"2. It is the opinion of the Association that one institute of five or six consecutive days, supplemented by local institutes of one day each, is more helpful, satisfactory, and comes nearer to accomplishing the true purpose of the county institute than three or more institutes of two days each.

"3. The institutes in order to accomplish the best results should be held as early as practicable in the scholastic year.

"4. This Association believes that the responsibility for the institute work of the county is placed by law upon the county superintendent, and that the efficiency of the said institutes indicates in a large measure the efficiency of the county superintendent."

"The Scope and Nature of the Work of the County Superintendent is Visiting the County Schools" was ably discussed by Superintendent B. F. Whiteside of Shelby County, Superintendent L. L. Pugh of Harris County, and others, many important points being

brought out and emphasized. The following is the declaration of the Association on this subject:

"We believe that the official visits of the county superintendent to the schools of his county may be made in such way and at such a time as to be of great value in awakening and stimulating school interest among pupils, patrons, and teachers, and we further believe that the county superintendent or ex-officio superintendent who neglects this work has failed in the discharge of the most important duty of his office."

The "Transfer Laws" and other phases of the school laws were discussed with great profit.

In the forenoon of April 19th the Association attended the inaugural ceremonies of the President of The University of Texas.

In the afternoon the following distinguished educators addressed the Association, to its delight and edification: Professor H. C. Pritchett, of Huntsville; Superintendent S. M. N. Marrs, of Terrell; Dr. W. S. Sutton, of The University of Texas; Dr. George R. MacLean, President of the University of Iowa; Dr. James H. Kirkland, Chancellor of Vanderbilt University; State Superintendent R. B. Cousins. All of these addresses were inspiring and instructive. State Superintendent R. B. Cousins and F. M. Bralley, Chief Clerk of the State Department of Education, were elected to membership in the Association. Resolutions were passed thanking the officers and the Faculty of The University of Texas for all courtesies extended.

The following were elected as the officers of the Association for the next year:

Superintendent F. P. Guenther, of Lavaca County, President. Superintendent P. F. Stewart, of Bexar County, First Vice Pres


Superintendent J. T. Brooks, of Ellis County, Second Vice Pres


Superintendent Charles L. Block, of Hill County, Secretary


Superintendent W. G. Gillis, of Milam County, Assistant Secretary-Treasurer.

The Association then voted to hold its next regular meeting at Fort Worth in December, 1901.

This closed the first regular meeting of the Association of County Superintendents of Texas, which bids fair to develop into one of the

most forceful and efficient factors in Texas for the betterment of the educational system. The need of such an association had long been felt, and its organization was hailed with delight by all interested in the educational advancement of the State and especially by those who labor directly for the county schools. This, the first meeting of the Association, emphasized the need of the Association for the discussions, earnest and full of enthusiasm as they were, and plainly indicated the vast field of labor of the county superintendent, and the great number of pressing problems peculiar to the rural schools, for whose improvement we must look mainly to the county superintendent. Could the rural population have been present at the meeting above described, it would have come at once into a fuller realization of the value of efficient supervision to the country schools.

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