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I wish I had the solution to offer at this point, but as the General Secretary implied in his own remarks, this subject requires extensive discussion to see if we can narrow our differences.
I will conclude by saying that the very fact of this meeting is important. When we have this close personal relationship that we enjoy, it means that where differences arise we have a better chance to resolve them, by contacts between ourselves. I can assure the General Secretary and his colleagues that I will use my influence in a way to find a solution fair to both sides, while always recognizing that we are negotiating as equals, and that there could be no settlement or agreement that either side could accept if it gave an unfair advantage. Not only are meetings important, but this great host of agreements that we have signed and will sign, apart from strategic arms, is very important. Because, as I indicated earlier, we must establish as many ties between our two nations as we can. Because in the end not only a single agreement, but even more important agreements in a number of areas, means that we are cooperating together, and will make détente irreversible. Above all, we establish ties that others in the future will find very difficult to reverse. We must say, finally, that we must not expect that at one meeting we will settle everything; we must not be discouraged, because we recognize, as I said at the outset, that because of our strength, and because we represent two powerful people, there will be competition and differences. But what we can achieve is that such differences and competition will not result in conflict. For that reason it is vital to make as much progress as we can in this third meeting so that forces will not be set in motion that will undo all our good work.
General Secretary Brezhnev (pointing to Secretary Kissinger]: Dr. Kissinger is not working, because he is not eating enough.
Secretary Kissinger: I am eating.
General Secretary Brezhnev (picking up a pirozhki]: I treat you equally; I am also eating.
Secretary Kissinger: I will gain weight and then surrender.
General Secretary Brezhnev: Mr. President, maybe we could have our minister state what we have.
President Nixon: Yes, we could round up from them our work.
General Secretary Brezhnev: Then I call on Foreign Minister Gromyko.
Minister Gromyko: We have three agreements, on energy, urban construction and artificial heart. These are fully agreed, fully prepared including from the technical preparations and as agreed, we can have a signing ceremony at 3:30. We have a new understanding as regards ABMs. This is agreed in principle but will not be signed today; that will be signed in the second round of signing. We have agreement on long-term economic relations that is agreed by both sides. We also have two protocols: one to a previous agreement on strategic arms, and the other to the ABM treaty. These are agreed and are fully ready for signing:
We have given before this meeting, a possible agreement on the non-use of environmental means for military purposes and we received a counterdraft which is markedly different in content. Without going into details, your counterdraft creates problems, but that can be taken up in other discussions. If an agreement on this subject is possible, it would result in a relevant document to be signed in the second
I have nothing to add to what the General Secretary said on underground tests. There is no document agreed, therefore we have differences of views.
On the communiqué, leaving aside further limit of strategic arms-because as Comrade Brezhnev mentioned to you these require further exchanges of view—we find that the communiqué is not finally agreed, partly because important issues that form part of our discussion are not agreed, and partly because formulations are in the process of being agreed. As regards other matters, work is continuing.
General Secretary Brezhnev: This shows a lot of work is ahead of
President Nixon: This leaves the easy work for us.
The President will sign the agreement on energy? Kissinger will be signing on artificial heart? Energy will be signed by Comrade Podgorny and housing by Prime Minister Kosygin and artificial heart by Foreign Minister Gromyko.
President Nixon: [What is left] for you?
General Secretary Brezhnev: You see how they have taken it all out of my hands. See, what my role is.
Minister Podgorny: We have left the most important for him.
General Secretary Brezhnev: It was not in my opening remarks, but I had not forgotten.
Minister Podgorny: He put it very delicately.
4 In all, seven agreements were signed at the end of the Summit, as well as the joint communiqué and a joint statement on environmental warfare. See Document 199.
General Secretary Brezhnev: Could we read the communiqué for this meeting?
Mr. Sukhodrev [reads aloud texts at Tab A):5
"On June 28 the talks began between General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU L. I. Brezhnev, Chairman of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet N. V. Podgorny, Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers A. N. Kosygin, USSR Foreign Minister A. A. Gromyko and the President of the United States of America Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger.
