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that a man's cattle should be injured by ments, should follow his old master ? the bite of a mad dog, but he could not That master might, in such a case, be conceive what was meant by other pro- whipped as a dog stealer, though he perty, as he had never before heard that should afterwards gain an action to prove property could be affected with the hydro- the prosecutor the thief. The deprivation phobia. In The Adventurer, a periodical in this instance was not all: by the genepaper by Dr. Hawkesworth, he remem- ral slaughter which the tax would occabered, indeed, a sort of humorous account sion, they were liable to convert into of a dog that bit a hog in the streets; the ferocity that mild and humane character hog bit a farmer, and the farmer bit a which had hitherto been the just boast of cow; and, what was most extraordinary, Englishmen. Were the national manners each conveyed his peculiar quality to the likely to be improved by a system which other; the hog barked like a dog, the tended to familiarise the rising generation farmer grunted like a hog, and the cow to the spectacle of seeing those animals did the best she could to talk like the far- slaughtered or hanging at their doors, mer. He should have imagined that there which they had been accustomed to conmust have been something like this dispo- sider as their friends and play-fellows? sition in inanimate things also, by the hon. The charge of ingratitude would also lay gentleman's looking so very carefully after against them for such a decree of massacre property; for, unless an instance had | against these useful animals, at the very occurred of furniture behaving in a disor- time when they acknowledged them as derly manner, or a dumb waiter barking allies of the combined powers, and when with the hydrophobia, he conceived such their brethren formed a part of that coma phrase could not be properly intro- bined army in Jamaica, which was fight. duced. The way in which the bill pro- ing successfully against the Maroons, and posed to enforce its provisions was most supporting the cause of social order, huinhuman. He particularly adverted to manity, and religion. He came at last to the clause in which it was proposed the qualifying clause, which was intended “ That no person or persons shall be liable to enact, that puppies, when born, should to any action, for killing, destroying, or not be liable to the penalty. He wished converting to his own use, any dog for to know at what time they were to be which the owner shall not have paid the made liable, and by what parish register duty." If this clause were to remain, and they were to ascertain the birth of pupany person did destroy or convert ano- pies. A doctrine had been inculcated ther person's dog, he would most proba- that dogs devoured the sustenance of the bly assume that it was not paid for. So poor; and therefore we were to be placed far the bill was repugnant to the princi- in the state of a besieged garrison, and ples of humanity; for it was nothing less feed upon the fare of dogs and cats. ihan a death-warrant against that valu- | The bill in this instance tended to defeat able race of animals. Besides, he wanted its own object; for could it be supposed to know what principle the bill proceeded that the poor, at this moment of dearth upon, that the same privilege should not and scarcity, could afford to divide their be also allowed with respect to horses, scanty meals with such animals? And if since there was a certain species of dogs, they did, what was the conclusion, but such as pointers, setters, &c. that were that they would rather deprive themselves scarcely less valuable. According to the of some of the necessaries of life, than lose same mode of reasoning too, he did not their faithful companions. If the tax see why there should not be a general were le vied only upon hounds and sporscramble for all the hats upon the heads ting dogs, he should oppose it, because it of those gentlemen who did not pay the would tend to the diminution of the few hat duty ; nor why any person should not pleasures which induced gentlemen to convert the powder, another man wore, spend their fortunes on their own estates. to his own use, if he suspected that man Mr. Windham said, he did not mean to had not taken out a licence. It was true, I object to the whole of the bill, but to part that after any person had lost his dog in of it only. He thought a tax upon all this manner, a clause was provided, sporting dogs fair, because they were a whereby he might bring an action, and kind of luxury, and their owners could maintain a right to recover damages from afford to pay. There appeared, however, the converter; but how would it happen, a passion, a spleen, an enmity against the if the dog, still fond of his former attach- canine race in the formation of this bill,

