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Later on, on the afternoon of the second day of the war against Mponda, we visited his northern villages in two boats to try and detach their inhabitants from Mponda's policy, but we were only fired on for our pains, our chief opponents being the group of coastmen (Mdoka and his people) who have settled as Slave Trade agents in Mponda's country. The next day (20th October) Captain: Maguire led our expedition against this northern part of Mponda's country and routed these coastmen and captured a large quantity of rice, which opportunely relieved our dread of famine; he also made eight prisoners.

On the 22nd October Mponda made overtures for peace. He came to an open space near his, town, under the guns of the fort, and met Captain Maguire, who communicated to him my terms. He accepted them, and forthwith handed over the bulk of the captives whom he had snatched from Tshindamba's villages, and who had been the immediate cause of the war. These we returned to their homes, an action which created a very favourable impression on Tshindamba's people, who, formerly so hostile, were now fast becoming our friends. Mponda also released sixty-three Angoni slaves whom he had intended to sell to the Kilwa traders. He informed Maguire that the remainder of his slaves had been sold to the Kilwa men, and that this caravan was hidden at a place called Mauni, in the hills, near the south-western gulf of Lake Nyasa. On the following day, however, Mponda found he had forty more slaves, whom he released, and sent over to Fort Johuston.

On the 24th October, Maguire having obtained a guide to Mauni, went there with fifty Sepoys and ten Zanzibaris. I give what happened in his own words :

"We went first along the river [Shiré] to Matapwiri's village, where Mponda was, and told him we intended no hostilities against his people. We then went to the hills, which we reached at daybreak. The hill refuge is very extensive and inaccessible, the only approach to it being a narrow winding path passing through granite boulders, some of them weighing many tons. At the very end of the road in a hollow amid the hills are two villages, in the last of which the slave-traders had their quarters. Though none of Mponda's people, who were present in hundreds, had shown any active hostility against us, they gave the alarm to the slavetraders, who retired down an almost precipitous road leading towards Lake Nyasa. They were pursued by the Zanzibaris, supported by the Sepoys.

"In all, seven were captured, and 165 slaves were found in Mauni. I put slave-sticks taken off women among the slaves on to the slave-traders necks, and marched back to Fort Johnston, arriving there at 3 P.M."

The slaves rescued from the caravan and released by Mponda unted in all to 268, which, with 2 slaves freed by Captain guire at Matapwiri's on the 14th October, made a total of 270. › majority of these people were escorted back to their homes detachments of the Zanzibari Police, or by Captain Maguire and Sepoys. Twenty-two of them, however, who had come from reat distance the Loangwa Valley, about 300 miles to the west have for the present remained at Fort Johnston until a chance ers of their accompanying some European traveller going in that


On the 25th October Mponda came over to Fort Johnston d signed a Treaty abolishing the Slave Trade in his dominions. n this occasion he released fourteen more prisoners belonging Tehindamba. He also paid an indemnity of ten tusks of ivory wards the expenses of the war.

Our relations with him and his people now rapidly improved. hey commenced rebuilding their town, and brought quantities of od over to us for sale. Mponda himself, strange to say, affected o be not displeased at our bombardment of his town. He said to Maguire: "Now my people's ears are opened. Before they would

act listen to me.

In vain I told them 'the white man does not

like the selling of slaves.' They would not listen. Now they know it is no use to resist the white man."

The fact was, that before our coming Mponda's position was rather uncertain. He had but little control over his people, and his own tenure of power was menaced by rival and more legitimate claimants to the throne, besides the threatened attacks of the Angoni and the Makaudanji clan. Our fort, therefore, and our alliance gave him a more secure position in the country. He has certainly ever since been remarkably friendly and helpful.

On the 27th October a message came from Makanjira to Mponda, telling him, in coarser language than I need employ, that he was without manhood in allowing himself to be beaten by the English; that he (Makanjira) would show him what war was shortly, as he would descend on him with his five dhows unless Mponda renewed the war with the English.

Unfortunately, the seven Kilwa slave-traders whom Captain Maguire had captured had managed to break away from their guard one day when at the hard labour to which they were set, and, after eluding his shots, had escaped into the thick bush, and thence found their way to Makanjira's. It was partly my fault, because after the first few days I thought it cruel to keep them in the heavy

*Their names are: Ali-bin - Tshamba, Salimini, Bwana Omari, Amiri, Majihiva, Mwinyi Tshande, Salimani, and their place of residence on the coast

is Kilwa Kivinje.

[1892-93. LXXXIV.]



slave-yoke, and allowed them to be more lightly fettered. The contrived during their work to fray the rope which bound them, an so made a desperate run for liberty. We afterwards learnt the had taken refuge with Makanjira.

Having settled matters sufficiently, therefore, at Fort Johnston I determined to deal with Makanjira without further delay, as it wa his repeated slave-raids along the south-west shore of the lake whic had more than anything else brought me up to Nyasa.

On the 28th October Captain Maguire and myself, forty-eigh Sepoys, ten Zanzibaris, and ten Makua left Fort Johnston in th Lakes Company's steam-ship Domira, towing a barge, to procee to Makanjira's main town, which we reached at 4 P.M. on the 29th Here negotiations were out of the question, for the steamer wa fired on with cannon and muskets as soon as she approached the shore. I will leave the description of what then occurred t Captain Maguire, who, in his Report to me, writes as follows:

"October 29.-Arrived off Makanjira's town at 4:30 P.M. Thi town has a population of over 6,000. It extends for over a mil along the shore of the bay facing north-west. A sandy bank o from 70 to 100 yards extends between the town and the lake, excep on the east, where the shore is covered with reeds. The tow contains the largest and best houses we have met with in thi part of Africa. This is owing to the large number of slave-traders and foreigners connected with the Trade settled there, as Makanjira's dhows give him the monopoly of the transport of slaves across the southern end of Lake Nyasa.

