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akeshift. Moreover, unless the whole system of communication ith the coast is thus changed, the expenses of maintenance of Commissioner in Uganda with a sufficient staff and force must be ut of all proportion to the work to be done by him. I do not for a noment imagine that under the general surveillance of a Comnissioner appointed by Her Majesty's Government there is likely to be a recurrence of the regrettable incidents or of the unfortunate tate of affairs which so increased the difficulties of the Company's position as eventually to lead to their withdrawal; but it must not be forgotten that so long as we rely on the present system of communication and transport, letters and reports from Uganda will seldom reach England in less than four months, and eight months must elapse before written instructions can be received in reply. This throws an unnecessarily heavy responsibility on the Commissioner; and, in the event of some complication arising, either by war or sickness, which might necessitate reinforcements of his staff or of his force, the difficulties at present in the way of communicating with the coast would be sufficient completely to unhinge the whole system which I have endeavoured to describe. Other arguments which may be adduced in favour of the construction of a railway are well known, and need not be repeated here.

I do not, however, consider it necessary that such a railway should be made at once the whole way to the lake; it would, I think, be sufficient for the present that it should be laid from the coast to Kikuyu. This, together with the small steam-boats on the lake, would shorten the time occupied by a caravan travelling from Mombasa to Uganda from eighty or ninety days, as at present, to thirty-two or thirty-four days, and would enable us to reduce the carriage of goods, now costing for transport about 87. per load of 65 lbs. by the English road, and 41. 108. by the German road, to such a price as would effectively secure all the commerce of these regions. If this scheme is entertained, Zanzibar could fairly be asked to bear a share in its expense, assuming that the Sultan's Government has re-entered into the possession of the coast-line leased to the Company.

The additional Estimates which I now have the honour to inclose (Inclosures No. 5 and No. 6) show that the execution of the whole of this scheme, including the railway, should not, even at first, cost Her Majesty's Government more than 50,0001. a-year, a sum which may be confidently expected to decrease as each succeeding year augments the commerce of the country, the amount derived from customs duties and from other sources, and the traffic receipts of the railway.

If, however, Her Majesty's Government consider the railway proposals, even thus modified, to be impracticable, it will then


intry, it is my firm conviction that the consequences that must vitably ensue would be most disastrous. In my opinion, nothing oder such circumstances) could possibly be looked for but imdiate disorder, anarchy, and bloodshed.

1. There are, as you know, three latent conflicting forces at the esent time in Buganda—the English, French, and Mahommedan rties. The moment the present controlling power is withdrawn, ese forces will start into life and come into immediate collision. he result will be that the lives of the missionaries will be endanred, if not actually sacrificed (it is utterly impossible for us to ithdraw), and the work of the Mission wrecked.

2. The English (or so-called Protestant) party will stand strictly n the defensive, but it will, in all probability, have to meet the ttacks of both the French (or so-called Roman Catholic) and Tahommedan parties.

3. Should the latter party ally itself with Kabarega of Bunyoro nd the Nubians of Toro-a not at all unlikely contingency under he circumstances—they would sweep everything before them, and the whole population, whether Protestant, Roman Catholic, or heathen, would be dominated by a Power which would mean the practical enslavement of the people, and the effacement of all the civilizing influences at present at work in the country.

I remain, &c.,

ALFRED, Bishop, E. Eq. Africa.

(Inclosure 2.)—Mgr. Hirth to Sir G. Portal.

M. LE CONSUL-GÉNÉRAL, Mission de Rubaga, le 27 Avril, 1893.

Ex réponse à votre honorée du 24, où vous me demandez ce que serait l'effet dans ce pays d'une évacuation complète des troupes et des officiers Anglais, je n'hésite pas à affirmer que cette évacuation me paraît préjudiciable aux vrais intérêts de ces régions.

Des circonstances qu'il ne m'appartient pas ici d'apprécier ont réuni dans ces pays depuis quelques années tant d'animosités et d'éléments de guerre, que le départ des Européens me paraîtrait le signal aussitôt de nouveaux conflits, bien plus graves que ceux du passé.

Les lois de liberté que vous venez de proclamer, M. le ConsulGénéral, resteraient évidemment lettre morte, si on laissait les nègres libres de s'exterminer avec les armes qui leur arrivent de tous les côtés.

C'est l'anarchie qui a régné jusqu'ici parmi les Noirs qui a été cause de leur profonde dégradation morale, bien plus que l'infériorité de leur nature.

Pour les relever, il faut donc faire cesser leurs (1892–93. LXXXV.]

3 K


ART. I. There shall be reciprocal liberty of commerce between ain and Denmark. The subjects of each High Contracting rty will have the right to free exercise of their religion in the ritory of the other according to the laws of the respective untries.

II. The subjects of the High Contracting Parties will be able to spose at pleasure, by donation, sale, exchange, will, or in any other anner, of all property they may possess in the respective territories, d to entirely withdraw their capital from the country. In like anner the subjects of one of the two States capable of inheriting operty situated in the other will be able to take possession of the operty that may fall to them, either by will or ab intestato, on mplying with the formalities prescribed by law, and the said heirs ill not be liable to pay other or higher succession dues than those hich would be imposed in similar cases on the subjects of the puntry itself.

III. The subjects of the High Contracting Parties will not be abject respectively to any embargo, or to be retained with their hips, crews, carriages, or merchandize of any description, for any military expedition nor for any public service without there be granted to those interested an indemnity previously agreed upon.

They will, however, be liable to be requisitioned for carriages; but in such cases they will have a right to official indemnity equal to that fixed by the competent authority in each province or locality for their own subjects.

IV.* The objects of Danish origin and manufacture, enumerated in Table A annexed to the present Convention, will not be subject, on entering Spain, when imported direct by land or by sea, to pay other or higher customs dues than those to which similar products coming from or manufactured in any other country are liable.

V.* Articles of Spanish origin and manufacture, specified in Table B attached to the present Agreement, will not be subject, on entering Denmark when imported direct by sea or land, to pay other or higher duties than those paid on similar products coming from or manufactured in any other country. The Regulations respecting arms and munitions of war are subject to the laws and ordinances of the respective States.

VI. Spain and Denmark mutually guarantee that no other country shall enjoy more advantageous treatment in anything relating to articles of consumption, deposit, or re-exportation, transit, transhipment of merchandize and commerce in general.

It is likewise agreed that codfish imported direct from a Danish port into Spain will not be liable to the obligation of being accompanied by a certificate of origin.

See Final Protocol, page 871.

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