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eventually burnt, whether accidentally or intentionally is doubt ful. So very soon was the mischief perpetrated that the Brigadier was hardly aware of it till the place was in flames. He immediately took measures to prevent a recurrence of such scenes, and I wrote in strong terms on the subject. Subsequent to that event, during the whole time the Brigadier was detached, I heard of no more excesses. In the instance of Ali Bughan, after a most minute inquiry, I have reason to believe that not a man, woman, or child was injured; and I know the greater part of the property was returned to the head man of the village.


In subsequent engagements with the enemy, the Mumoo Khuil, Jugdulluck, and Teezeen, I neither saw or heard of any excesses. report was circulated that an European was burnt alive at Jugdulluck, and that two Affghans were burnt in like manner by our troops, in revenge; the whole of which was an infamous fabrication.

I know of no instances of cruelty or excess at Istalif; and the feeling of the army could not have been very prone thereto, when about 400 or 500 women and children were protected from insult and injury, and made over to their families after the engagement. If any excess has been committed, which I have not noticed, I can only affirm that I recollect none; and I beg to add, that the praise bestowed on the troops on a late occasion by your Lordship, for their forbearance in victory is, as far as I am able to judge, well merited, and I trust your Lordship will never have cause to alter your good opinion of their conduct.

On the subject of trees being destroyed, I am unable to call to recollection what occurred in Brigadier Monteith's detachment ;and the only instance of their destruction which came under my personal observation was at Mamookhuil, when the ground was such that I was obliged to encamp the different regiments in the gardens surrounding the fort. Without this precaution, I should have subjected the troops to constant annoyance, as the enemy would certainly have occupied them; the destruction of the vines and other small plants was almost a necessary consequence of our occupying Mamookhuil.

With regard to the destruction of the Cabul bazaar and mosque, it may possibly be supposed that with them was destroyed other property; but this was not the case.

The insult offered to the remains of the late envoy was noto rious to the whole of the chiefs and inhabitants of the city; they admitted that the mutilated body was dragged through the bazaar, and treated by the populace with every indignity, and eventually hung there, that every Affghan in the city might witness the treatment of the remains of the repre sentative of the British Govern ment. The intended measure was communicated to the chiefs, who, not only admitted the propriety of destroying a place where such scenes had transpired, but offered to, and did accompany the party sent for its destruction. Those who resided at and near the bazaar, had two days' previous notice to remove their property (which they did), and I am not aware of any instances of violence having occurred: it was not pose

sible entirely to prevent plunder ing, but during the time the engineer was employed in the destruction of the bazaar, and mosque attached, both cavalry and

infantry were on duty in the city to prevent any outrage,


I have, &c.,


From Major-General Sir GEORGE POLLOCK, G.C.B., to the Right Honourable Lord ELLENBOROUGH, Governor-General of India; dated Ghazeepore, 10th April, 1843.

My Lord, Since I had the honour to address your Lordship on the 2nd instant, in reply to your Lordship's letter dated 23rd ultimo, it has occurred to me that I could not produce better proof of the forbearance of the troops under my command than by a reference to their conduct on the morning of the 16th September last. I have already officially detailed the number of troops which accompanied me on the occasion of planting the colours on the Bala Hissar; it was deemed advisable on that occasion to go through a part of the city, and although the troops had arrived only the day before from a march which was abundantly calculated to irritate and exasperate them, they so fully and literally obeyed the orders I had previously given, that not a house or an individual was injured either in going to, or returning from the Bala Hissar,

The destruction of the residence of Khoda Buksh, the chief of Teezeen, may perhaps have been considered an excess. I will therefore explain, that during the time the army remained in advance of Teezeen, the chief of that place was the cause of our communication being cut off; he was repeatedly warned what the consequences would be when an opportunity offered, if he persisted in such a course; but I beg to add, that the injury sustained by the chief in the destruction of his residence entailed no loss on others that I am aware of, as the injury done, was confined almost entirely to the fortified dwelling; forage was found there, and brought into camp, but not an individual was injured.

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From his Excellency Major-General Sir W. NOTT, G.C.B. to MajorGeneral J. R. LUMLEY, Adjutant-General of the Army; dated Lucknow, 4 April 1843,

Sir, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, No. 817, of the 29th ultimo, calling upon me, by directions of the Right Hon. the Governor-Ge

neral of India, to report upon certain excesses said to have been committed by the British troops on retiring from Affghanistan.

I will confine my remarks to

that veteran, gallant, and highly disciplined army which I had the honour to command for so long a period; and I will leave it to my gallant comrade, Sir George Pollock, G.C.B., to defend the honour of the troops he commanded.

First, I am called upon to state, "Upon what private property, and upon what private buildings, injury was inflicted, by my orders or under my toleration, at Ghuznee?" I answer, upon none.

Secondly, I am directed to state, "Whether unresisting individuals, were destroyed in cold blood for mere vengeance, and whether women were either violated or mur. dered for their ornaments?" I will endeavour to suppress my scorn and indignation while I shortly reply to this charge, or suspicion, or whatever it may be called by the persons from whom it emanated. And this is the return made by the people of England (or rather, I would believe, by a few individuals,) to the gallant Candahar army! that army which was for so long a time neglected, but which nevertheless nobly upheld our national honour, and during a period of four years acted with the greatest forbearance and humanity to the people of Affghanistan.

