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they advanced up the Pass, an at- Robert Sale, who had maintained tack was made upon their rear by his position there since the day on the Affghans, and all discipline which he reached it, after forcing was lost. The soldiers of the 44th the Khoord Cabul, and other Passes, Regiment threatened to shoot their we have previously narrated. officers, and broke up into detached Here he was besieged by the inparties: they were cut down al- surgent tribes, the Voloos, the Ghil- . most to a man by the enemy,

in zies, and the Shinwaries, who octhis Jugdulluck Pass.

cupied several old forts about three Of the officers, a considerable miles from the town, from which number escaped on horseback, and they from time to time kept up a reached Gundamuck in the morn- fire upon the defences. Previously ing; here they began to separate, to the arrival of Akbar Khan and taking different roads. The vil. the forces with him, General Sale lagers attacked them as they passed, had been engaged in several enand only one individual of the counters with the enemy, in which whole British force was able to he was uniformly successful, and reach Jellalabad. This was Dr. more than once severely punished Brydon, who arrived there wounded them. and faint, on the 13th of January. An account of what occurred at For some time he was supposed to Jellalabad, written by this gallant be the sole survivor of the whole officer, will be found in a subseBritish force, with the exception quent part of our narrative. of those who remained in the We mentioned that it was stipuhands of Akbar Khan as hostages lated on the part of General Eland prisoners; but afterwards it phinstone, in the Convention with was discovered, that a few officers the Affghan chiefs, that the whole and soldiers had escaped death, of the British forces in Affghanisbut were detained in captivity in tan should evacuate that country. various places by the enemy. In compliance with this agreement,

Such was the result of this most he had despatched an order to lamentable march, which was from General Sale to march away

from first to last a series of humiliations Jellalabad; but the latter officer, to the British standard, and seemed on receiving it from the hands of likely to do irreparable injury to an Affghan chief, at the latter end our military reputation in Aff- of January, refused to abandon his ghanistan.

post. It is said that Lady Sale, Nothing is of more importance then a prisoner in the hands of the to British interests in India, than Affghans, wrote to her husband, that the prestige of our urging him to defend Jellalabad, should not be diminished by any saying, that she preferred death to reverse happening to our arms; dishonour. and this triumph of the Affghans In the meantime, vigorous efforts under Akbar Khan was to be de. were being made to assist the beplored for this reason, as well as sieged garrison, by sending a body the melancholy loss of life occa- of troops to its relief through the sioned by the disaster.

Khyber Pass. Lord Auckland was The enemy now approached Jel. about to retire from the governlalabad, which was occupied by the ment of India, and a new GoverBritish garrison under General Sir nor-General, Lord Ellenborough, Vol. LXXXIV.




had been appointed, who arrived at different tribes, of whom the prin. Calcutta on the 28th of February. cipal are the Afreedees and MinBut in the meantime, Lord Auck- galees) to close the formidable deland exerted himself to the ut- files against us, and in this he most to send re-inforcements to was successful ; or, perhaps, we the frontier, and facilitate the ope- should rather say, their national rations of his successor for retrieve feeling of hostility towards us, ining, as far as possible, the late terrible duced the Khyberries to oppose disaster. Sir Jasper Nicholls was our entrance into Affghanistan, the Commander-in-Chief of the through the Pass. British forces in India, and reiter- On the 15th of January, Brigaated orders were sent to him to dier Wild having resolved to make push on to Peshawur as many the attempt to march forward to troops as he could spare.

