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necessary, to come into his forts for their protection; to assist

repelling the invasion of any foreign enemy; to prevent and uppress civil war and rebellion, whether religious or otherwise, if, n his opinion, the King is unable to deal with such rebellion by himself; to collect customs duties; to encourage commerce, and to repress slavery and the Slave Trade. It would be no part of his duty to interfere in the details of the adıninistration of the country, except where Europeans or other foreign subjects are concerned, or in any cases of gross cruelty, injustice, or of slavetrading which might be brought under his notice.

Neither the Commissioner nor any of his officers should be allowed to engage in trade of any sort, either on their own behalf or in the name of the Government. The system under which, in the days of the Company's occupation, the protecting Power arrogated to itself not only the supreme executive authority, but also a practical, if not a theoretical monopoly of trade, has been proved to have had a thoroughly bad effect. It is impossible to combine administration and trade in the same bands without loss of dignity. It was, not unnaturally, found that a piece of advice, an admonition, or a reproof bestowed upon the King or upon any great Chief by a representative of the Company lost much of its weight in cases where a few minutes later the same representative might be haggling with the admonished parties over the price-in beads or cloth-of a tusk of ivory or of a bag of gum. The Company's officers, quite naturally, endeavoured to secure for themselves all the trade from the Central African regions under their control. It should be the chief object of Her Majesty's Commissioner, on the other hand, to encourage independent and private trade by all the means at his command.

There can be no doubt that, with a prospect of security and of equality of treatment, a very considerable trade with Uganda, Usoga, and the neighbouring countries may be rapidly developed. The ordinary customs revenue which may be derived from such trade will go some way, even at first, towards the expenses of the Commissioner and his staff; while no one with any personal acquaintance with these people would besitate to admit that, with a less restricted trade, the native demand for European commodities, already considerable, will rapidly increase. It would be necessary, at all events at first, to subject this trade, especially in the case of Arab or native agents, to careful supervision, and due precautions would have to be taken against any abuse of legitimate traffic or anything approaching to a trade in slaves. But all these things resolve themselves ultimately into the great question of transport, which will have to be discussed later, and it is un

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eighbouring countries are concerned. Goods going to or coming rom Unyoro or the centre of Uganda by this route would have o undergo nine embarkations and disembarkations before reaching he depôt at the mouth of the Zambezi, and would have to be arried, by hand or otherwise, for 350 miles through an unknown ountry between Victoria and Tanganyika, for 260 miles along the Stevenson Road, and again round the Murchison Falls of the Shiré River. In preference to this, I think that merchants would continue to use the direct roads to Zanzibar with such improved means of transport as may be introduced.

4. A Commissioner to be appointed to reside at Kikuyu, with a staff of 4 Europeans, 60 Zanzibar soldiers, and 239 porters, &c. One of his assistants should reside at Kikuyu, one at Machakos, and two should be employed in at once creating the new station, referred to as a vital necessity in my Report on the road, at a spot twelve days' march distant from Kikuyu on the north-west side. The establishment of this station, with stores of food, and a colony of cultivators around it, would go far to diminish both the expense and the difficulties of the present journey to the lake. The total cost of the Kikuyu Commissioner's establishment would be 6,6001. per annum, as shown in the accompanying Estimate (Inclosure 4).

5. The maintenance of the road and the supervision of the transport system from the coast to Kikuyu may, if no better solution can be adopted, be left in the hands of the Zanzibar Government, which might also be fairly asked to furnish the drilled soldiers required for insuring the safety of that part of the road, and even of the stations of Kikuyu and its subsidiary posts.

6. It must, however, be clearly understood that this scheme, of which I have endeavoured to delineate the outlines, although it would undoubtedly be more to the material advantage of these African countries than the undeveloped system which has hitherto prevailed under the Company, would, if left at this point, confer but little benefit either on English commerce or on the Protectorate of Zanzibar. The whole problem of the development of East and Central Africa, the prospect of the creation of a profitable British trade, the suppression of internecine religious wars, the security of European travellers, the control of the lake district and of the upper waters of the Nile, and above all, I may confidently add, the only hope of really and definitively killing the Slave Trade within a reasonable time-all resolve themselves into the all-important and over-shadowing question of transport and communication.

So long as the present system of transport is maintained along what is called the - English route,” it will be necessary to make greater provision than I have so far sketched for the safety and independence of the local authorities. It is evident that any

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