that amounted really to a principle of ex- / winning attachment of a dog was rememtermination. From the tenor of it he bered, it was unkind to propose any plan should have been apt to imagine that which should tend to destroy him. Dogs Actæon had revived, or that some fabu- | kept for sporting were peculiar to the lous divinities had descended to pronounce rich ; and though he did not mean to aran eternal ban and curse on the whole race raign sporting, he thought it not the of dogs. They certainly at times were highest sort of amusement, inasmuch as disagreeable, and he had felt that incon- it reduced the hunter to the condition of venience; but he should have been loth the animal he hunted. With the rich it to have avenged bimself upon the whole might be taxed ; but with the poor the species, in consequence of a little tempo- affection for a dog was so natural, that in rary inconvenience. It was unworthy of poetry and painting it had been constantly this or any country to levy a rate on any recorded, and in any sort of domestic animal, because that animal was not em- representation, we scarcely see a picture ployed in tilling ground, or because the without a memorial of this attachment. poor might feed on dog's provisions. The If the rich man feels a partiality for a conclusion that naturally resulted from dog, what must a poor man do, who has the general tenor of the bill, and the ar. so few amusements? He would be des. guments that had been urged in support titute without one. A dog was the comof it, warranted the idea, that there was panion of his laborious hours, and when not room enough on earth for men and he was bereft of his wife and children it doge. The hon. mover had entered into filled up the dreary vacuity. It was a various calculations, to show the number well-known fact that Alexander Selkirk, of dogs, and the quantity of provisions upon whose narrative the story of Robin. they consumed; but he seemed to have son Crusoe was founded, sought the soforgotten that there was a great body of ciety of every animal upon the desart waste which they destroyed, and which, island, except those which he was obliged if they were annihilated, would become to kill for food. That was his greatest a greater nuisance. He seemed to ima- satisfaction; and a dog afforded a similar gine, that all the refuse now given to satisfaction to the poor. Would the dogs, would

go to human creatures. No House, then, sacrifice that honest, that such thing ; dogs consumed a great quan- virtuous satisfaction ? An hon. gentletity of oftal, which could not well be man had disapproved of any difference otherwise disposed of, and consequently between the poor and rich, because he his calculation on the score of provisions wished for equality, forgetting that equal consumed was exceedingly erroneous. burthens were laid upon unequal means, He had also excited an alarm upon this and that they ought to be proportioned head, by observing that population in- in the same manner as rewards and pucreased with provision. It undoubtedly nishments. But although he wished the did; but not if there was a greater quan- tax to be levied upon sporting dogs, he tity of provisions than the consumers re- was a friend to the game laws, and to quired. How much of the produce of aristocratical distinctions; and he thought the earth went to other purposes than the all the arguments that had been urged food of man! Did not the hon. gentle against the game laws were recommendaman himself give to his coach-horses and tions in their favour, provided they were his saddle-horses, what would serve for not oppressive. He did not think that human food? But when the sustenance poor men kept dogs for the destruction of of men was considered, their comforts and game, and he lived in a game county well-being must also be considered; it where he was qualified to judge; besides, they were not, society would revert to ; if a poacher wanted a dog for that purrudent-ss and barbarism.-With regard to pose, he could afford to pay for it; so that that part of the bill which related to the extending the tax to the poor, would be dogs of the poor, his objections were too no protection to the game. As to the numerous to repeat. Some dogs were re. I worrying of sheep, the dogs commonly tained by the poor as implements of trade, kept by poor people were too small ; for and the legislature ought not to tax the the dogs that worried sheep were pointers, industry, but the expenditure of the peo- hounds, lurchers, guard-dogs, &c. and ple. Some were retained for their com whenever they were once guilty of that panionable qualities, which did credit to vice, they would never leave it off until both parties, and when the fidelity and they were destroyed; but, dead or alive,

they haunted the animal, and had been him to be so exceptionable, that he reknown to tear the skins in tanners yards.--commended it to be withdrawn. He felt in perfect conformity with his hon. Mr. Dent was satisfied that by the confriend, when he did not wish to leave any duct he had followed, he had done his assessment on the poor ; for if people, so duty. It was said, that every man set poor and distressed as some were who up to be his own chancellor of the exchekept dogs, would deprive themselves of quer; and it appeared to him, that every part of their food to keep a dog, that was man set up to be his own buffon. It was the best proof of the value of the animal, said, that a dog was a harmless playfellow and he knew if they were assessed, how to the children of the cottager, but he likely they would be to be taken up by bad received a letter which showed what the parish officers. An hon. friend had kind of playfellow it was. The letter said, that no person who receives relief stated that a person who had seven chilfrom the parish, ought to be allowed to dren, with whom his dog had been used keep a dog. He differed from him in opi. to play, was bit by this dog, and also nion, because the whole class of labourers four of his children, in consequence of were so liable to apply for relief, ou ac. which they had died of the hydrophobia. count of the unequal balance of their At Manchester 33 persons, within a earnings and expenditure, that every ac- twelvemonth, had been admitted into the cident or calamity subjected them to it. infirmary, affected with this desperate It would be cruel and impolitic to pass malady, and at Southampton, 2 or 300 such a law; it was a sort of law every persons had been bit. Dogs consumed a man would revolt from. The dog was a great deal of the food which might be companion to a solitary, man, and to a useful to alleviate the wants of the poor. man with a family a playfellow for his Sheep's heads could not be obtained by children ; and these considerations in the poor, as they were all bought up for duced him to wish that satisfaction to be the use of dogs. He could never agree preserved to the poor. He could not to any distinction in the sums to be imthink of sacrificing any man's feelings to posed upon the rich and the poor. Such the consideration of interest held out by inequality he considered as operating as a this tax.