Jellalabad, entered the Khyber Four regiments, the 30th, 53d, Pass, and attempted to take posses60th, and 64th N. I., crossed the sion of the small Fort of Ali MusPunjab, and reached the left bank jid, which is situated in a difficult of the Indus on the 20th of De- part of the defile, and the occupacember. Other forces followed; tion of which is absolutely necesand Brigadier Wild, who took the sary to enable troops to traverse command, arrived at Peshawur on the Pass. But owing to a want of the 27th. He afterwards advanced a proper disposition of the forces, to Jumrood, near the entrance of the attack failed ; and although the Khyber Pass, and there en- the fort was actually carried, and camped his troops, intending to for some time occupied by a body march to the relief of Jellalabad of troops, yet being unsupported

as he was reinforced by by the rest of the army, which had European infantry and artillery. recoiled from the Pass, they were

Akbar Khan had used his ut- compelled to abandon it, having no most efforts to induce the Khy- water or provisions so as to enable berries (who seem to consist of them to garrison it.

as soon


AFFGHANISTAN continued.- General Pollock takes the command and

determines to force the Khyber Pass-Description of the DefileThe Fort Ali Musjid taken by the British Troops-March of the Army through the Khyber Pass- Arrival at Jellalabad— Account of the Operations there previously-Important Victory of the Garrison

Afghans headed by Akbur Khan-Death of General Elphinstone Occurrences at Čabul-Murder of Shah Soojah-His Son Futteh Jung proclaimed King-Long Detention of the British Troops at Jellalabad-Akbar Khan treats for the Surrender of his Prisoners-Situation of the Prisoners-State of Affairs at CabulGeneral Pollock advances from Jellalabad- Futteh Jung joins the British Camp-Conflict at Jugdulluk-Description of the different Passes and Defiles-Final Defeat of Akbar Khan in the Tezeen Valley --The British Army reaches Cabul Release of the Prisoners - Proclamation by the Governor-general for the Evacuation of Affghanistan-General Mc Caskill sent into Kohistan-Defeat of the Affghans at Istaliff-Destruction of the Grand Bazaar at Čabul

The British Forces evacuate Cabul. March to Peshawur-Jellalabad destroyed - Arrival at Peshawur-Evacuation of Quella by General EnglandMarch through the Bolan Pass--Proclamations by the Governor-general.-CANDAHAR and GHUZNEE.-- T'he Insurrection spreads to the Candahar District-Colonel Maclean fails in attempting to reach Cabul-Candahar invested by the Insurgents~Victory gained by General Nott-Failure of the Affghans in a nocturnal Attack on Candahar--General England altempts to reinforce General Noti-Ill-success of this Enterprise--State of Garrison at Ghuznee-Treachery of the Inhabitants-Surrender of Ghuznee by Colonel Palmer - His Reasons for evacuating the Fortress

Treachery of the Ghazees-- Attack upon the British Troops-Destruction of the Sepoys and Captivity of the Officers Prisoners sent to Cabul-General Nott advances from Candahar to join General Pollock al Cabul-Description of his Line of March General England advances to Quetta-Victory by General Nott over the Affghans at Gonine-Ghuznee abandoned by the Afghuns and destroyed by General Nott-Another Victory gained by General Noti-He effects a Junction with General Pollock at Cabul.

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VHE number of troops un

adier Wild amounted to 3,500 der the command of Brig- men. After his unfortunate at

tempt to force the Khyber Pass, he which the Simplon is traversed." remained passive until joined by On the 5th of April at half-past Major-general Pollock, who now three in the morning, the troops, took the command of the forces under the command of General destined for the relief of Jellalabad. Pollock, began their march. It General Pollock fixed his quarters was found that the Khyberries at Shumsher, where the army was were determined to oppose their encamped on a large plain, about progress, and they had fortified the fif een miles from the mouth of the mouth of the Pass with a strong Khyber Pass. A portion of the breastwork of stones and bushes. force under his command consisted The hills on the right and left of Sikhs, the troops of the Maha were rocky and precipitous, and preRajah Shere Sing, ruler of the sented great difficulties to the ascent Punjab, under General Avitabile. of troops. Two columns, however,

