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Abandoned as this garrison has Day after day the murderous been in the very centre of the attacks continued, and the unforenemy's country, cut off from all

tunate troops were reduced to the communication with any quarter, last extremity of hunger and thirst, and without a sufficiency of water under a galling fire from the sureven at this season, with 200 men rounding multitudes, when the detached to hold an outpost which Sepoys, who were the peculiar obis destitute of water, and must jects of the hatred of the Ghazees, have fallen in forty-eight hours, on the 10th of March, announced nothing but capitulation remained their determination to force their From the outpost falling into the way out of the town, and endeahands of the enemy, they would vour to get to Peshawur, which command our only well and com- they fancied was distant not more manding fort; the whole garrison than fifty or sixty miles. Accordwould have been des ved in a ingly, the officers seeing that they few days.

The bearer has re- had lost all control over their men, cived only subsistence on the road, surrendered that night to Shumand is to receive a handsome re- soodeen and the other Ghazee ward on delivering this letter. We chiefs, who swore that they should have upwards of 100 sick and be honourably treated, and sent to wounded, and 137 casualties. The Cabul as soon as possible. A large officers, including Captain Burnett, party of Sepoys attempted to put 54th, and Lieutenant Crawford, their plan into execution, but soon S. S. Force, are all well.

becoming bewildered in the snow, “ I have, &c.

were in the morning all cut to (Signed) “J. PALMER, pieces, or made prisoners. The á Lt.-Col. Pol. Agent, commg. unfortunate officers were kept in at Ghuznee.

rigorous confinement in a small “ P.S. There is great reason room, swarming with vermin, and to fear for our safety, as there are Colonel Palmer was tortured, in some thousands of Ghazees in the order to make him give up some city, whom the chiefs cannot dis- treasure, which the Ghazees said perse. The snow is still deep. the British troops had buried. It No tidings from the southward ; was not until the 19th of August, but report says, the troops hold that the prisoners were taken from the city of Candahar and are daily their dungeon, and sent in camelfighting"

chairs to Cabul, where they joined On the 6th of March, they their fellow prisoners under the marched out from the citadel, and custody of Akbar Khan. were quartered in a portion of the When the time had arrived for town immediately below.

the advance of the British troops, new proof was immediately given under the command of General of Affghan treachery ; for the Pollock, from Jellalabad to Cabul, troops had hardly taken possession General Nott determined to march of the lodgings assigned to them, upon the latter capital from Canwhen they were suddenly attacked dahar, in order to co-operate with by the infuriated Ghazees; and it General Pollock, in case the rewas with the utmost difficulty that sistance offered by Akbar Khan they saved themselves from a total should be of such a nature as to massacre

render a reinforcement of the Bri

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tish troops, which were approach- is open and undulating, with no ing Cabul in a north-westerly di- impediment to military movements. rection, necessary.

The main road from Ghuznee to. Candahar, therefore, was evacu- wards Cabul, lies over a succession ated by General Nott and the of hills and ravines, very trying for forces under his command, on the draught cattle. At about eight 7th and 8th of August. The miles distant is a defile of about nature of the country which he 200 yards, which Major Hough had to traverse before he could says,f' a few guns and a small body reach Cabul, will be understood of infantry could defend against from the following sketch, taken very superior numbers. The road

' from a contemporary publication: is then excellent. Then come de.