land-tax. The object of the bill was reMr. Penton said, he objected to the gulation, not revenue, and to remedy the general principle of the bill

. The most dreadful miseries arising from hydrobeggarly natiɔn would not adopt a mea phobia. The expense of a dog amounted sure calculated to exterminate the canine to a penny a day, and upon his calcula

Even in Turkey, where dogs were tion of the number, more money was conconsidered as unclean beasts, they were sumed on dogs, than the whole produce treated with some degree of kindness. In of the poor rates. some parts of Germany, dogs were taxed Mr. Courtenay said, he had listened according to their size-a regulation attentively to the new chancellor of the which, if it were to take place in this exchequer, who had just discovered that kingdom, would subject him to a severe a dog cost a penny a day, whether he impost, as he once weighed one of his eat little or much, or whether he eat dogs against a nobleman in the other nothing. On what ground the hon. gen. House, when the dog outweighed the tleman had founded this extraordinary peer by a pound. The hanging of dogs calculation, he could not imagine. The would familiarize the people to barbarity. 'hon. gentleman bad fixed his dentes canini The circumstance of a park-keeper once on all who opposed his favourite bill : his killing, a favourite spaniel belonging to dentes sapientia were probably not yet him when he was a boy, and cutting the grown.

He had said, that every man animal's head off afterwards with a was become his own buffoon ; but if the hatchet, had made an impression on his hon. gentleman meant to assume that mind that never would be erased. Had character, it must be in the other House, he had the hatchet in his hand, and hail where he might be witty by proxy : per. the park-keeper been in his power, at that haps he might prevail on his friend, the time, he could not say what might have chancellor of the exchequer, to transfer been the consequence. How, then, could him there. The hon. gentleman dreaded the House say, that the poor man placed the direful effects of canine madness. To in a similar situation would not be actuated alleviate that horror, he begged leave to by similar feelings? The bill appeared to suggest the great utility which sometimes


resulted from a state of insanity. Accord-finance minister? Would the old chaning to a celebrated poet

cellor of the exchequer constitute his “ Great wit to madness sure is acar ally'd coadjutor governor of the Isle of Dogs 2 And thin partitions do their walls divide."

The caresses, the playfulness, and the Now, if the hon. gentleman had been fidelity of dogs endeared them to us. To luckily bit by a mad dog, he might, in- accustom the people to look with hardcidentally, have displayed some symp- hearted indifference on the murder of toms of wit. He could assure the hon. these faithful animals, would debase their gentlenian, this mode of becoming a wit, moral feelings. It was a fact, that dogs was not so chimerical as it might at first destroyed weazles, rats, pole-cats, &c.; appear. The late lord Chesterfield had and he verily believed the foxes that laid it down as a maxim, that, the only were so anxiously preserved, did more possible process by which a Dutchman mischief than the whole persecuted race. could become a with was by being bit by Dogs had always been the friends of man. a mad dog: and so ambitious was a late They were celebrated in the writings of Burgo-master at Amsterdam, of being every poet; and in the Scriptures too, distinguished by this shining accomplish for they must all have read of Tobit' ment, that he had submitted to the ope. In short, he hoped the hon. gentleman ration. Here, then, was encouragement would agree to withdraw the bill

. for the hon. gentleman. The hon. gen- Mr. Pitt, though clearly of opinion tleman had stated his receiving letters that dogs were a fit object of taxation, from several shepherds, thaoking him for concurred in the objections made to this introducing the tax on dogs ; and lament- bill; as he was by no means reconciled ing their losses in most plaintive and pa to the idea of indiscriminate taxation. thetic strains. They had addressed him To the plan of making it a parochial tax, poetically ; " The dogs, my sweet swain, his objections were insuperable.

He do our Aeecy sheep kill;" to which the thought a tax on the dogs of the opulent hon. gentleman might reply—“I am a good one, and meant on a future day to ready to cry, both for them, and

