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27 feet 36 feet additional advantage appears arches ascending average Batter of Slopes becomes blocks bottom Breadth at Formation bricks bridge calculated canal carriages carried cause chair completed consequently considerable construction contained conveyed course cube yds cubic yards depth Depth of Cutting descending direction distance draw earth effect embankment employed empty equal erected example excavation expense five foot force Formation Level foundation four frequently friction gravity greater ground half horse hundred inches inclination increased introduced iron kind laid latter layers length less load locks lower malleable material method miles mode nearly necessary observed operation passing plane plants pressure prevent produced quantity railroads rails railway ratio resistance river road side soil stone sufficient surface thickness tion tons tractive tunnel twenty upper waggons wall weight wheels whole
Page 127 - And they said, Go to, let us build us a city, and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.
Page 127 - Ye shall no more give the people straw to make brick, as heretofore: let them go and gather straw for themselves. And the tale of the bricks, which they did make heretofore, ye shall lay upon them; ye shall not diminish ought thereof: for they be idle; therefore they cry, saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God. Let there more work be laid upon the men, that they may labour therein; and let them not regard vain words.
Page 28 - The manner of the carriage is by laying rails of timber from the colliery down to the river, exactly straight and parallel; and bulky carts are made with four rowlets fitting these rails ; whereby the carriage is so easy that one horse will draw down four or five chaldron of coals, and is an immense benefit to the coal merchants.
Page 26 - A level way was covered with a broad platform of strong and solid planks; and to render them more slippery and smooth, they were anointed with the fat of sheep and oxen. Fourscore light galleys and brigantines of fifty and thirty oars were disembarked on the Bosphorus shore, arranged successively on rollers, and drawn forwards by the power of men and pulleys.
Page 28 - Master Beaumont, a gentleman of great ingenuity and rare parts, adventured into our mines with his thirty thousand pounds; who brought with him many rare engines, not known then in these parts — as, the art to boore with iron rodds, to try the deepnesse and thicknesse of the coale, rare engines to draw water out of the pits, wagons with one horse, to carry down coales from the pits to the stathes to the river.
Page 31 - railways have been in use in this kingdom, time out of mind, and they were usually formed of scantlings of good sound oak, laid on sills or sleepers of the same timber, and pinned together with the same stuff...
Page 144 - ... the speed of the carriages may be increased to a very high velocity without any risk of breaking the rails; their toughness rendering them less liable to fracture from an impulsive force, or a sudden jerk. To have the same advantages in this respect, the cast-iron rails would require to be of enormous weight, increasing, of course, the original cost. " From their construction, the malleable iron rails are much more easily kept in order. One bar is made long enough to extend over several blocks...
Page 123 - Watson found by experiment that upon an average every ton of limestone produced i icwt. iqr. ^.Ibs. of quick-lime, weighed before it was cold ; and that when exposed to the air it increased in weight daily at the rate of a hundred weight per ton for the first five or six days after it was drawn from the kiln.
Page 49 - Rule. — To the tonnage in each direction add the weight of the waggons required to carry the greater tonnage, divide the greater sum by the less, and make the quotient, diminished by 1, the numerator, and the same quotient, with 1 added, the denominator of a fraction. Multiply this fraction by the fraction representing the resistance on the level rails, and the result will be the fraction shewing the best inclination for the trade.
Page 29 - There are afterwards arranged along the whole breadth of this excavation, pieces of oak wood, of the thickness of four, five, six, and even eight inches square ; these are placed across and at the distance of two or three feet from each other ; these pieces need only be squared at their extremities, and upon these are fixed other pieces of wood, well squared and sawed, of about six or seven inches breadth, by five in depth, with pegs of wood : these pieces are placed on each side of the road along...