His route lay “ along the valley files and à narrow valley easily of the Turnuk River up to its defended. These difficult places source, in the hills near Muhoor, increase, narrow defiles, loose about sixty miles from Ghuznee. ground, and broad canals, afforda The road is over occasional tats, ing many opportunities for anskirted by the mountains, and noying an advancing army.. At rugged, broken, and narrow ground. Mydan, seventy miles from GhuzThe defile of Pootee, about forty nee, the road crosses the Cabul miles from Candabar, extending River, and turns up to the right, 200 yards, is only ten or fifteen into a narrow valley, well calcufeet broad. Beyond the road is lated for defence. The ground at over a low and open country, Mydan is the strongest between which may be flooded. The val- Ghusnee and Cabul, affording a ley then narrows and approaches most commanding position. The the river ; ravines of considerable road continues broken, intersected depth occur, which incommode the by deep ravines and defiles, till in motions of an army carrying (like the vicinity of Cabul, about 100 that of General Nott,) a battering miles from Ghuznee.” train. Khelat-i-Ghilzie is on a At the same time that General hill, where a fort once stood which Nott commenced his march, Major, almost baffled the Emperor Baber. General England left the neighThence the road is very passable, bourhood of Candahar, where he though intersected by nullahs and had been encamped with a body water-courses, narrowing near Abee of troops, and advanced towards Tazee, and becoming very precipi- Quetta. This latter officer now, tous at Shuftul. Afterwards, it in pursuance of the orders of the becomes more open and level, the Indian government, assumed the elevation, however, still increas- political responsibility as well as ing, till at Ghuznee it attains the chief military command in 7,726 feet, or 3,242 feet above Scinde and the south-western part Candahar. From Punjuk, 130 of Affghanistan, in consequence of miles from this last-named city, the absence of General Nott, who the land is well cultivated, with pushed forward as rapidly as posnumerous mud - walled villages, sible, and soon came into collision clumps of trees, and orchards:

with the forces of the enemy. small forts occur frequently, some- When the British troops on the times covering the plain. The 29th of August reached Gonine, ground from Nannee to Ghuznee thirty-eight miles S. W. of Ghuz


nee, they found that Shumseodeen, before them 'until every point was the Affghan Governor of that gained. The general then ordered fortress, was in the vicinity of two regiments of infantry and their camp, with about 12,000 some light guns, to occupy the men under him.

General Nott village of Bullal, which is siadvanced to meet them with one- tuated about 600 yards from the half of his force. The enemy ap- walls of Ghuznee, intending to proached in the most gallant man- place them in heavy battery. This ner; each division cheering as

service was

soon accomplished ; they came into position—their left but when the guns were moved being on a hill of some elevation, from the camp on the morning of their centre and right along a low the 6th, and before they reached ridge; while their flank rested on the destined position, it was ascera fort filled with men. They tained that the enemy had evacuopened a fire of small arms, sup

ated the fortress. General Nott ported by two 6-pounder horse. then gave directions that the City artillery guns, which were admi- of Ghuznee and the whole of its mirably served.

works should be destroyed. By The British columns advanced this successful exploit, the triumph upon the different points with great of our arms in this quarter of Affregulairty and steadiness ; and, ghanistan was complete, and the after a short and spirited contest, supremacy of British skill and completely defeated the enemy, valour was again asserted, as it capturing their guns, tents, and had been when the Fortress of ammunition, and dispersing them Ghuznee first fell into our hands, in every direction. Shumsoodeen during the march of the British fied in the direction of Ghuznee, army to Cabul, under the comaccompanied by about thirty horse- mand of Sir John Keane. men.

General Nott now advanced On the 5th of September, Gene upon Cabul, and had one more ral Nott moved on Gluznee. He encounter with the Affghans, found the city full of men, and a

whom he found to the number of range of mountains running N. E. 12,000, prepared to intercept his of the fortress, covered by heavy march upon Mydan. They were bodies of cavalry and infantry;

under the command of Shumsoowhile the gardens and ravines deen and other chiefs, and occupied near the town were also occupied a succession of strong mountains. by the enemy:

A considerable The account given by the Genereinforcement from Cabul had ar

ral of his success over the enemy rived at Ghuznee, under the com- on this occasion has the merit of mand of Sultan Jan.

brevity :-" Our troops dislodged General Nott having made a them in gallant style; and their reconnoisance, determined to carry conduct afforded me the greatest the mountain positions, before en- satisfaction." camping his force.

General Nott then resumed his accordingly were ordered to ascend march, and effected a junction the heights, which they did in with General Pollock af Cabul gallant style, driving the enemy without further molestation.

The troops


CHINA.-Departure of the British squadron from Hong-Kong to

Amoy-Account of the fortifications of Amoy-Attack upon the City and successful result - Proclamation by Sir Henry PottingerArrival of the Armament at Chusan--Ting-hae taken by the British -Expedition proceeds to Ningpo-Description of the city of Chinghae— Taking of Chinghae by assaull- Taking of Ningpo-Chinese fortify the banks of the Canton river-Sir H. Pottinger returns to Canton-- Attempt of the Chinese to retake Ningpo-Rout of the Chinese at Tse-kee-Ningpo evacuated by the British Capture of Chapoo-Description of the city of Chapoo-Subsequent operations of the British squadron-1t enters the Yang-tze river - Elepoo appointed High Commissioner— Arrival of the Armament at China keang foo-Description of the city-Attack upon Chin-keang.fooTaking of it by assault-The Squadron sails to Nankin- Description of Nankin-Suspension of hostilities-Negotiations for peace between the Chinese Commissioners and Sir Henry Pottinger-Terms of the Treaty-Report from the Chinese Commissioner to the Emperor.