that on assessed houses there The hon. gentleman had invidiously as should be a tax of 3s. for the first, and 5s. serted that a dog consumed as much as on every other dog. would maintain a child. Surely he did The question, "That the Speaker do not recollect that the people of this coun. now leave the chair," was negatived ; try read the scriptures in which it was after which it was resolved, that the enjoined, “ Not to throw the children's House will upon this day three months, meat to the dogs." None but Jacobins resolve itself into the said Committee. would disregard this holy precept. It had been asserted, that 2 or 300 persons Debate in the Commons on the Expulhad been bitten at Southampton; but sion of Colonel Cawthorne.] April 4. where was the proof of this? It was cus. On the motion of general Smith, it was tomary, especially since this bill had been resolved, " That an humble Address be in agitation, to report, that every species presented to his majesty, that he will be of insanity, from a strait-waistcoat phrenzy, graciously pleased to give directions, that to a fit of the vapours, were occasioned there be laid before this House, a Copy by the bite of a dog. He was convinced of the Proceedings of the Court-Martial that not one case out of fifty, said to be lately holden for the trial of John Fenton attended with strong symptoms of the Cawthorne, esq. a member of this House." hydrophobia, was actually founded on fact. England had always been cele. April 8. Sir Charles Morgan presented brated for her breed of dogs: the perse to the House a Copy of the said provering courage of her natives was exem- ceedings. plified in the her hounds and General Smith moved, “ That such a hunters were renowned in all quarters of number of copies of the Articles of the globe. He was not an enemy to the Charge against the said John Fenton principle of the bill; but if cottager's Cawthorne, esq. with the Opinion and dogs were not exempted from the tax, it Sentence of the Court Martial thereupon, would be a signal for a general massacre be printed, as shall be sufficient for the of the species. Was the hon. gentleman use of the members of the House.". If actuated by interest or ambition ? Was any of colonel Cawthorne's friends wished any place to be struck out to reward this the whole should be printed, he had no objection; though he conceived it would tend here in my place. I would not, Sir, be attended with needless expense and have quitted the confinement I had iman improper waste of time.

my bill.” propose,

posed upon myself, as a proof of my proLord Tyrconnel moved, “ That the found submission to the judgment of a whole of the said proceedings should be court-martial, composed of honourable printed."

men, although I was at the same time conMr. Grey thought it would be improper vinced that they had been so far frustrated for the House to found any measure re- in their research for truth by the intrispecting one of its members upon the cacy and confusion in which it was inveopinion of a court-martial. If printing loped, as to prevent my being able to all the papers was necessary to the pur- convince them, that in the instances in poses of justice, it ought to be done. He which I may have deviated from the rigid was afraid, however, that they were so line of military order, I erred either from voluminous, that printing them in a mass defect of judgment, which I do not stand would tend to defeat any proceeding this up to justify, or from the fallibility of insession.

experience, of which I was not then Mr. Francis opposed the printing of all aware. But I most solemnly protest, I the papers, because it could serve no never acted with an intention to injure good purpose, the friends of colonel Caw. any man, or upon any fraudulent or corthorne having it in their power to make rupt motive whatsoever, and I venture to themselves complete masters of the evi- assert, that no legal proof has been, or, I dence from the manuscripts that had been trust can be brought before the House, laid upon the table.

of my having acted fraudulently or corMr. Pitt thought it was but fair that all ruptly. And surely, Sir, though there the papers should be printed, and did can be no doubt but that the court-marnot see any reasonable objection to the tial have proceeded with the purest intenproposition.

tion, and with the most undeniable deThe whole of the proceedings were sire of making an upright judgment, they ordered to be printed.

may, in a case so complicated and so vo

luminous as that upon your table, have April 25. It was ordered, that the pro- been deceived. Might not irregularity ceedings of the court-martial be taken have been mistaken for fraud, and the reinto consideration on the 2nd of May, and ceipt of money not at any given time that colonel Cawthorne do then attend wholly expended, for misapplication, corin his place.

ruption, and embezzlement? In reality

they were so; for in every instance to May 2. The order of the day being which the terms of fraud, misapplication, read, and Mr. Cawthorne attending in corruption, and embezzlement, are an. his place, the proceedings of the court- nexed to the opinions of the court-martial, martial were again read, after which, without positive evidence to support the Speaker informed Mr. Cawthorne, them, were I even to admit that the facts that if he had any thing to offer in his of irregularity complained of, and of justification, now was the moment to un money not expended at certain given dertake it. Upon which,

times, have been proved, I will venture to Mr. Cawthorne rose, and from a written assert, that the inferences drawn there. paper thus addressed the Speaker: from of fraud, misapplication, corruption,

Sir; Under the distressful perturbation and embezzlement, erroneous. I in which I rise in this most awful moment trust, therefore, that the House will of my life, I am too sensible of the can not look upon me in the light of having dour and humanity of the House, to think so suddenly deviated from the character, it necessary for me formally to implore which, previous to my being thus charged, for myself that indulgence which it will stood unimpeached. May I not be justialways, in its justice, show to every one fied in alleging, that the prosecutor could of its members, when called upon to jus- not affix to any act of mine the appellation tify or excuse himself. Proud and happy, of any specific offence; because, after Sir, as I have hitherto been, in the enjoy having searched through the mutiny act, ment of a seat within these walls, no con- in order to find the name of an offence sideration whatsoever would have induced which he could give to any thing I had me to come hither to-day, had I not re. done or omitted, he was under a necesceived the commands of the House to at sity of pressing into his charges out of


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