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from the city. They were towed in boats close to the shore, and immediately formed upon the heath. At the same time another body, consisting of the 26th regiment, marines, and sailors, attacked and carried the two batteries on the island Cohun-soo, consisting of fifty guns. The Chinese did not await the attack of Sir H. Gough and the troops that landed with him; but, after discharging a few arrows and shots, fled precipitately over the hill to the city. No far ther resistance was made to the advance of the British, and before dusk the fortifications were in our possession. The next morning, Sir H. Gough, at the head of the troops, marched into the city, meeting with no opposition. The mandarins and soldiers had all fled, leaving the city occupied by a few coolies. This success was attained without the loss of a single life on our part, the only casualties being a few wounds occasioned by the arrows of the Chinese. The num ber of Chinese killed is supposed not to have exceeded 150. When the British troops landed, the mandarin, who was second in command, rushed into the sea and drowned himself. Another was seen to cut his throat and fall in front of the soldiers as they advanced.

On the 30th of August the troops were withdrawn from the city, but the island of Cohun-soo was retained, which is distant about 1200 yards from Amoy. Here 500 men were left as a gar rison, and the Druid frigate and Pylades sloop remained also, with orders to shell the town on the first demonstration of hostilities.

In the proclamation addressed by Sir H. Pottinger on this occasion to "Her Britannic Majesty's subjects in China," he says:

"Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary deems it quite superfluous to say one word as to the manner in which this important service has been performed. The facts require no eulogium. The Chinese government vainly imagined that they had rendered Amoy impregnable, but were undeceived in presence of the viceroy of the provinces of Chekeang and Fokien (who, with a number of high officers, witnessed the attacks from the heights above the town), in the short space of four hours from the firing of the first gun; and had the opposition been a hundred times greater than it was, the spirit and bearing of all employed showed that the result must have been the same."

A continuance of bad weather prevented the expedition from putting to sea and continuing its progress northwards before the 5th of September. On the 21st it reached the Chusan group of islands, and afterwards reconnoitered the defences of Ting-hae and Chusan harbour, where the Chinese had erected very extensive and formidable works since we quitted that part of the coast in the month of February last year. The troops were disembarked on the 1st of October in two divisions, and supported by the fire of the ships; they quickly drove the Chinese, who, on this occasion, made a more resolute stand than usual, from their works at Ting-hae, although they were at first assailed by a heavy discharge of gingals and matchlocks from the heights. The walls of Ting-hae were escaladed without opposition, and by 2 P.M., the British colours waved over the fortifications. In this engagement the enemy suffered severely, and several mandarins were killed, while on

our side only two were killed and twenty-four wounded.

The state of the weather was such that no farther proceedings could be taken till the 7th, when the troops were re-embarked, and the expedition proceeded to Ning po. On the evening of the 9th the whole of the squadron and transports were anchored off Chinghae, of which we extract the following account from the dispatch of Sir W. Parker.

"The city of Chinghae, which is enclosed by a wall thirty-seven feet in thickness, and twenty-two feet high, with an embrasured parapet of four feet high, and nearly two miles in circumference, is situated at the foot of a very commanding peninsular height, which forms the entrance of the Tahee river on its left or north bank, on the summit is the citadel, which, from its strong position, is considered the key to Chinhae, and the large and opulent city of Ningpo, about fifteen miles up the river; and it is so important as a military post, that I trust I may be excused for attempting to describe it. It stands about 250 feet above the sea, and is encircled also by a strong wall with very substantial iron-plated grates at the east and west ends. The north and south sides of the height are exceedingly steep: the former accessible only from the sea by a narrow winding path from the rocks at its base, the south side and eastern end being nearly precipitous. At the east end of the citadel, out side its wall, twenty-one guns were mounted in three batteries of masonry and sand bags to defend the entrance of the river. The only communication between the citadel and city is on the west side by a steep but regular cause

way, to a barrier gate at the bottom of the hill, where a wooden bridge over a wet ditch connects it with the isthmus and the gates of the city; the whole of which are covered with iron plates and strongly secured. The space on the isthmus between the citadel hill and the city wall is filled up towards the sea with a battery of five guns, having a row of strong piles driven in a little beach in front of it, to prevent a descent in that quarter; and on the river side of the isthmus are two batteries adjoining the suburbs, and mounting twenty-two and nineteen guns, for flanking the entrance; twenty-eight guns of different sizes and numerous gingals were also planted on the city walls, principally towards the sea."

