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Sierra-Leone. This line will in any event assure to France th entire basin of the Niger and of its affluents.

II. The navigation on the River Cavalla to its confluence with the Fodedougou-Ba will be free to shipping and open for th inhabitants of both countries.

France will have the right of erecting at her own expense on thi waterway (thalweg), or on one or the other bank of the Cavally the works which may be necessary to render it navigable; it being however, perfectly understood that this fact will in no way infring the rights of sovereignty, which on the right side belong to Liberia In case the execution of such works should give rise to the establishment of taxes, these would be determined by a new understanding between the two Governments.

III. France renounces all rights which she possesses from the ancient Treaties concluded on different points of the Seed Coast [? Grain] (“Côte des Grains "), and recognizes the sovereignty of the Republic of Liberia on the whole coast to the west of the Cavally River.

The Republic of Liberia abandons, on its part, all pretensions which it might claim to the territories of the Ivory Coast situated to the east of the Cavally River.

IV. The Government of Liberia, as in the past, will facilitate to the extent of its means the free engagements of labourers on the Liberian coast for the French Government or its subjects. Reciprocally, the same facilities are granted to Liberia by the French Government on the French part of the Ivory Coast.

V. In recognizing to the Republic of Liberia the limits which have been fixed, the Government of the French Republic declares that it only intends engaging itself towards the Republic of Liberia, free and independent, and makes all its reserves for the case that this independence would be impaired, or in the case that the Republic of Liberia should alienate any part of the territories which are recognized to it by the present Convention.

Done at Paris, the 8th December, 1892, &c.
The French text* will exclusively serve as evidence.

Special Olauses. 1. The Government of Liberia having incurred certain expenses of establishment on the part of the coast which is to the east of Cavally, France promises to pay to the Government of the Liberian Republic a sum of 25,000 fr. as an indemnity.

II. In case Princes or Chiefs of aborigines whose States are placed in the territory belonging to France should take refuge on

* For French text of this Agreement, see Vol. LXXXIV, page 626.

territories recognized to the Republic of Liberia by the Contion of the

all facilities consistent with the dignity ree independent State will be afforded to France for the pursuit capture of fugitives.

No. 8.- Mr. Coolidge to Mr. Gresham.

Legation of the United States, Paris, February 24, 1893. I dtly received your confidential despatch of the 14th January, tructing me to ask for an answer to the representations made hy ur direction under date of the 13th July, with reference to ihe tion of the French authorities in Liberia. The contents of this spatch engaged my immediate aitention, and before leaving for me I had a personal conversation on the subject with M. Develle, e new Minister for Foreign Affairs, who promised that a reply ould be made to my note. Upon my return I recalled the tention of the Minister to the matter. In his answer, which is closed, he states substantially that a regular Treaty has been gned with Liberia, by which this Republic, in return for certain oncessions made by France, waives her claim to the territory lying etween the Rivers San Pedro and Cavally, and recognizes the halweg of the river last named as the dividing line between Liberia nd the territory now placed under the Protectorate of France.

The French Republic has therefore complied with the wish Ipressed in our communication of the 13th July, that no territory should be taken from Liberia without her express consent.

The new dividing line and the terms of the Arrangement made with Liberia are fully explained on the map and in the copy of the Treaty which I forwarded to the Department with my Nos. 91 and 112.

I inclose herewith a copy of M. Develle’s note, together with a translation of the same.

I have, &c., W.Q. Gresham, Esq.


(Translation.) MR. MINISTER, Ву


(Inclosure.)-M. Develle to Mr. Coolidge.

Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Paris,

February 21, 1893. letter of the 16th of this month you were good enough to recall to me a communication which you had addressed on the 13th July last to my predecessor in order to bring to his attention the observations which the notification of the Treaties concluded in 1890 and 1891 by the Government of the Republic with various (1892–93. Lxxxv.]

2 T


native Chiefs of the Ivory Coast had suggested to the Federal Government. After having made on this occasion certain reservations on the subject of the French Protectorate over the territories situated between the San Pedro and Cavally Rivers, which, according to the Cabinet of Washington, have been recognized for a number of years as belonging to the Republic of Liberia, you informed M. Ribot that the Government of the United States would not, however, object to acknowledge the validity of the Protectorate in question, provided the Republic of Liberia should recognize itsell the legitimacy of the rights of France over that region.

The Legation of the United States not having received since then any answer from my Department on the subject, you were good enough, in a recent conversation, to which you refer, to express to me your desire to be informed as to the present condition of this affair, while stating, moreover, that the Federal Government did not in any way wish to raise a question of international law on this occasion.