Ghuznee.-Colonel Palmer, at the head of a brave garrison, surrendered Ghuznee to various tribes of Affghans; the city was occupied by these people for months; it was vacated by the enemy on the arrival of the army under my command. On its being entered by the British troops, it was found that not a single person was in the city, neither man, nor woman, nor child; there was no property, and I do not believe there was a house left (completely standing) in the

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I ordered the fortifications and citadel of Ghuznee to be destroyed; it had been the scene of treachery, mutilation, torture, starvation, and cruel murder to our unresisting and imprisoned countrymen. Look at the contrast; see the conduct of the noble British soldier; and is caluniny to rob him of the honour? it shall not, as long as I have life to defend his fame.

Rosa.-The extensive village or town of Rosa is situated about two miles from Ghuznee, and it is lovely to behold. When this city was taken by the force under my command, Rosa was full of inhabitants, men, women, and children; my troops were encamped close to its walls. Its gardens and houses were full of property; its barns and farmyards were well stored; its orchards were loaded with fruit; its vineyards bent beneath a rich and ripe vintage; the property taken from our murdered and mutilated soldiers of the Ghuznee garrison was seen piled in its dwellings. Were not these tempting objects to the soldier who had undergone four years of fatigue and privation? Some of these soldiers had seen, and all had heard of the treacherous murder of their

relations and comrades by these very people :-but why should I enlarge? Four days the victorious

Candahar army remained encamped close to this village, with all these temptations before it and at its mercy, but not a particle of anything was taken from the Aff. ghans; the fruit brought for sale was paid for at a rate far above its value; no man, no living thing was injured. Much more I could say; but so much for the noble British soldier, for Ghuznee, and for the beautiful, rich, and tempting town of Rosa.

I did not command at Cabul; I did not interfere in its concerns; I never was in its bazaars. My division was encamped at a distance, with the exception of one regiment, against which corps I never received a complaint. My division was not in Cabul after Sir George Pollock left; General Pollock's army and my troops marched the same day.

No man under my command was ever detected in plundering, without being immediately punished.

How am I to have patience to reply to, "whether Affghans were permitted to be wantonly treated and murdered?" Is this a proper question to put to a British general officer who has ever had the honour of his country uppermost in his mind and deeply impressed upon his heart? "Permitted," indeed! is it supposed that I am void of religion, that I am ignorant of what is due to that God whom I have worshipped from my childhood

; am I thus to have my feelings outraged because a few people in India and in England have sent forth gross falsehoods to the world?

I have confined my reply for the present as much as possible to the questions in your letter. I will only further say, that never did an army march through a country with less marauding and less violence than that which I commanded in Affghanistan.

In Lower Affghanistan, or the Candahar districts, I put down rebellion, quelled all resistance to the British power, in spite of the weakness and fears of my superiors. By mild persuasive measures I induced the whole population to return to the cultivation of their lands, and to live in peace. I left them as friends, and on friendly terms. On my leaving Candahar no man was injured or molested, no man was deprived of his property, and my soldiers and the citizens were seen embracing. It is on record that I informed the Indian government that I could hold the country for any time; it is on record that I informed Lord Auckland, as far back as December 1841, that I could, with permission, re-occupy Cabul with the force under my command; there was nothing to prevent it but the unaccountable panic which prevailed at the seat of government: and now I am rewarded by a certain set of people in England taxing me with that which would be disgraceful to me as a religious man, as an honourable gentleman, and as a British officer. I am, &c.



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Whereas certain portions of the line of boundary between the British dominions in North America and the United States of America, described in the Second Article of the Treaty of Peace of 1783, have not yet been ascertained and determined, notwithstanding the repeated attempts which have been heretofore made for that purpose; and whereas it is now thought to be for the interest of both parties that, avoiding further discussion of their respective rights, arising in this respect under the said treaty, they should agree on a conventional line in said portions of the said boundary, such as may be convenient to both parties, with such equivalents and compensations as are deemed just and reasonable: and whereas, by the treaty concluded at Ghent on the 24th of December, 1814, between His Britannic Majesty and the United States, an article was agreed to and inserted, of the following tenor, viz.: "Art. X. Whereas the traffic in slaves is irreconcileable with the principles of humanity and justice; and whereas both His Majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition; it is hereby agreed, that both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavours to accomplish so desirable an object" and whereas, notwithstanding the laws which have at various times been passed by the

two Governments, and the efforts made to suppress it, that criminal traffic is still prosecuted and carried on; and whereas Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United States of America, are determined that, so far as may be in their power, it shall be effectually abolished: And whereas it is found expedient for the better administration of justice, and the prevention of crime within the territories and jurisdiction of the two parties, respectively, that persons commiting the crimes hereinafter enumerated, and being fugitives from justice, should, under certain circumstances, be reciprocally delivered up; Her Britannic Majesty, and the United States of America, having resolved to treat on these several subjects, have for that purpose appointed their respective plenipotentiaries to negotiate and conclude a treaty, that is to say, Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland has, on Her part, appointed the Right Honourable Alexander Lord Ashburton, a Peer of the said United Kingdom, a Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, and Her Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary on a special Mission to the United States; and the President of the United States has, on his part, furnished with full powers Daniel Webster, Secretary of State

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