The next morning (the 10th,) the troops were landed, protected by the ships of war and steamers, which took up such positions as to be able to cannonade the citadel and eastern part of the city walls. The steamers performed excellent service with their guns, and though for a considerable time under a heavy fire from the river batteries, they sustained no damage.

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"About 11 o'clock," states Sir W. Parker, the Admiral in command of the fleet, we had the gratification of seeing the British colours planted by the troops in one of the batteries on the opposite shore; and in a few minutes the others on that side were all carried, and the Chinese observed flying in every direction before our gallant soldiers on the heights. At a quar ter past eleven, the wall of the citadel was breached by the fire from the ships, and the defences being reduced to a ruinous state, the Chinese abandoned their guns, which they had hitherto worked

with considerable firmness, and a large portion of the garrison retreated precipitately towards the city. Not a moment was lost in making the signal for landing the battalion of seamen and marines, with the detachments of artillery and sappers (the whole under the command of Captain Herbert, of the Blenheim). Before noon the boats were all on shore; every impediment presented by the difficulty of landing on rugged rocks was overcome, and the force gallantly advanced to the assault, with a celerity that excited my warmest admiration. An explosion at this time took place in a battery near the citadel gate; and the remnant of the garrison fled without waiting to close it. The citadel was therefore rapidly entered, and the union jack displayed on the walls. Our people had scarcely passed within them when another explosion occurred, happily without mischief, but whether by accident or design is uncertain. Captain Herbert having secured this post, quickly re-formed his men, and advanced towards the city; the Chinese still occupying in considerable force the walls of it, as well as the two batteries beneath the hill on the river side, against which our troops had already turned some of the guns taken on the right bank. A few volleys of musketry speedily dislodged them from both positions, and the battalion of seamen and marines pushed on in steady and excellent order to attack the city. The wall (twenty-six feet high,) was escaladed in two places, and in a short time complete possession was taken of Chinhae, the Chinese troops having made their escape through the western gate."

It having been determined to

push on with the least possible delay to Ningpo, Sir W. Parker proceeded on the 12th in the Nemesis steamer, to ascertain the practicability of the river, and having returned in the evening, arrangements were made for the attack on the following morning. The troops destined for the service were under the command of Sir Hugh Gough, whose account of our taking possession of Ningpo we transcribe :

"Having left the 55th, with the exception of the light company, 100 of the Royal Marines, with detachments of artillery and sappers in Chinhae, the rest of the force, about 750 bayonets, exclusive of the artillery and sappers, embarked in steamers by eight, A. M., on the 13th, and we reached Ningpo at three o'clock. No enemy appeared, and it was evident that no ambuscade was intended, as the inhabitants densely thronged the bridge of boats, and collected in clusters along both banks. The troops landed on and near the bridge, and advanced to the city gate, which was found barricaded; but the walls were soon escaladed, and the Chinese assisted in removing the obstructions and opening the gate. The little force of soldiers, seamen, and marines, drew up on the ramparts, the band of the 18th playing God save the Queen.' The second city of the province of Che-keang, the walls of which are nearly five miles in circumference, with a population of 300,000 souls, has thus fallen into our hands. The people all appear desirous of throwing themselves under British protection, saying publicly that their mandarins had deserted them, and their own soldiers are unable to protect them. I have assembled some of

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the most respectable and influential of the mercantile class that have remained, and have assured them of my anxiety to afford them all the protection consistent with our instructions to press the Chinese government. Proclamations have been issued, calling upon the people to open their shops, which I have engaged shall not be molested. This they have done to some extent, and confidence appears to be increasing."

It it gratifying to be able to state, that the conduct of the troops after taking possession of the town, was such as to call forth the warmest commendation from the Commander-in-Chief.

No event of any importance occurred after this for a long time. The Chinese at Canton employed themselves busily in erecting new fortifications, and the whole of the passage from Macao to that city, is described as having become one succession of batteries and earthern breast-works.

Early in the present year, the district cities of Yuydo, Tsikee, and Funghwa, distant respectively forty, twenty, and thirty miles from Ningpo, were "visited" and temporarily occupied by detachments of British troops. The resistance offered by the Chinese was too contemptible to give any interest to these operations; and we willingly spare our readers detailed accounts of various unimportant successes gained by our troops, whenever they came in contact with the Chinese.