"On the arrival of the steamer large crowds of armed natives congregated on the shore and commenced dancing war dances and firing at the Domira. I had great difficulty in effecting good practice with the 7-pr. from the ship. We were a good way out, and the steamer turned towards the coast very slowly, and then swung round very quickly; however, I succeeded in putting a few common shells into the town, and then set it on fire with incendiary shells in four different places. Mr. Johnston, with twenty rank and file and nine Zanzibaris and five Makua, went in the barge to effect a landing on the west side of the town, while I continued bombarding the east. When it became too dark to serve the gun, I followed Mr. Johnston in the Domira's boat with six men. I found that the men had succeeded in burning part of the town under a heavy fire, but that they had been obliged to withdraw to the barge. The Sepoys told me that they had seen two guns in the town, so I ordered them to disembark again. At this time we were fired on from all directions; a Makua in the barge near Mr. Johnston was severely wounded in the neck. At soon as we landed I divided my force into three, sending one

achment to cover each flank, and directing the centre to march tight for the guns. At first I accompanied the left flank detachat, as the enemy appeared to be in the greatest force opposite it, subsequently I went to the centre party. We took the guns m under a sort of flag-staff in the town, on which, however, re was no flag. When returning from the town we found a slave-dhow on the stocks ready to launch. I had not sufficient ce to launch her, so I had combustibles collected, and set her on *. I then sent the men who had accompanied Mr. Johnston back the barge, and began looking for the boat that had brought me, en I chanced to look at the dhow, and saw that it was no longer rning. I took the men who had remained with me, and returned set it on fire again. This we succeeded in doing, though the emy attacked us. While doing so one of them was shot within yards of the dhow. When the dhow was thoroughly alight withdrew my men, and went on board the barge, as the boat ad been sent back to the ship with the wounded Makua. "This closed the operations for the night.

"October 30.—In the morning it was apparent that but little eal damage had been done to the town on the previous day, so determined to continue bombarding the town while the Zanzibaris, protected by a party of Sepoys, landed and continued burning the town. I told Naik Badawa Singh, who commanded the party two Naiks and sixteen privates), not to land if the enemy were present in force. The party was allowed to land, and the Zanzibaris had commenced firing some of the houses on the outskirts of the town, when an attack was made on the left front of the force

by the enemy, supported by a gun. The Zanzibaris retired to the barge; the soldiers were obliged to retire in a north-west direction towards a sand-bank which runs into the lake south and west of the town. As soon as I saw the unfavourable turn things had taken, I embarked in the steamer's boat with five men and Some ammunition; under the circumstances, the only reinforcements at our disposal. When I came alongside the barge (which had been moved to the rear of the Sepoys), I found that Badawa Singh had just been brought there severely wounded. I did not stop

at the barge, as it seemed a very nice question whether I should reach the shore in time to preserve the small force there from being routed. On nearing the shore I found that my men were drawn up behind a sand-bank on the very edge of the lake, while the enemy, emboldened by success, was pressing onward in great force. I landed, issued ammunition to the men, and, as I found them too close together, I made them extend to the right. I then proceeded to the front to see whether the direction of my line was right. There were two large sand-pits immediately in front.


of me full of Yaos;* behind these was a large brake of reed also full of the enemy, who kept up a constant fire, in whic the report of several rifles could be distinguished. As soon I saw that my direction was right, I ordered my men to advane They advanced, firing a volley, and rushed forward with a chee The Yaos in the sand-pits broke and fled in disorder, throwing thos in rear of them in the reeds into confusion. They retired alon the lake shore, exposing a flank to fire from the Domira, whic was run close into shore for the purpose. We were fired on from the first houses we came to in the town; when we had cleared ther out we were no longer molested by the enemy. We then proceede due south, burning every house for a little over a mile, till w came to a river which forms the southern boundary of the town Near it was a second dhow, which we burned. We were her reinforced by the rest of the men, who had waded ashore from the Domira. I then returned to the starting point, when met Mr. Johnston and the Zanzibaris, who had destroyed man of the houses in the centre of the town. I told off a non-commissioned officer and nine men to assist the Zanzibaris in lighting the town, an formed my men in a line to advance from west to east, covering th demolition. A strong north wind was blowing, which favoured incendiary operations. The heat of the burning town became s intense that we had to leave it and take refuge in the reed covering its eastern front. There we found a secluded creek, in which was a large dhow, which we stuffed with combustibles and burnt.

"Makaujira's town was completely destroyed, two guns were taken, and three slave-dhows were burnt.

"Our losses were one Naïk (corporal') (Badawa Singh, 23rd Pioneers), one private (Hakim Singh, 32nd Pioneers), and one follower, all three severely wounded."†

When engaged in destroying the town I came upon Makanjira's house, a large building containing four apartments. Before setting fire to it I took away six cases containing letters. They were mostly in Arabic and Swahili, and had reference to the Slave Trade. As soon as I have a little leisure I will get the more interesting of them translated and sent to your Lordship. Meanwhile, I forward a document found in Makanjira's house. It is a letter of the late Sultan of Zanzibar (with a translation), written in July 1887. By this it will be seen how, even at that date, the Ruler of Zanzibar was loyally supporting us in an anti-Slave Trade policy in the interior.

On the 31st October we crossed over to Rifu, on the south-west coast of Nyasa, to deal with Kazembe, who, although a friend to the Wa-yao; i.e., Makanjira's men.

† All have since recovered.-H. H. J. 20th December.

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