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fix an indelible stain on the British cha- single line was marked out. Why, he racter. If we had broken the first article demanded, was the public money so apof the treaty, we must stand by the con- plied? Was that the way our ancestors sequences. What right had we to com. acted when they wanted money for the plain of the descents of the Maroons from public service ? He moved, that that their mountains, when the mode of war. part of the act, called the Civil List Refare carried on by u was so much worse form bill, should be read, by which it was than theirs. We were now reduced to be enacted, “ that no person should enjoy a humble copiers of the cruelties of the salary of more than 5001. a.year, without an Spaniards, whose inhumanity we had hi- estimate being previously given and signed therto always condemned.

by the lords of the treasury. In former Mr. Dent expatiated on the ferocity of times, when any important measure was in the Maroons, and the necessity of repress contemplation, an inspecting officer was ing them by every means that could pos- appointed, who delivered in a report for sibly be suggested. He insisted that the parliamentary consideration. If ministers blood-hounds were only used for the pur- | had submitted to the House an estimate pose of tracing the footsteps, and disco. of the expense of erecting barracks, he vering the haunts of the Maroons, and was convinced that it would have been concluded by observing, that as gentlemen thrown out, like the famous fortificaseemed to bave such an antipathy to this tion estimate. But ministers had first species of dogs, they would certainly squandered the public money, and then have no objection to his proposing a treble came confidently forward to demand the tax on them, when the question respecto sanction of parliament for what they had ing a tax on dogs came to be discussed. done. The chancellor of the exchequer

General Macleod said, that in conse- had often extolled economy as a virtue ; quence ot' what had fallen from the secre- but where was the economy of expending tary of state, he would not press this bu- 1,400,0001. in the erection of barracks? siness farther at present. He begged, how- The ex ense was, however, a trifling obever, that it should not be considered that ject, when compared with the unconstihe had totally relinquished it. He would tutionality of the measure. Good God! never quit the subject until the evil was was every town to be made a citadel, and redressed : he would stick as fast to it as every village to be converted into a garthose dogs did to their prey.

rison ? Barracks were already erected, The motion was then withdrawn. capable of containing 34,000 troops,

which was double the number of the Debate on General Smith's Motion re- usual peace establishment. From this specting the Expenditure of Public Money fact one of two inferences must follow, ón Barracks.] April 8. General Smith either that ministers had betrayed the rose to make his promised motion respect- trust of the nation, in needlessly squanding Barracks. He meant, in the first ering the public money, by erecting barplace, to state the amount of the expendi- racks for which there would be no use ; ture, then to compare it with the expense or that they meant to maintain a standing incurred by similar objects in past times, army, sufficient to enable them (to borrow and next to point out the unconstitutional one of their own expressions) “ to exernature of the measure. The expense of cise a vigour beyond the law." "Was there erecting barracks was alarmingly enorm- any thing in the present state of the ous. It amounted nearly to 1,400,000/. country to warrant such measures? The But the expense was not all. Ministers people had lately met with a severe trial, had obtained the means of considerable and they had borne it with patience and infuence, by the patronage of the offices fortitude. If ministers were to have the to which this system had given rise. power of applying money to one purpose There were 46 barrack masters, a barrack which was voted by parliament for anomaster-general, and 19 officers with sala. ther, there was an end of the constitution. ries, amounting in all to 11,0001. It The constitution was much in people's there were barracks, there certainly must be barrack-masters. He begged to know, the Dock-yards, which, after a debate which

* Mr. Pitt's Motion, in 1786, for fortifying however, why barrack-masters were ap- lasted till seven in the morning, was rejected pointed and enjoyed ample salaries, be by the casting vote of Mr. Speaker Cornwall, fore the barracks were built ? At Lincoln the numbers on each side being '169. See this had actually been the case, before a Vol. 25, p. 1156. (VOL. XXXII.]