Attempts were made to purchase were detached by General Pollock from the Khyberries an unmolested from the main body, which were passage through the dangerous de- compelled to make a considerable files, and after negotiations had détour to the right and left before been carried on for some time, it they could commence the ascent. was agreed that for a certain sum The enemy were in force on the General Pollock's army should be heights on either side, but the two allowed to march unopposed. Part columns advanced in gallant style, of this is said to have been actually and gained possession of the crest paid, and as the accounts from Jel- of the hills, driving all opposition lalabad represented General Sale before them. When the heights as in want of immediate succour, were in our possession, General General Pollock determined to Pollock ordered the main column advance forth with with a force of to enter the mouth of the Pass, about 8,000 men; although two and destroy the barrier, which the brigades, consisting of 4,000 men, enemy abandoned as soon as they under the command of Colonel saw that the hills were crowned Bolton, had not yet joined him. by the British troops. As the From Jumrood on the eastern side, latter advanced along the heights, the Khyber Pass extends for the Khyberries retreated, and the twenty-eight miles towards Jella- main column under General Pollabad, and for twenty-two miles of lock pushed forward up the Pass, this, the defiles have hitherto been driving all opposition before them. considered as impassable to an The fort of Ali Musjid was evaarmy, if opposed by an enemy. cuated by the enemy, and a portion As far as the fort of Ali Musjid of the troops of the Maha Rajah the Pass is deep and uninterrupted. Shere Sing, the Sikhs, was placed This fort is situated in the middle in possession of it, in order to of the defile on an isolated hill, keep the Pass open. This body of and completely commands the men ha: behaved with great galPass. “ For about seven miles lantry ; and in a proclamation subbeyond, the ascent is somewhat sequently issued by Lord Ellenuniform till near Lundu Khana, borough, from his head quarters where, for a couple of miles, it at Benares, they are mentioned in runs along the face of a frightful terms of high praise. precipice, like the galleries by General Pollock now met with

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little opposition. On the 9th of the joy with which the beleaguered April, his advance-guard reached troops welcomed the arrival of Lundu Khana, and the whole force their deliverers. had cleared the Pass before the But we must now detail the 14th of April. This is the first

This is the first events that had taken place at Jel. instance in history of an army lalabad, before the seasonable juncforcing its way through these tion was effected; and we cannot dreaded defiles against an enemy. do better than give part of a deEven Nadir Shah, the great Per- spatch from Sir Robert Sale, in sian conqueror of India, was com- which, at some length, he narrates pelled to purchase from the Khy. what had occurred since reaching berries an unmolested passage for Jellalabad, in November last year. his troops. And although the It is dated “ Jellalabad, 16th British troops had not to engage April, 1842:"— in a contest with the enemy “ I found the walls of Jellalathroughout the whole of their ad- bad in a state which might have vance, it was owing to the deter- justified despair as to the possimined courage with which they bility of defending them. The gained possession of the heights, enceinte was far too extensive for and drove the Khyberries before my small force, embracing a cirthem when they first entered the cumference of upwards of 2,300 Pass, that the hostile forces re- yards. Its tracing was vicious in treated before them, and thus the extreme ; it had no parapet enabled our army to march in excepting for a few hundred yards, comparative safety through defiles which there was not more than which, properly defended, would two feet high. Earth and rubbish be impassable. The Sikh troops had accumulated to such an extent were left in possession of the about the ramparts, that there were Khyber Pass; and on the 27th of roads in various directions across April, the two brigades consisting and over them into the country. of about 4,000 men, which General There was a space of 400 yards Pollock had been unable to wait together on which none of the for commenced their march through garrison could show themselves,

, it, under the command of Colonel excepting at one spot: the poBolton. The advance of these pulation within was disaffected, troops had been delayed; and, as and the whole enceinte was surwe before mentioned, the urgency rounded by ruined forts, walls, of General Sale's situation did not mosques, tombs, and gardens, from allow General Pollock to stay for which a fire could be opened upon their arrival.

the defenders at twenty or thirty On the morning of the 16th of yards. April, the troops under the com- The garrison took full possesmand of the latter General came sion of the town in such a state on in sight of Jellalabad, after a march the morning of the 15th of Novemof thirteen days since leaving Jum- ber, and in the course of the day rood. The greeting on both sides the place, and detached hills by was most enthusiastic. The gar- which on one side it is commanded, rison thronged the walls of the were surrounded and surmounted fortress, and loud cheers, mingling by a force of not fewer than 5,000 with the roar of cannon, attested insurgents. A general attack on


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