I have the honour to inform you that the negotiations entered into recently at Paris between the Delegates of the Government of the Republic and of the Government of Liberia, with the view of arranging an agreement in regard to the determination of the boundaries of the French possessions of the Ivory Coast and the territories of Liberia, have resulted in the signing of an Arrangement, which is to be submitted to the ratification of the two Governments.

By the terms of this Act, the boundary-line of the respective possessions of the two countries shall be established by the thalweg of the Cavally River. France gives up the rights acquired by her from old Treaties concluded on various points of the Grain Coast, and recognizes the sovereignty of the Republic of Liberia over the coast to the west of the Cavally River; the Republic of Liberia abandons, on its side, all pretensions which it could put forward to the territories of the Ivory Coast situated east of said river.

Accept, &c., T. J. Coolidge, Esq.


{RESPONDENCE between the French and United States' Governments, on the subject of an Insult to the French Flag it Jeannette in Pennsylvania.—1892.

No. 1.-M. Patenotre to Mr. Wharton. inslation.)

Legation of the French Republic in the United States, - SECRETARY OF STATE,

Washington, June 19, 1892. I HAVE the honour to call your attention to the following facts ich have been brought to my notice as having taken place on the h May last, in the little city of Jeannette, Westmoreland County, nnsylvania. M. Auguste Lelang, one of my countrymen residing

that locality, wishing to celebrate Decoration Day, hoisted the neriean flag between two French flags from bis second story

During his absence one Thomas Spiers, a policeman of est Jeannette, accompanied by two other persons, climbed up to e window in which these emblems were placed, tore down the och flags, threw them into the mud, and tore them. I at first fused to believe that such an act had been perpetrated. It seemed le more inexplicable since the Federal Government, as I am happy > state, has always been glad to assign a place to France when the Var of Independence was to be commemorated, and since, on that ery 30th day of May, I was requested to furnish a tricoloured flag op the decoration of La Fayette’s statue. Before asking your sttention to the facts in question, which were communicated the iery next day to our Consul at Philadelphia, I took pains to ascertain their correctness.

You will find inclosed a report of the investigation which has just been held on this subject, at the request of our Consul, by Captain Lejeune, a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, who resides at Jeannette. This report is signed by three of the residents, who were present when the flags were seized and torn. The facts, moreover, do not appear to be disputed. As you will see, the Chief of Police of Jeannette censured the conduct of his subordinate, but declared that he could not dismiss him, except in obedience to superior orders.

You will doubtless think, as I do, that the best way to close an incident that is so much to be regretted, would be to remove at once an officer who has been guilty of an act which you will certainly condemn as severely as I do. I take the liberty to insist that this case be promptly settled. Our national holiday, the 14th July, is liear; it will call forth, at Jeannette as well as in all places where there are numbers of French residents, patriotic manifestations


which will again be the occasion of placing the flags of our twi countries side by side, and it is much to be desired that, at tha time, the policeman who has been guilty of so vexatious a violatior of duty may no longer be in his present position.

Be pleased to accept, &c., W.F. Wharton, Esq.



Investigation relative to the Removal, on the 30th May 1892, of two French Flags from the second story window M. Auguste Lelang, at West Jeannette, Pennsylvania, by a Police

man, who climbed up to the window for the purpose. To the Consul of France at Philadelphia. Mr. CONSUL,

Jeannette, Pennsylvania, June 15, 1892 On the 30th May last, Decoration Day, most of the Frenel residents of Jeannette decorated their houses with American flags M. Auguste Lelang, after having first hoisted the American flag from one of the windows in the second story of his house, after wards hoisted two French flags, one on each side of the Americal flag.

As the workshops were closed on that day and the workmen wer free, they took advantage of the opportunity to go to merry-making or meetings. M. Auguste Lelang was absent all the afternoon, together with his wife and children, and he had locked his door.

At about half-past 7 o'clock in the evening, after the flags had been undisturbed for almost all day, Thomas Spiers, a policeman of West Jeannette, accompanied by a townsman named John Kockerel both of them being assisted by a man named Harliman, who lent them a ladder, placed the ladder against the front of the house, climbed up and pulled down the two French flags, which they after wards tore and threw into the mud. M. Auguste Lelang had the remnants of these two flags sent to the Consul of France at Philadelphia

Many women and children witnessed this scene, the men being almost all absent. However, Francois Diffem back, a brewer, Joseph Mommaerts, a baker, and Jean Vertingen, also a baker, saw the act and signed this paper, together with Captain H. Lejeune, Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, who was instructed to make an investigation by the Consul of France at Philadelphia.

On the day following Auguste Lelang asked the policeman why he had committed that act of violence and brutality. The policeman replied that he was not responsible to M. Lelang for what he had done, and that he bad pulled down the flags because he wanted to. M. Lelang was not satisfied with this, and went to see the squiro


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