"A broad range of questions of Soviet-American relations was discussed. Both sides noted that the agreements concluded between the Soviet Union and the United States of America are being implemented and that as a result of this, the relations between the two countries are increasingly assuming a character that meets the interests of peace. This in turn creates additional possibilities for their further development and deepening
"It was also noted on both sides that the continued reshaping of the relations between the USSR and the USA not only meets the fundamental interests of the peoples of both countries but constitutes an important element in the general process of relaxation of international tension."
[Sukhodrev then hands over texts at Tab A.)
President Nixon: Let us agree, unless Dr. Kissinger has anything to add.
Secretary Kissinger: Foreign Minister Gromyko has correctly summarized the status of our discussions, in terms of what documents are ready. We had prepared the ABM protocol for signature conceivably for tomorrow, but this is not yet decided. At the end of the summit we might have a protocol on environmental questions and the test ban. I am confident, while agreeing that points remain open, that we can have an important communiqué in time for signature.
General Secretary Brezhnev: That is a good statement. [He takes another sandwich.)
President Nixon: I suppose that we are not restating (in the communiqué for this meeting) that it is agreed to have another meeting in Washington next year. The suggestion that the General Secretary made is constructive: if there is a single subject that comes up that is worth our exchange of views at the highest level, we do not wait for a year. That is a fundamental point.
General Secretary Brezhnev: We could mention that in the final communiqué.
President Nixon: I agree, but we will not mention it in this communiqué today.
General Secretary Brezhnev and Minister Podgorny: Yes.
President Nixon: We have a good network of communication established: through Dobrynin, Gromyko and his colleagues, and Ambassador Stoessel, but maybe an occasion will arise, even growing out of this meeting, that we might have another summit.
General Secretary Brezhnev: The trouble is that Dr. Kissinger is not always disciplined. He was here last March and said that he would come in May.
President Nixon: He went to Leningrad instead.
General Secretary Brezhnev: You know that we will make it easier for him to go to Leningrad.
President Nixon: In Leningrad, Mr. Kosygin will be the host because he is a Leningrader.
Minister Kosygin: Of course, with pleasure.
President Nixon: I want to say that as two great powers, we are now speaking directly. Considering our differences in the recent period of the cold war, the establishment of a new relationship would not have occurred if there was only one meeting. It was a beginning, but it must be constantly renewed to give it new impetus.
General Secretary Brezhnev: That is precisely our goal, as time goes by there are new ideas.
President Nixon: The situation changes. Too often in world history, treaties are signed, and statesmen depart, and people say “peace, it's wonderful." But treaties are put in desk drawers and gather dust.
General Secretary Brezhnev: We are not that kind of country. If we give our word, we never break our word.
President Nixon: The difficulty is that our differences cannot be the subject of one meeting. What we achieve we must keep building.
General Secretary Brezhnev: True. We can so we have a solid foundation on which this meeting can build. As I see it, judging from agreed statements, our views coincide in wanting to strengthen the peace between our two countries but also in the world. This is the reason why our talks should be open and frank, and testify to the fact that the line jointly chosen has been progressing.
President Nixon: Each of us appreciates that the other is equal; each of us appreciates the other is honest.
General Secretary Brezhnev [interrupting]: That is exactly the principle we agreed in our first meeting.
President Nixon (continuing]: And, second, we recognize our differences and lay them on the table honestly. And, finally, each of us recognizes that over a period of time our negotiations reduce those differences. But only on the basis of where each recognizes that for an agreement to be lasting it must serve our mutual interests. I have to defend agreements with the Congress and our people, and the General Secretary has to defend the agreements with his colleagues and with his people.
General Secretary Brezhnev: The principles which you have just stated, that we are building good relations, that is espoused by the entire Politburo and our entire state. And as I promised to you yesterday, we will be completely frank, honest and open.
Well, I now wish that you have a good rest.