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mouths: at the beginning of the war, in 1 judgment of the House on such occasions, particular, the right hon. gentleman had it could not be said to come sub silentio insisted, that it was the salvation of the on the nation. It had been brought beconstitution which prompted him to un- fore the House in 1793,* and as it had then dertake the war. He was one of those come cistinctly to be considered, he had who was friendly to the war upon that a right to plead the event of that discusprinciple, and he had not altered his sion, as a virtual recognition of the prinopinion. He wished gentlemen, however, ciple of the measure. Much had been in. would have some regard to consistency curred on the spur of occasion : and, in of character ; and that, while they sup- short, if the utmost exertions had been ported the constitution with one hand, made to lay the estimate before the House they would not attack it with the other. originally, it would have been a vague In former times, the kings of this country conjecture, merely to satisfy form. The attempted to levy money without consent hon. general had stated, that three or of parliament: the minister of the present four years ago there were no such things day ventured to apply the public revenues as barracks. Did he, indeed, know so to purposes for which it was not intended, little of the matter? Was it necessary to in defiance of the law. The general con- state that barracks capable of containing cluded with moving, “ That it be referred 20,000 men had been erected many years to a committee to examine into the Ex- since, and were still in use? Such being penditure of Public Money, in the con- incontrovertibly the fact, the principle struction and furnishing of Barracks since was established. An objection, he was the year 1790 ; as also to investigate by aware was ready in the mouths of gentlewhat authority such an expense, amouni- men, viz. that there was the less necesing to upwards of one million sterling, sity for erecting new barracks. But has been incurred, and to report to this there were two objections to the old House, together with the opinion of the barracks: first, they were calculated for committee, upon these subjectsthe reception of infantry only; and, se

Mr. Windham (secretary at war) said, condly, they were placed in situations not that the hon. general was struck, in the fit for the commodious arrangement of first place, with the magnitude of the troops throughout the kingdom; and as it expense was evident. That, however, had been found, in many instances, notconproved but little: for in every country venient to station soldiers in them, it had like this, the public service must necessa- been necessary to quarter them in inns. rily be carried on at a great expense. With respect to the practice of billeting The proper state of the question would soldiers on inn-keepers, it was an old be, not whether there was a great ex- abuse ; it was a practice strange and unpense, but whether there was a comparative known in any other country in the world; proportion between the magnitude of the the soldiers of the state were not provided expenditure and the importance of the at the expense of the state, but at the object? With regard to the objection, cost of a particular class of inhabitants. that the money had been incurred without What better reason could be stated for being submitted to the judgment of par- laying this burden upon inn-keepers than liament, unless that became a question of upon attornies, shopkeepers, or any other mere form (and he was ready to allow class of people? Formerly, when the that there had been a departure from practice commenced, the soldiers pay form), another question would arise, was greater, in proportion to the value of built upon the spirit and meaning of our the commodities, and perhaps he might constitution, and

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true wisdom : was then have been able to pay for his fare as the money incurred bona fide for the pub- well as any other guest ; but, in progress lic service? No public inconvenience had of time, when there was no proportion arisen from the mode of expenditure, and between the pay of a soldier and his exthere was no reason to think that the pub- penses at an ino, this institution became lic judgment had been misled. Could oppressive to the inn-keeper; so much so, gentlemen pretend that the expenses were that it was found absolutely necessary to incurred without the knowledge of the pass an act last year for their relief. If House? Certainly not. The question, any body objected, that inn-keepers made though it had not come before the House in a regular form, had been discussed in

Mr. Michael Angelo Taylor's Motion resother forms; and having the approving pecting Barracks. See Vol. 30, p. 473.

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travellers pay, the expense was still of troops? It would be better, in different oppressive operation, and borne either by views of advantage, to submit to a large inn-keepers or travellers, or by both. first expense for building barracks of subAnother objection was, that when the stantial quality, even though part of them troops were in motion in all parts of the might remain empty in time of peace. country, they were obliged to follow the On a general principle of defence, it might course of the inns in travelling with great be necessary to quarter troops where there inconvenience, especially as the number were no inns; without which precaution of capital inns in the country had for several parts of the kingdom, such as some time past been considerably on the towns upon the east of Scotland, might decrease, which consequently made the be liable to the depredation of any prigrievance more intolerable to those that vateer that should land. These barracks remained. In fact, all circumstances were not, however, capable of maintaincombined to render the erecting of new ing an extraordinary increase above the barracks indispensably necessary.-Hav- peace establishment; the cavalry on the ing thus stated the progress and reasons ( Iast peace establishment, he believed, of the measure, the next question was, amounted to 3,700 men; the barracks whether the expenditure had been con- erected for cavalry would contain 5,400 ducted wastefully or unprofitably? On the men ; and he would put it to the House, fullest investigation into that part of the whether the surplus for the accommodation subject, he was confident that nothing of 1,700 men afforded any cause for gene. would appear but economy and good ral alarm. The hon. general complained management. The hon. general had of the new patronage created by the notalked of expenses permanently entailed mination of barrack-masters. Jť barracks upon the people. He denied that the existed, there must necessarily be somegreat expense was permanent: the erec- body to take care of them; there must, tion of barracks made one original ex- of course, be patronage, and that patronpense. With respect to the annual ex- age must be vested somewhere. Allowpenses for barrack masters, that was per- ing the institution to be generally good, manent; if barracks were erected, no should gentlemen, from any horror of doubt there must be persons to take care patronage give it up.

