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into all the Hong merchants' debts, is not lost. As to the extorted and to limit a time for their reco. 21,000,000 dollars, they are to be very ; but if they (the Hong mer- reckoned at seven mace each of chants) had no funds forthcoming, Sycee silver, which will amount to then it will be necessary to require upwards of 11,700,000 taels; the the Government to pay the debts. Hong debts are 3,000,000 dollars,

“ As to the item of expenses of weighing 2,100,000 taels, which the

army, as peace has already been must be recovered from the Hong made, the soldiers and sailors should merchants of Canton when a clear be rewarded before they are sent examination has been made. There home. As to the amount of those still remains 12,600,000 taels. necessary expenses, if it is not de- This year the first payment of cided to pay, you must say nothing 6,000,000 has been made, equal to more to us about the retirement or 4,200,000 taels. Now, 1,000,000 not of the army and fleet; but if has already been carried to the achostilities do not cease, we ap- count of the people and merchants prehend that the expenditure of of Keangsoo, which the officers China, in future, will not stop at must pay in the first instance; and 12,000,000 dollars. Further, the in time money may be looked for, men-of-war have already taken for the purchase of honours (but. Kingkow, and have blockaded the tons and peacock's feathers). The passages; and if we are soon en- remainder is to be cleared off abled to order them to retire, the in three years; not requiring advantages to China will be very 3,000,000 taels for each year. great indeed ; and so forth.

Moreover, the duties that the said “The said Shewei (Hang-e) and nation will pay should be taken his colleagues again authoritatively into account, which will ship the questioned as to the difficulties; expenditure of the Imperial Family, but the said barbarian only stared and disputances will be prevented. at him inaignantly: the Shewei Comparing one year's expenses of was not listened to.


army with the sum paid to the I, your servant, have examined English, it is as three to ten ; and and found what are the unwarrant- there is only the name of fighting, able demands of the said barba- without the hope of victory ; it rians, which they so importunately is better to adopt plans in accordurge; and they are deserving of ance with circumstances, and put the utmost hatred. But consider. an everlasting stop to war. ing that they have already attacked “ The 4,200,000 taels, the first and laid in ruins Kingkow, and it payment made of this year, has is proved that not only the rivers been collected from the funds of but Chinkeang it will be difficult the Treasurer and Salt Commisto recover speedily; but I am ap- sioners of the three provinces of prehensive we shall be blocked up Che-keang, Keangso, and Ganboth on the north and south, which hwuy; which will be repaid by the will be the heaviest calamity. duties on the merchants and people.

The ships that formerly block- “ We wait to receive the impeaded the entrances were far differ- rial will, that we may send postent from these, (in the Yang-tse- haste-orders (to the Treasurers and kiang,) and great expense is un

Salt Commissioners) to be respectavoidable. As yet, our reputation fully obeyed.

2. The said barbarians begged Consuls to the Hoppo, and not to that Hong-kong might be confer- pass through the hands of the Hong red on them as a place of residence. merchants, in order that their exThey also requested to be allowed tortions may be prevented;' and so to trade at Kwangchow, Funchow, forth. Heamun (Moy), Ningpo, and

• The said Shewei again reprea Shanghae. The Shewei Hanling sented, that from the five places, and his colleagues, as the barbarians Kwangchow, &c. some should be had already built houses on Hong- deducted; but the said barbakong, and yet could beg for favour, rian obstinately refused. I, your granted that they might dwell servant, have, examined and there. With reference to Kwang- found, that with reference to the chow and the other four places, said foreigners dwelling on Hongthey must be considered too many. kong, and going to trade in the As to the regulations of the trade, provinces of Fokien and Hekeang, as well as the duties, they should the imperial will has already been early be consulted and decided received, with permission as to upon.

what they have requested about “When clear and explicit ques- trading at the five places named, tions were asked, it is authenticated although the comparison is great, that the said barbarians answered, but, as they have taken and kept We consider Hong-kong as our possession of Amoy and other dwelling-place, and we must have places, which are not yet given up; Kwangchow and the others, in all and as they still hold Hong-kong, five places, as ports of trade; but Golongsoo, and have not retired, if it cannot be allowed, then nei- it will be a difficult matter to get ther Moy, Ningpo, Hinhae, Ting- them back. hae, Topoo, Paoyshan, nor He- "If we again prepare our armies keang, will be delivered up, neither to maintain those places, it is a will our forces retire. As we want difficult matter to engage with to trade at all these places, it is them on the waters. Though near absolutely necessary that resident to each other, we have been idle Consuls should be appointed to (there has not been any fighting) superintend affairs, to restrain the for many days; and as to those barbarians and prevent disturbo places which they have taken and

The duties shall be paid keep possession of, will it not be according to the regulations of allowed them to return to us our China ; and when the duties are territory, and allow them to trade,

; settled, there shall be no delay in since they are willing respectfully the payment.

to pay the duties ? Just now they 6. Further, when we traded at are sensible, and repent of their Canton, the whole trade was in errors, and are as obedient as if the hands of the Mandarin Hong driven by the wind; and when merchants, and we were exposed again united in mutual friendship, to their extortions, and the injuries, benevolence, and truth, all things we suffered were not small. Here- will go on well. And since they after, we desire to choose our own will guard their own market and merchants, that trade may be con- surround and protect the seaducted equitably; and the entire boundaries, there will not be any duties are to be paid through the necessity for recourse for our inter


ference, which will be to the advan: duced (into the service, &c. of the tage of our country.