E resume our narrative of China—and the important conse

China-in which success could be to flow from a peaceful and more attended with little honour, and unrestricted intercourse with the failure would have been disgrace. vast population of that kingdom British skill and valour have per- will be some compensation for havhaps never been engaged in an en- ing engaged in so questionable a terprise where fewer laurels were quarrel. to be gained than in our quarrel We stated in our preceding vowith the Celestial Empire ; for lume,* that in the month of Auwhether we regard the origin of gust last year, Sir H. Pottinger the dispute, or the nature of the and Sir W. Parker had sailed for opposition which our troops had to Hong-kong, which was the place encounter, we are compelled to of rendezvous for the ships destined admit that little reputation was to for the expedition to the northbe gained by a series of bloodless ward. On the 21st, the ships sailed triumphs over a weak and vain- from the island and anchored on glorious enemy. We are there- the evening of the 25th in the fore happy to have it in our power harbour of Amoy. The population to bring to a close in the present volume our history of the war in

* Vol. lxxxiii. p. 285.



of this city is said to have amounted fifteen feet high, and was of course to 70,000, and the Chinese army intended to protect their flank garrisoning it was about 10,000 from our troops. Two semi-cirstrong. On the next morning a cular batteries are in the middle of flag of truce came on board the the wall, and at the end nearest admiral's ship (the Wellesley) to the town one larger one, which is inquire the object of the visit. The built of granite, covered with following account of the fortifica- chunam ; it is supposed that several tions and defences of Amoy proves of the mandarins occupied it: they how serious would have been the continued firing to the very last, attempt to take it by storm if it when some of their

guns were

dis. had been occupied by a brave and mounted, the walls nearly knocked skilful garrison.

down, and long after our troops - From the islands at the en. had landed and hoisted the ensign trance of the harbour to Cohun- at the other end of the wall. A soo, the island is about four miles, high hill runs along the coast and good anchorage all the way up for comes abruptly down behind the line-of-battle ships to about 400 long battery, and divides the town, or 500 yards from the shore. or rather its suburbs, into two all the islands at the entrance are parts; the walled city, which is placed batteries. The 'long bate not more than a sixth of the whole, tery' in the straight line contains is on the other side of the hill.” seventy-six guns, forty feet be- The whole number of guns tween each, making it more than amounted to about 500-and the half a mile long; this battery is Chinese fancied_the place to be built of solid granite work, being impregnable.

The attack comabout fifteen feet thick at the bot- menced at noon the following day tom, and nine at the top, and by the steamer Sesostris passing about fifteen feet high ; excepting along the battery of seventy-six at the embrasures for the guns, it guns, and opening her fire of shot is entirely faced with a coating of and shell upon the battery and mud quite two feet thick ; above town which was situated behind a the embrasures is also a coating of semi-circular battery at the end of the same; the masonry is beautiful, that which we have designated as and quite solid ; and all who have the long one. She was soon sucseen it declare they have never ceeded by the other vessels taking seen anything so strong or so well

well up their positions, and anchoring built ; indeed, the proof is, that along the line of batteries on the after four hours' hard fighting, not right at point-blank distances, so

' one single breach was made in it that they were enabled to pour in by our guns, though placed at a tremendous fire in a continuous point-blank range. On each side stream. The Chinese guns were of their guns several sand bags soon partially silent; but whenwere placed, so as to protect them ever the firing of the ships at all when loading and firing. At the relaxed, they recommenced. This end furthest from the town is lasted for about two hours, when built a strong granite wall, about the landing of a body of our troops half a mile long, with loop-holes (the Royal Irish, with Sir À. at the top for their matchlocks, Gough at their head) was effected but no guns; it is about ten or at that end of the battery furthest


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