The former sysof them : so much for permanent expense. tem had been full of waste and misOn the other hand, there was a perma- management; in the present, he denent saving; for if the old system were fied gentlemen to show a trace of either. continued, the annual expense to the Gentlemen enjoyed their laugh, because public would be larger than under the es- a barrack-master was appointed before tablishment of barracks. He was certain the barrack was built. Was there any that barracks would be found considerably thing either wonderful or ridiculous in cheaper in time of war, and he be this? As gentlemen seemed eager for they would also be cheaper in peace.- the enjoyment of a jest, it would be a pity From the circumstance of the erection of to interrupt their gratification. There barracks, the hon. general had inferred, were, it was true, three barracks planned that the whole war establishment was to at Lincoln, Shrewsbury, and Saxmundbe kept up in time of peace. He did not ham; and there were barrack-masters apthen wish to say what peace establishment pointed; these erections were found not il might be necessary to keep up; it how. to be necessary, and were abandoned. ever by no means followed, that it would Gentlemen, however, must know, that it be necessary to fill those barracks because was proper to have a superintending barthey were in existence. When the de- rack.master to treat for the ground, and sired event of peace should take place, oversee the progress of erection: nobody would the House act so unwisely as to could be a better judge ; and if the intenreckon on the continuance of it with such tion of erecting buildings should be aban. an extent of credulity as to decide in that doned, and the barrack-masters dismissed, moment that it would not be necessary to ought they not to receive a part of their be prepared against the possibility of the salary for the time they were appointed ? return of war? Did the hon. general him. In answer to what the hon. gentleman had self think that the country ought to be stated respecting a compensation given to left subject to the same inconveniences as barrack-masters for losing their places, the they were at the beginning of the present only answer he could give was, that no war, for want of quarters for new-raised such compensation had been given.--He came at length to the constitutional part duty, but of prudence. This struck him of the question, which he considered as to be an unqualified recommendation of intimately connected with the subject of direct civil resistance; and seemed to the debates that had taken place in the threaten a dissolution of the governbeginning of the session. If they thought ment. In that situation he said, that gothat that there were men who night and vernment must exercise a vigour beyond day were preaching up bad doctrines in the law; and in doing so, he said no more this country, was it unconstitutional in the than what was conveyed in the maxim, government to withdraw the soldiery from Silent leges inter arma.

When a rebellion being infected by them? Some persons existed in the country in 1745, was not were such advocates for free discussion, that done which was beyond the vigour of that they would allow any doctrine to be the law? The government was then taught, trusting only to the antidote which driven into a situation in which it was a argument could bestow. To their mode question of arms only, and not a question of reasoning he could not surrender his of law or constitution. No general rule own judgment. If, therefore, there were of law could apply to such a case; it such men abroad, he would adopt the me- would make a law for itself: bat so long thod of cure prescribed in a French co- as the constitution should exist, it was the medy—“ If I cannot make him dumb, Isacred duty of the soldier to stand up in will make you deaf.” Upon that principle defence of law and the constitution, and the removal of the troops from the danger to oppose any rebel or democratic traitor of being tampered with had proceeded. who should resist the authority of governHe was desirous that the soldiers should ment. Such was the duty of a soldier ; be considered as citizens; and in order and the man who maintained the contrary, that they might be so considered, he would maintained a doctrine as remote from the withdraw them from bad lessons and dan- law and the constitution, as it was from gerous counsel : he would, in that case, the feelings of the country: and if he act by them, as he would by his own fa- bad not been sure that the occasion did mily, his own children. Putting the poi- not admit of the animadversion, it might sonous infusion of sedition however out have become a question whether the indiof the question, the good discipline of the vidual who had maintained such a doctrine army made the measure advisable. The should not be proceeded against as a institution of barracks would tend to the traitor. Having stated thus much on the comfort as well as to the obedience of the general question, and in vindication of soldiers. In public-houses they were his former assertions, he should conclude under a continual teniptation to contract with giving a direct negative to the moexpenses which they could not support, tion. and vicious habits which could neither be- Mr. M. A. Taylor said, the right hon. nefit themselves nor the community: this gentleman had concluded his speech with they must either do or live in miserable a string of truisms to which every one dependence upon the bounty of the inn- must subscribe, and, consistently with the keeper. For soldiers to live in a public usual fertility of his imagination, had house was, therefore, morally and politi- created a number of phantoms, every one cally exceptionable.—He came next to of which militated against his own arguanswer the observations made by the hon. ments. The right hon. gentleman, in the general, respecting an expression which flourish of his peroration, had pompously he bad used early in the session, that, in pronounced, that if the people rebelled certain circumstances, it would be justi- against the lawful government of the fiable as it might be necessary to have re- country, in such case the troops were course to a vigour beyond the law.* The justifiable in acting against their fellow ciexpression he had certainly used; and tizens. Was there any man who doubted when he recollected the situation in which the fact? Why, therefore, dwell upon he stood when he employed it, he saw no it with such apparent warmth, if it were reason to shrink from the sentiment which not to divert the mind of the House from it conveyed. It was on a memorable oc- the real object of the general's motion ? casion that the expression fell from him, The right hon. gentleman next asserted, when it was affirmed that resistance to go that the principle of cantoning the milivernment was no longer a question of tary in barracks, was not a new one, as it