English), the release of all these “We request the Imperial will they most earnestly solicit. may be sent down to the go- “I, your servant, have examined, vernor and lieutenant-governor's and found, that with reference to of each of the three provinces; to equal official intercourse, it may be examine clearly into the duties and unreservedly granted ; and as the trading regulations of the Comp- affairs with the foreigners are fitroller of Maritime Customs in the nished (the war ended), the priprovinces of Canton ; and consult soners may also be released ; by about the management of affairs, which harmony and good under and fix them on a secure basis. standing will be strengthened, for

“ 3. That which the said barba a state of peace will bring repose rians have requested with reference and gladness, and overthrow facto the officers of China-to have tious parties. These matters may ceremonial intercourse upon an be allowed to proceed ; and I have equality, and the barbarians who left them to the Shewei, without have been made captives, and the discussing them.” Chinese traitors who have been se


FRANCE.-Resolutions of the Parisian Editors of Newspapers on the

occasion of the Conviction of M. Dupoty-Speech from the Throne at the opening of the French Chambers— Election of President and Vice-Presidents Addresses presented to the King on the Jour de l'an-Replies of the King-Debates in the Two Chambers on the Address-Question of right of Search in the case of the Slave- Trade -Dispute with Spain on point of Etiquette--Speech of M. Guizot in the Chamber of Peers, respecting the relations of France with Spain -Speech of M. Guizot in the Chamber of Deputies, relative to the Affairs of the East-Melancholy Death of the Duke of Orleans-Funeral ProcessionQuestion of the choice of a RegentExtraordinary Session of the French Chambers convoked-Affecting Speech of the KingElection of President-Regency Bill proposed by Ministers-Discussion thereon- Ministerial Speech of M. Thiers-Dreadful Accident on the Paris and Versailles Railway-Regency Bill carried-Prorogation of the French Chambers.


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E mentioned in our last discussion itself. The jurispruvolume,* that M. Du- dence that this act tends

to espoty, the editor of the Journal du tablish, goes even beyond the laws Peuple, had been found guilty on of September ; it is still more the charge of promoting sedition menacing ; and one more arbiand treason, by the tendency of trary has never been so formally the articles which had appeared in stamped with legality. In order his paper; and that in conse- that the laws of September may quence, a meeting had been sum- be made applicable to any writer, moned of the principal editors and book, or journal, it is essential that political writers, in order to adopt the writer should have so directly resolutions suitable to the occa- excited to the assassination of the sion. They met accordingly at person of the King, or to the overthe latter end of December, and turning of the power of the laws, put forth a declaration, in which that such provocation, even withthey stated

out having produced an effect, " The decree of the Court of should constitute in itself an alPeers is not confined to the striking tentat.

The writer thus knows down of a political writer - it what he did, and to what risks he presses upon the very liberty of exposed his honour and his life.

But by the interpretation given by • Vol. LXXXIII. p. 253.

the Court of Peers of the law of

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1819, every hostile word contem- signedly provoked disobedience to porary with an émeule, a complot, the laws. or an allentat, will be sufficient to “ With the Article 202 of the constitute complicity in such acts, Penal Code, that provocation, to and to bring upon the writer penal- be made a crime or an offence, ties such as détention, transportae must be direct,' and not the result tion, hard labour, and even death. of a connexion more or less arbiThe feeling of the times in which trary, between a fact and the we live, rises up in horror at the writings which have preceded or bare thought.

accompanied this fact. The jurisprudence which flows 66 With the Article 60 of the from the decree of the Court of Penal Code, that there cannot exPeers, aggravates the already fla- ist complicity where there is no grant inconveniences of this juris- knowledge of a plot. diction. It is moreover, a motive • With MM. Royer Collard, for demanding that the compe- Odillon Barot, Lamartine, Bertence of the Peerage may be de- ryer, Dufaure, and Dupin, that it fined and limited in criminal mat- is not wise to give judicial attriters and in political offences; but butes to a political body; and that until this shall have been done, it in making the Chamber of Peers is another danger created for the la Cour Prévotale of the press, press and the country. Public its sincerity has been compromised, writers are deprived of those gua- as well as the force of our opirantees, which are a natural right nions. in every civilised community, and “ With citizens of all opinions, which the Revolution of July had that the degree of liberty at which promised, and the Charter had a nation has arrived, may be judgconsecrated. The entire press is ed of by the degree of liberty which placed in a permanent state of its press enjoys; and that in this prevention. The accusation of respect France, since 1830, has moral complicity is suspended over positively retrograded. the heads of all writers. It is the “ In fine, that this is a point law of suspicion that is established upon which all can agree-writers, against them.”

electors, deputies, and citizens of The subscribers determine to op- every class. It is a duty to refuse pose every legal resistance to this

concurrence to the policy of any new system of intimidation

Administration which will not reor We declare then

pair the attempts made against With the Charter, that the public rights by the laws of Sep• French have the right to publish tember, as well as by the last de. and to print their opinions, con- cree of the Court of Peers. forming theinselves to the laws.' “ In this situation, we appeal

“ With the Article 69 of the to the Chamber of Deputies-we same Charter, that 'the judging of hope that it will rise to the duty offences of the press belongs exclue which circumstances impose upon sively to the jury.'

it. And if, contrary to all ex"With the Constitution of 1791, pectation, it fails to do its duty, that no man can be pursued by we shall appeal to the electoral reason of the writings which he body, which is invested with po. has published, unless he has de- litical rights; well convinced that

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