Sir Henry Pottinger returned to Canton in the spring of this year, but did not interfere with the operations of the Canton authorities in throwing up works and erecting fortifications, so long as they refrained from building

batteries below the usual anchorage.

But the Chinese were resolved to make a bold attempt to drive us from Ningpo and its neighbourhood; and, after concentrating a large body of troops, amounting to not fewer than 14,000 men in the vicinity, they entered Ningpo on the morning of the 10th of March, by getting over the walls at different points, no resistance being offered by the British, who allowed the enemy to penetrate to the market-place, when our troops attacked them, and drove them back instantly with great slaughter. As they retreated in confusion, field guns drawn by ponies were brought up, and poured on the dense and flying mass a discharge of grape and canister, at a distance of less than 100 yards. About 250 dead bodies were left within the walls.

On the night of the same day, Chinhae was also attacked; but the guards at the gates having been doubled, the Chinese were repulsed with great loss. In these impotent attempts on the part of the enemy, the British forces did not lose a single man.

After the unsuccessful attack on Ningpo, the Chinese attempted to annoy the British garrison, by obstructing the supply of provisions; and intelligence having been received that a body of 3,000 or 4,000 men were encamped at the town of Tse-kee, about eleven miles westward of Ningpo, Sir Hugh Gough determined to attack them. A force about 1,100 strong was taken on board, and in tow of the Nemesis and Phlegethon steamers, on the 15th March; and on arriving near Tse-kee, the Chinese were seen posted in a tolerably strong position, immediately to the

west of the town, the walls of
which were scaled without any
resistance. When, however, the
British troops went out to attack
the encampments, the Chinese
fought well, keeping for some time
a fire from gingalls and matchlocks.
The marines and sailors were di-
rected to attack them on the hill
which formed the right of their
position, while the 46th took the
centre, and the 18th and 26th the
left of their camp. Here it seems
the much shorter distance which the
marines and 49th had to traverse
(and no doubt impatience to en-
gage), brought on the fight rather
prematurely-these getting into
action much sooner than the 18th
and 26th, who had a long distance
to go over steep hills; the 18th
were unable to get at the Chinese
till they had begun to run, and
they then did execution on the
flying mass. According to all ac-
counts, the Chinese displayed more
courage on this than any previous
occasion, and their loss as well as
numbers are variously estimated
in different letters; the former at
from 4 to 900 killed; the latter at
from 14,000 to 15,000; although
most of the letters mention the
enemy to have been about 6,000
strong. On our side the loss was
three killed and 20 wounded. That
night the British troops slept in
the neighbourhood, and on the
following morning burnt the camp
and several houses in the city and
suburbs. Intelligence of another
camp, at about five miles' distance,
being received, the troops were
marched there, but found it ut-
terly deserted. On the following
morning, the troops returned to
Ningpo and Chinhae.

The Chinese troops who fought on this occasion were the élite of their army, and were under the

command of Commissioner YihKing, who had been sent to exterminate the "Barbarians." They included 500 of the Imperial Bodyguard, whom Sir Hugh Gough describes as remarkably fine men, and the Kansich troops from the frontiers of Turkistan, "a strong and muscular race, accustomed to border warfare, and reported by the Chinese invincible."

Ningpo was evacuated by the British on the 7th of May. The fleet sailed from thence to Just-inthe-Way, a place of anchorage between Chusan and Chinhae, leaving about 150 troops at the latter place, with one of H. M.'s ships, and one transport. The Admiral and fleet sailed from Chusan, and joined the other ships at Just-inthe-Way, leaving at Chusan 300 troops and H. M.'s brig Clio, with eight transports. On the 13th the fleet left Just-in-the-Way, and sailed for the River Tsëentang, to attack the city of Chapoo, which is the great mart of the Chinese trade with Japan, not far from its mouth. On arriving there on the 16th, the place was reconnoitered in the Phlegethon and Nemesis, without interruption. The line of land from E. to W. for about three miles, ending at the suburb of the city, comprised three separate hills; the slopes between were fortified by field works, and on the last of these hills next the town were two batteries, about one-third up, consisting of seven and five guns. In front of the town, facing the water, was a circular battery, mounting fourteen or fifteen guns; and further to the westward another, altogether about forty-five guns on the sea face. The hills and works appeared to be covered with soldiers. On the 17th the fleet moved in; and on the 18th, the Cornwallis,

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