had been recognized by parliament. * Sce p. 386 of the present Volume. Where had the right hon. gentleman learned this doctrine? He did not for. They ought not, says he, to be taught dismerly profess it. So far from parliament obedience. God forbid that they should ! having recognized the principle of build. But is it not a plain proposition, that ining barracks, they were first clandes- discriminate obedience is not the duty tinely erected, and be believed that as he of an Englishman, whether he be a was the only person in that House who soldier or any other citizen? Where had a residence near Sheffield, where they commands are illegal, it is his duty to rebegan to be so clandestinely erected, he sist them. The right hon. gentleman, was the first person who brought on a dis. surely, does not intend to say, that his cussion about them.-The right hon. gen- troops should be altogether deaf. If he tleman had insinuated that seditious per does, it will be in vain for him to look for sons were employed to seduce the army an army in this country, possessed of this from their allegiance. Barracks were, physical advantage. He must call in fotherefore, to be their safeguard. But did reign mercenaries. Ignorant of any lansoldiers never go out when they were can- guage but their own, they would be suffi. toned in barracks! Did they never live ciently deaf for all the purposes of deswith their families--never mingle with the potism. It would be enough that they world as citizens ? He hoped this was should understand their officers, and not the case. Automaton troops might might easily be brought, as in former do for drill ; but the best defenders of times has been attempted, to act against the rights, liberties, religion, and pro- this House and the general liberties of the perty of the kingdom, were those men country.-Exclusively of what I have al. who had an interest in all, and partook of ready urged, I differ from the right hon. the comforts they afforded. Our ances- gentleman upon the point of prudence tors were particularly careful to guard and policy. If one system be more coragainst the erection of inland fortresses ; rupt and inimical to freedom than anoand if they were so jealous in such cases, ther, it is the system of barracks. What he saw no reason why we should not be so was actually the case in France ? Was likewise. He would therefore give his not the mode in which their army was hearty assent to the motion.

cantoned out in barracks a principal opeMr. Fox said:-I am happy, Sir, that rative cause in producing the revolution ? the right hon. gentleman opposite has it is beyond all belief astonishing, that thought proper to deliver his sentiments while we declaim so violently upon the in so full and explicit a manner. The state to which France has been reduced, right hon. gentleman has also brought we should at the same time be pursuing forward a general question, connected those very measures which are likely to with the subject of 'debate, but at the bring us to a similar situation. The right same time not altogether necessary in its hon. gentleman speaks of those who decision ; namely, the connexion which preach up doctrines hostile to the conought to subsist between the military stitution: but permit me to say, that it is and the rest of their countrymen. “Be- not Mr. Paine, nor much more ingenious cause," says he “ there are bad men and men, who by any thing they say can inbad principles abroad in the country, the jure the constitution. "Those are its real military must be secluded from the so- enemies who are constantly making prac-ciety of their fellow-subjects.” He then tical comments upon

such authors. most aptly introduces the language of Those who, with me, admire our constituthe Mock Doctor, and says, “ If I cannot tion, are of opinion, that if strictly admake others dumb, I can make them hered to, it has sufficient energy to de. deaf. I will place them entirely out of fend and preserve itself

. Paine says, that reach, where no such doctrine shall as- our constitution is a mere farce, a sail their ears." What, Sir, is the full mockery; that there is no real check upon meaning and extent of this doctrine? | the exercise of the powers of governCan the right hon. gentleman make his ment. Do not ministers practically say troops partially deaf? Can he prevent the same? Do they not, diy after day, them from listening to the voice of se- and year after year, pass acts in direct dition, without, at the same time, shutting violation of the acknowledged principles them up from the knowledge of those of the constitution ? Their manifest general principles of rational liberty, breach of the appropriation act, must be whose animating influence ought ever to fresh in our recollection. These deviainspire the soldiers of a free country? tions they pretend to justify on the plea

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